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] uintu$ Curtius 

H I s 



Wars of Alexander, 

Vol. I. 

With a large INDEX. 
Tranflated by John Digby, E% 


Printed by W. B. for Bernard Lint ott ? 
at the Crofs-Keys between the two- 
Temple Gates in FIeet-Jlreet r 1714. 

To the Reverend 


Matter of 

Weflminfter School, 

This New Tranflation of 


Is moft humbly Dedicated 

By his 
Moft Obedient Servant, 
to Command, 

J. DIG Br. 




O F 

John FreinJIjemius, 

To Qutntus Curtim's History of 
the Life and Actions of Alexander 
the Great. 

H E Life and Anions of Alex- 
ander, who wrefted the Empire 
from the Perfians^ and transferr'd 
it to Greece, have been written 
by many Greek Hiftorians; where- 
of moft were Spectators, and 
fome Companions and Minifters of his Atchieve- 
ments : And others, He himfelf, out of a ftrong 
Paflion that his Fame fhould furvive after his de- 
ceafe, appointed to tranfmit an account of his 
Exploits to Pofterity. But befides, that the real 
Fads were truly great in themfelves, the love 
Vol. L £ of 

x FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

of Fables, which was natural to that Nation, 
made them deliver Accounts that bore more the 
air of Romance, than the face of Truth : How- 
ever, they who deferve moll Credit, were Art- 
ftobMlttf, and Ptolomy, who reign' d after Alexander. 
For after the Death of that Prince, there was no 
farther occafion either for Fear, or Flattery, 
which are commonly the Caufes of corrupting 
the Truth of Hiftory. And indeed , who can 
fufpedt. that Ptolomy mould be guilty of fullying 
the Luftre of Royalty by Lyes and Fables ? 
Moreover, finceboth of them were not only pre- 
fent at a great many Affairs that concern'd Alex* 
under , but even were principal Adtors in them ; 
'tis evident they were the belt able to give the 
raoft exadt and tfueft -Relations of them. For 
which reafon, as often as they agree in their Ac- 
counts, we have given them the Preference to 
all others ; and when they difagree, we make 
•choice of fuch particulars out of the different Ma- 
terials that are left us, as, after a ftrid:. Examina- 
tion, feem to approach the neareft to the Truth 
of Fadt. And, after the Age of Alexander, I 
have obferv'd , That the Greeks who had any re- 
gard for Truth and particularly Diodorus siculm 
of late, have follow'd the fame Method. For 
fuch of the Romans as applied themlelves to the 
compofing of Hiltory, were contented with wri- 
ting of the Affairs of their own Country, and 
negiedted thofe of other Nations ; becaufe in gi- 
ving an account of the Actions of a victorious 
People, then Subject abounded with materials in 
thcmleives noble, and fit for the Maje%' of Hi- 
ftory, and which they thought to be of more ufe 
to the Members of their own Commonwealth 
than any other they could relate. And as I efteegi 

to Q^UINTUS Gurtius. 3 

the Endeavours of thofe Authors to be praife- 
worthy, lb, I hope, I mall not be blam'd, if I at- 
tempt to give my Countrymen an Idea of that 
King, who, in the Courfe of his (hort Life, con- 
quer'd more Countries than any other Prince ever 
effe&ed. From whence we may conclude, That 
rrumane Affairs are not guided by Chance or Ha- 
zard, but that commonly Fortune conforms her 
felf to the Conduct of Men, and that no Felicity: 
can be lailing, which' is dcftitute of Virtue. I 
find then that Alexander was plentifully endow'd 
and furnifh'd with all the Advantages of Fortune 
and a great Genius, that could be defir'd in a 
Prince, who was deftin'd one day to arr ive at fuch 
an extraordinary Heighth of Power and Greatnefs. 
The Kings of Macedon deriv'd their Pedigree 
from Hercules ; and Olympian , Alexander's Mo- 
ther reckon'd the Origin of her Family from 
Achilles. From his very Infancy he wanted nei- 
ther Allurements nor Examples to excite him in 
the purfuit of Glory, nor Mailers to teach him 
Virtue, nor Exercile to accuftom him to it. For 
bis Father, Philip, did by his continual Wars raife 
the Reputation of the Macedonians, who 'till then 
were accounted defpicable, and by his Conqueft 
of Greece, made them formidable every where. 
In fine, he not only laid the Foundations of the 
great Things which were done after his Death, 
but even a little before his deceafe, having re- 
folv'd to carry the War into Perfia, he had le- 
vied Men, gathered Provilions, raifed Money, 
and , in ihort , had an Army ready for that Ex- 
pedition ; and had already opened a PafTage 
into Afia , by the means of Parmenio. But in 
this very Juncture he was taken away* as if it 
had been on purpofe to leave to his Son fo great 
B z Forces 

4 FreinlheftiiusV Supplement 

■ Forces to carry on the War, and reap the full 
dory of it, when it was finifli'd ; which feems 
to have been the Contrivance of Fortune, who 
always yielded entire obedience to Alexander 
alone. This Prince was fo much in the Admira- 
tion of all Men, not only after he had done fo 
great things, but even at his firit fetting out, 
that it was a Queftion whether it were not 
more reafonable to afcribe the divine original of 
fo great a Man immediately to Jupiter himfelf, 
rather than mediately to the fame God by Ala- 
cides and Hercules. When he went himfelf to 
vifit the Temple of Ammon in Lylia, no lefs 
would content him than to be call'd his Son, as 
we mall ihew in the Sequel. Moreover it was 
the Opinion of many, That Alexander was the Off 
firing of that Serpent which had been feen to enter 
into his Mother's Bed-Chamber, and into which Ju- 
piter had transform d himfelf: That the Dreams of 
the Priefis, and Refponfes of the Oracles advanc dthe 
Credit of his divine Pedigree ; and that when Philip 
fent to Delphi to con ftdt about it, he was admonijh'd 
by the Oracle, to pay the greateft Reverence to Am- 
mon. On the other hand, there are thofe who 
affirm, That all this is mere Ficlion ; and that 
there was reafon to fufpefi Alexander'/ Mother was 
guilty of Adultery : For that Neclanebus, King of 
Egypt, who was driven from his Kingdom, did 
not go to Ethiopia, as zvas commonly believd, but 
went to Macedonia, in hopes of receiving Succours 
from Philip aga'mfi the Pozver of the Perfians, 
That he deceivd Olympias by the force of Magical 
Enchantments , and defil'd his Landlords Bed, 
That from that time Philip had a jealoufte of her, 
and that it afterwards appear d this was the chief 
caufe of their Divorce, That the very Day that 


to Quint us C urtius. y 

Philip brought Cleopatra into his Houfe, Attains, 
his Wife's Uncle, took the liberty to reproach Alex- 
ander with the Bafenefi of his Birth, while the 
Kinghimfelf difozvnd him for his Son. In fine, That 
the conftant Rumor of Olympiad Adultery was en- 
tertain d not only in that part of the World, but even 
among the Nations which he conquer d. That the 
Jiclion of the Serpent was derivd from ancient Fa- 
bles, on purpofe to conceal the Ignominy of that 
Princeft. That the Meifenians had formerly given 
out the fame Story concerning Ariftomenes, and 
the Syconians concerning Ariftodamas. In reality 
the fame Report was fpread abroad among our 
Anceftors concerning Scipio, who was the firfb 
that ruin'd Carthage ; and the Birth of Augufius 
was in like manner thought to have had fome- 
thing divine in it. For as to Romulus, the Foun- 
der of Rome, there is no occalion to fay any 
thing of him ; fince there is no Nation fo con- 
temptible, but derives its Origin either from fome 
God, or the Oft-fpring of a God. After all, the 
Flight of Neclanebus does not agree with thofc 
times ; for Alexander was fix years of Age, when 
that Prince was vanquim'd by Qchus, and loft his 
Kingdom and Inheritance ; nor is the Tale the 
lefs likely to be falfe, becaufe it is reported of 
Jupiter. It is likewife affirm'd , That Olympias , 
having nothing to fear after her Hufband's Death, 
laugh'd at the Vanity of her Son , who woukj 
needs have it. believ'd that he was fprung from 
Jupiter ; and begg'd him in a Letter, not to ex~ 
pofe her to Juno'* Indignation, feeing fhe had been 
guilty of nothing that deferv'd that Punijhment. 
However before that time, (lie is thought to have 
been the Perfon that took the moft pains to gain 
Credit to this Fable, and is faid to have admo- 
B 3 ni&'d 

6 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

nifh'd Alexander upon Ills Expedition into Afia> 
to be mindful of his Original, and do nothing that 
was unworthy of fo great a Father. 

But it is generally agreed, that between the 
Conception and Birth of that Prince, it was fig- 
nilicd both by Prodigies and divers Prefages, how 
coniiderable a Perfon mould be born. Philip faw 
in his Sleep the Womb of Olympian fealcd with 
a Ring , on which the Picture of a Lyon was 
engrav'd ; the Memory whereof was preferv'd 
by the City of Alexandria in Egypt, which was 
for a long time called Leontopolis. Arijiander, ac- 
inic ablelt Diviner of that time, who afterwards 
companied Alexander, and was his chief Prieft, 
interpreted that Dream, and faid it fignify'd the 
Magnanimity and Courage of the Infant. The 
lame Night that Olympian was brought to Bed, 
the Temple of Diana in Ephefm, the molt famous 
of all Afia, was burnt to Ames. This was done 
by a profligate Villain, who being apprehended and 
put to the Torture , confefs'd he had no other 
view in doing it, but to preferve his Memory by 
fome great and memorable Act: of Impiety. Where- 
fore the Magi, who were then at Ephefm , not 
reckoning fo great a Misfortune from the lofs 
of the Temple alone, but looking upon it as a pre- 
fage of a greater Deftrudtion, fill'd the whole City 
with mournful Exclamations ; That there was a 
Torch kindled; fomewhere, which, on the like account, 
and from the fame motive, fhould one day confume 
all the Eafl. It happened at the fame time that 
Philip fubdued Potid&a, a Colony of the Athe- 
nians, had news of his being Conqueror at 
the Olympick Games , whither he had fent 
Chariots, and receiv'd Difpatches of greater 
moment by a Courier from Parmeniv, whom 


he had fent into lllyr'mm, That the Macedo- 
nains had obtain d a Signal Viclory over the 
Barbarians. While he was rejoycing at fo good, 
and fo univerfala Succefs, he receiv'd the News of 
Olympic's being brought to Bed; and the Diviners 
confidently afSrm'd, That he who was horn in the 
midfh of fo many Viftcrtes and Triumphs, jhould 
be an invincible Prince. It is reported, that Philip 
being amazed at fuch a Crowd of Succefles, and 
dreading the Envy of the Gods, begg'd of the 
Goddefs Nejnefis, to be contented with revenging 
thofe obfequious fervices of Fortune by fome moderate 
Calamity. It is likewife recorded, lhat in the City 
0/Pella, two Eagles fat in the Threjhold of the Houje 
where- the Queen was brought to Bed, a vjhole 
Bay ; and that this was a Prefage that he Jhould 
be Mafler of the two Empires of Alia and Europe ; 
which was eafie to interpret, after the things were 
come to pafs. I find it mention'd alfo in fome 
Authors, That when that Prince was born, there 
•was an Earthquake, and that great Thundring 
was heard, and Lightning feen in the Heavens, 
The raoft accurate Hiftorians tell us he was born 
in the beginning of the 106th Olympiad, when 
Elpines was Pretor in Athens, on the fixth day of 
June, which Month the Macedonians at that time 
called Lou*. At this time, the Roman People 
who had fubfiftedalmoft 400 years, were engag'd 
in Wars with their Neighbours, and by their con- 
tinual Victories, and daily encreafe of Dominion 
were now mewing the Prelude of that Power 
which was by degrees to fubdue the whole 

Philip being blefTed with a Son, of whom fo 
many happy Omens made him conceive the high- 
eft Hopes , turn'd all his Thoughts towards his 
B 4 Education, 

8 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

Education, For being a wife Man, and a Lover 
of hrs Country, he eafily perceiv'd, that all his 
Endeavours would be to no purpofe, if he fliould 
leave an ignorant and flothful Prince behind him, 
to govern Macedonia, while things were in an 
unfettled State every where ; and that his Glory 
could not be long-liv'd, if the great things he had 
begun, (hould be loft and ruin'd by the Weaknefs 
or Negligence of a SucceiTor. Among his Let- 
ters that difereet, and elegant one which he wrote 
to Ariftotle, who was then at Athens with Plato, 
is yet extant, and is conceiv'd in words much ta 
this purpofe. 

PHILIP to Ariftotle wijheth Health. 

I Am to acquaint you, that a Son is born to me * 
nor do I thank the Gods fo much for his 
'Birth, as for his being born in your time. I hope 
that when he fhall have been educated and in- 
firucled by you, he fhall be worthy of us, and fit 
to fucceed to fo great a Kingdom. For I think it 
much better to be zvithout Children, than to beget 
them for a Punifhment, and educate them to the 
Shame and Dijhonour of theb Ancejlors. 

Nor was Philip miftaken ; for having been long 
tinder the Direction of Ariftotle, the effect was, 
that the Inftrudtions he receiv'd from that great 
Mafter laid a Foundation for , and enabled him 
to perform all the great Exploits which he exe- 
cuted from that time. But thefe were the occur- 
rences of future years. In the mean time Leucidas, 
Olympic's Kinfman, and Lyfimachus of Acarnon, 
were appointed to be his Governors and Tutors. 
Betides thefe , he had one Philip a Phyfician, of 
the fame Country, to take care of his Health ; 

to Quxntus Curtius. 9 

and a Nurfe equally happy in the temperature of 
her Body, and the difpofition of her Mind, whofe 
Name was Hellanica, the Daughter of Drops, of 
one of the belt Families in all Macedon. This 
Gare that was taken to bring him up, had fo good 
an effect, that when he was but a Child, he gave 
promifing Hopes of his becoming that great King 
which he afterwards fhew'd himfelf to be. For 
there appear'd a very extraordinary vigor and 
activity in his tender Limbs, and in all the marks 
of an heroick Genius he veuy far out-ftrip'd his 
Age. He was by Nature of a beautiful and comely- 
Make, and defpifed Drefs ; faying, That an anxi- 
ou6 Care about adorning of the Body, was proper 
for Women, who had no other Gifts that could fit 
them off to fo much advantage. That If he could but 
he Majier of Virtue , he fljould be handfome and fine 
enough. When he grew up, there appear'd a 
perfect Symmetry in his Members, his joints were 
ftrong and firm ; and being but of a middle Sta- 
ture, he was really ftronger than he appear'd to 
be. His Skin was white, only his Cheeks and 
his Breaft were dy'd with an agreeable Red ; his 
Hair was yellow, and went into a gentle Curl; 
his Nofe was Aquiline, and his Eyes of different 
Colours ; for his left Eye is faid to have been 
blew, and his right very hlack. There was a 
certain fecret virtue in them ; infomuch that no 
body could look on his Countenance without Ve- 
neration and Fear. He could run with wonder- 
ful. Swiftnefs, which he often practis'd, even when 
he was King, as efteeming it of great ufe in Ex- 
peditions ; and he was often feen to run for a 
Prize with the fwifteft Perfons about him. He 
bore Fatigue with a Patience and Firmnefs that 
even paiTes Belief ; and by this one virtue he 
'B.j- often- 

io FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

oftentimes fav'd both himfelf and his Armies in 
the greateft Extremities: By frequent Exercifes, 
and a very warm Conftitution, he did fo purge 
off any bad Humours which commonly lodge 
under the Skin , that not only his Breath , but 
alfo what he perfpir'd through the Pores of his 
Body were fweet , and his very Cloaths had a 
fragrant fmell ; and this was the Caufe, as fome 
think, why he was fo much inclin'd to Wine and 
Pafiion. Pictures and Statues of him are yet to 
be feen, which were the Performances of the 
beft Artifts. For left the Comelinefs of his Face 
fhould fuffer any thing from the unfkilfulnefs of 
vulgar Sculptors or Painters, he ftrictly forbid 
any to draw his Picture without his order, and 
threatned to punifti any one that fliould difobey 
it. In confeqnence whereof, tho* there was 
abundance of good Workmen , yet Apelles was 
the only Perfon who had his confent to draw his 
Picture ; Py rgotele s gmvd him on precious Stones, 
and Lyfippas and Polycletu* reprefented him in 
Medals. His Governor Leonids is faid to have 
walk'd too fait, which Alexander learnt of him ; and 
never was able to help it afterwards by all his 
Endeavours. I am not ignorant that very much 
is owing to Education ; but I am inclin'd to im- 
pute this rather to the Temper of that young 
Prince, than to his accuftoming himfelf to it; 
for it was impoffible for one of his Ardour and 
f mpetuofity of Spirit , not to have the motions 
of his Body anfwerable to it. And this hafti- 
nefs of his, was fo far from being accounted an 
imperfection by his Succeflbrs, that they ftudi- 
oufly affected it,' and imitated him tlierein, as 
they did in his wry Neck, which lean'd to his 
left Shoulder, in his piercing Look , and high 



Voice, being incapable to .copy the virtues of his 
Mind. In reality, there were many of them whofe 
long Lives had fcarce any thing in them that de- 
ferv'd to be compar'd to his Childhood. Nor did 
he ever fay or act any thing that was mean or 
bafe, but all his Words and Actions were equal 
to, or even furpafs'd his Fortune. For tho' he was 
moft ambitious of Praife 1 , yet he did not affect 
to draw it indifferently from every thing, but 
would have it arife from things that were moft 
^praife-worthy ; being fenlible that the Praife which 
arifes from mean Actions is inglorious and dis- 
honourable, and that that Victory which is gain'd 
over the braveft Enemy, is fo much the more noble 
and Illuftrious. Therefore when fome Perfons 
told him, That feeing he was an excellent Runner, 
he ought to lift himfelf among thofe who were to 
contend for the Prize at the Olympick Games, af- 
ter the Example of a King of his Name; and that 
thereby he fhould acquire a great lame all over 
Greece : He anfwer'd, I would certainly do fo y if 
I wm to run againft Kings. As often as Philip 
obtain'd any fignal Victory, or reduc'd any rich 
and ftrong Place, he could not conceal his Grief, 
amidft the Rejoycing of others : And he was 
hear'd to complain amongft Boys of his own Age, 
That his Father would leave nothing for him and 
them to do, when they came to be Men. For he 
lookt upon every Acceflion of Power and Riches 
to be a Diminution to his Glory, and had a 
ftronger paffion for Honour than for Wealth. He 
was naturally difpos'd to lleep Little, and encreas'd 
his Watchfulnefs by Art. If any thing happen'd 
to him that requir'd ferious Thought, he put his 
Arm out of the Bed, holding a Silver Ball in his 
Hand, which by its fall into a Bafon, might 
B 6 ' make 

1% FreinflicmiusV Supplement 

make a noife, and fo difperfe that heavinefs whidi 
was inclining him to flumber. From his very 
Infancy he lov'd to worfhip the Gods fplendidly ; 
and one Day as they were facriflcing, he flung fo 
much Incenfe into the Fire, that Leonidat, who 
was a fever e and parcimonious Man, not being 
able to bear that Profufion, cried out, You may 
burn Incenfe in this manner, 'when you conquer 
the Countries -where it grows. Remembring this 
Saying afterwards, when he fettled the Affairs of 
Arabia, which produces Incenfe, he fent Leon'v* 
das a vaft Quantity of this Perfume, ordering him 
withal, not to be more liberal for the future, in 
faying Honour to the Gods, fince he was now con- 
fined that they did plentifully repay the Gifts that 
had been cheerfully made them. 

He gave early Marks of a fublime and enterprizing 
Genius. Artaxerxes, iimam'd Ochus, was at that 
time King of Perfta. Artabarus and Menajm, both 
Governours of Provinces, and Memnon of Rhodes, 
a famous General, revolted and made War upon 
him ; but being vanquifti'd by the King's Forces, 
they left Afia and fled to Philip. Alexander, who 
was not then feven Years of Age,., was wonder- 
fully delighted with them, and often afk'd them 
Queftions which had nothing either childift, or 
mean in them, concerning the Affairs of Perfta ; 
fuch as, How the royal Dignity and Power were fup- 
portcd? What fort of Arms were ufed among the 
Perfians, and whether they were valiant ? Whe- 
ther their Horfes run vjelL ? How many Days Jour- 
ney Macedonia was diftant from Sufa ? What kind 
of Life the King led, what were his Exercifes and 
Diverfons, and what was his Opinion concerning 
Virtue ? Afterwards, when at the Intreaty of Men- 
tor, Memnoris Brother, whofe Sifter was married 



to Artabarvs, Ocbus had pardon'd the Exiles, and 
demanded them of Philip, Alexander fo ftruck the 
Ambafladors of that King with the Admiration of 
his extraordinary Genius, at fo tender an Age, that 
one of them broke out into thefe Words : This 
Bay is indeed a great King, but ours a rich cne. 
But tho' he feemd to owe all this to the Bounty 
of Nature, yet he ow'd it no lefs to his Education. 
For his Father being appriz'd, how much Advan- 
tage he himfelf had reap'd in the Company of Ej>a- 
-minondas, and that he had done much greater 
things -by his Eloquence, than by his Power ; was 
"very careful that his Son fhould be well tindtur'd 
with the liberal Arts from his very Infancy. Where- 
fore by extraordinary Rewards, he retzin'dAriJlotle, 
a Philofopher of great Reputation, to deliver to him 
even the firft Elements of Letters. Nor was that 
molt learned Man averfe from that Tate, as know- 
ing of how much Importance it was, that a Prince 
who was to wear a Crown, fhould be rightly in- 
ftru£ed in the Beginning ; and how ridiculous a 
thing it was to contemn fmall things, without 
which there was no attaining to greater. 

He had afterwards feveral Mailers, each of which 
excelVd in his way ; by which means he not only 
furnifh'd his Mind with noble Ideas, but likewife 
by all kind of Exercifes, brought his Body to fuch 
a Temper, that it could perform all military Exer- 
cifes , and bear all manner of Fatigue : Nor was 
he then idle, when he feem'd to be doing nothing : 
For he did not fo much relax his Mind by Tennis 
and Dancmg, as prepare his Limbs for more im- 
portant Eserci&s. 

After he had attain'd to riper Years and Parts, 
and was become more fit for ferious Studies, he 
was continually in Ariflotle's Company , whom 
i his 

I4 FreinfhemmsV Supplement 

his Father had recall'd from Mytelene , till fuch 
time as he fucceeded to the Kingdom after his 
Father's Death, and undertook an Expedition in- 
to Afia. During that time, lie made himfelf Ma- 
iler of every thing that was to be learn'd from fe> 
great an Inftru&or. He apply'd himfelf to the 
Study of Nature, with fo much the more Appli- 
cation, as he conceiv'd more extraordinary Hopes 
of being one Day the Emperor of the whole 
Earth ; and he carry'd on and encouraged this 
Study, with a truly Royal Mind and Coft. He 
commanded all thofe who liv'd by Hunting, 
Fowling or Fifliing, over Afia, and Greece, and 
every one that had attain'd to any Skill that 
way, to obey Arijlotle ; that fo he might be the 
better able to treat clearly and certainly of the 
Nature of Animals. 'Tis certain , he allow'd 
that Philofophar eight hundred Talents, in order 
to defray the Charges of that Undertaking. And 
fo much was he enamour'd with that Study, that 
he laid out Money, and beftowed Pains upon it, 
of which he was never like to fee the Effects. An 
hundred Years after his Death, Deers were taken 
with Golden Chains about their Necks, which he 
had put on, to the end Pofterity might judge what 
Credit was to be given to the Stories about the 
• great Age of thofe Creatures. That he under- 
ftood the more fublime Sciences, which are com- 
monly call'd Acroamaticks, is evident fromhis Let- 
ter to Arlftotle, wherein he complains , That he 
had prophand their Dignity , by divulging their 
Principles. Upon which Ariftotk excus'd himfelf, 
by anfwering, That thofe Books were published in 
fuch a manner, as that they might be reckoned not 
publifted; jor that no Body would be able to under' 
Jland the Meaning of them t but fuch a-s had already 



been inftrucled in the Principles which they contain d. 
When Alexander demanded his Books of Rheto- 
rick, he ftri&ly forbid him to let them come to 
the Hands of any other : For he was no lefs de- 
lirous to excel others in Arts and Sciences, than 
in Power and Greatnefs; nor could he endure 
that Men of the loweft Rank, mould mare that 
Glory with him. Belides, it appears from his 
Letters, that he ftudied Phyfick under one Ariftotle, 
who was the Son of a Phyfician, of the Race of 
JEfculapius. But he ftudied that part of Philofo- 
phy fo well, which teaches a Man to command 
both himfelf and others, that he is thought to 
have undertaken the Subverfion of that vaft Weight 
and Power of the Perftan Empire, rather by his 
Magnanimity, Prudence, Temperance, and Forti- 
tude, than by his Arms and Riches. He frankly 
own'd, That he owed more to Ariftotle than to 
Philip ; for that he was indebted to the one for his 
Life , to the other , for that Life s being formed up- 
on the Principles of Honour and Virtue. Neverthe- 
lefs, it has been believ'd by fome, not without 
ground, That his Mind, which was fo fired with 
Ambition, was yet more enflamed by the too great 
Value which Ariftotle fet upon Honour and Glo- 
ry , which he plac'd in the Rank of things that 
may be called Goods ; fo that he not only multi- 
plied Wars upon Wars, in order to extend his D o- 
minions , but would needs be look'd upon as a 

But to continue the Thread of our Story : Ari- 
ftotle not only received great Honours and Re- 
wards in the Reign of Alexander, but even in Phi- 
lip's Life-time he had already received a vaft Re- 
compence for Alexander's Education , having ob- 
tain'd the Freedom of his ownCountry. The olyn* 
1 3 thians 

i6 FreinfliemivisV Supplement 

thianshad been Philip's bittereft Enemies ; for bor- 
dering upon Macedonia, and being hitherto equal 
to him in Power, they could not bear, that under 
a warlike and cunning King, the Kingdom lhould 
receive Acceffions of Strength and Riches, which 
were one Day like to bring Deftrudtion and Ser- 
vitude upon his Neighbours. For which Caufe, 
as the Minds of both Parties were enffamed more 
than ordinarily, lb the Contention was more ftub- 
born , and the Victory profecuted with greater 
Severity. Philip took and plunder'd the City, and 
laid it level with the Ground ; he fold the In- 
habitants , and exercifed the fame Severity upon 
all die other Towns in thofe Parts. Stagira, 
where Ariftotle was born, furrer'd the fame Mis- 
fortune ; but that Philofopher rebuilt it with the 
Permiffion, and at the Expence of Philip', and 
when it was reftor'd to its former State, he gave 
Laws to it, which were obferv'd in it from that 
time. Thus the Wifdom of one Citizen raifed 
that City which had been burn'd and raz'd, which 
the powerful Efforts of fo many brave Men could 
not hinder from being deftroy'd, when it was 
ftanding and in a flourifhing State. But in what 
mighty Efteem Arifiotle was with Philip, may be 
guefs'd from hence i That he often admaniftid 
his Son to apply himfelf clofely to the Study of 
Wifdom under fo excellent a Matter, left he mould 
afterwards be guilty of many things, which might 
be the Occafion both of his Shame and Repen- 
tance. Nor did Alexander ever after fail to mew 
the higheft RefpecT: for his Mailer, even amidft his 
molt important Affairs. He had frequent Corre- 
fpondence with him by Letters, and not onl 
aflted his Opinion about the Arcana of the Sci- 
wcts, but alfo fought Remedies from him for cor- 


reding his Manners. Ariftotle wrote to him, That 
the heft- way, in his Opinion, to make both him- 
felf and his Subjects happy, was to remember y 
that fo great Power was not given him to in- 
jury Mankind , but to do them good: That he. 
woutitlto wed -44 fet Bounds to his Paffton, which 
he knew he was very fubjeA to : That it was 
below him to fiy oat in a Paffton at his Inferiors, 
and that he had not his Equal any xvhere to be. 
angry with. But at lalt, when Pride had got the 
Afcendant over him, he began to defpife him ; ef? 
pecially when he thought he was become his Ene- 
my , upon the account of the Death of Califthe- 
nes; and after, he fancy 'd that Ariftotle vex'dhim 
with Difputes, contrary to the Precepts of Wif- 
dom, and out of Revenge, on pretence of defpi- 
fing human Grandeur and Ambition. 

It is certain , that a little before his Death , 
when Caffander was endeavouring to vindicate 
his Father from the Crimes with which he had 
been charged, he is faid to have broke out in-> 
to thefe Words : That he was come inftrutled 
with the Artifices of Ariftotle'* Subtilty , to e- 
vade the juft Complaints of others by fallacious 
Qgibbles ; and then threatn'd to do both of them a 
Mifchief if he found what had been complain d of 
to be true ; and this he : pronoune'd with fuch an 
angry and ftern Countenance, that long after his 
Death, Caffander, who then govern'd Greece, hap- 
pening to fee a Picture of Alexander at Delphi, 
was feiz'd with Horror and Trembling all over 
his Body, when he remembred the Danger he had 
been in. This gave Occalion to fpeak very dif- 
advantageouily of Ariftotle; becaufe it was the 
common Rumour, that it was by his Contrivance 
that the Poifon which was the Caufe ot Alexan- 

1 8 Freinftiemius\f Supplement 

ders Death , was carry 'd to Babylon in a Horfe's 
Hoof. He was a great Lover of Mufick, and 
pradtifed it with Attention in his younger Years ; 
till fuch time as his Father afk'd him in a fcorn- 
ful manner, Whether he was not ajhamd to play 
fo elegantly ; whereupon he began to neglect it as 
an Art that did not become his Majefty. At that 
time being defir'd by his Mufick-Mafter to touch 
a certain String according to Art, What matters 
it, faid he, // 1 ftjould touch this one, pointing to 
another. To which the Matter anfwered, 'tis no 
matter for one who is to be a King, but it concerns 
one who would be a good Player upon Inftruments. 
He was afterwards delighted with ftrong and man- 
ly Mufick, and had an Averfion to foft and effe- 
minate Airs, as things by which Mens Manners 
were corrupted. Upon which account he was 
very much taken with Timotheus, who was very 
famous in that Profemon ; for this Man accom- 
modating his Art to Alexanders Humour, did fo 
ravifhhim upon fome Occasions, by Phrygian Airs, 
that he feem'd all in a Tranfport, and actuated as 
it were by fome divine Infpiration, and haften'd to 
his Arms as if the Enemy had been juft at hand. 
He likewife ftudy'd Eloquence under Anaximenes 
Lampfacenus, which was afterwards the Caufe of fa- 
ving the City of Lampfacum, when Alexander had a 
mind to deftroy it for efpoufing the Interefts of 
the Perfians. For beholding Anaximenes coming 
without the Walls, and apprehending that he was 
coming to beg him to fave his Country, he iwore 
by the Grecian Gods , That he woud not grant 
what he was coming to ajk. Upon the over-hearing 
cf which, the Petitioner who had his Wits about 
him, afk'd him to deftroy Lampfacum. Alexander 
being tied by his Oath, but more charm'd by his 


old Matter's Cunning, granted a Pardon to the Peo- 
ple of Lampfacum. He defpis'd Comedians> as People 
that dealt in Matters that had no Congruity with 
his Defigns, and who were born for no other End 
but to debauch Mens Morals. Nor did he value Gla- 
diators or Fencers, tho* they were in great Efteem 
all overGreece, perhaps becaufe he look'd upon them 
as idle Fellows , who pamper'd their Bodies, and 
gave themfelves up to fhew Tricks upon a Stage, in- 
ftead of employing their Strength and Activity in 
the Service of their Country. But he was a great 
Encourager of all other Arts, and even of fuch 
as had never come the leaft in the way of 
his own Studies. For which reafon, all that e- 
fteem'd themfelves excellent in any Art, came 
flocking to him from all Parts of the World, and 
either prefented him with fome Piece of their In- 
genuity, or fome Specimen of their Art ; for which 
they commonly receiv'd immenfe Sums from a 
moft liberal and munificent King, whofe Fortune 
was equal to the Largenefs of his Soul. He like- 
wife fent rich Prefents to fuch as were remarkable 
either for great Learning or Virtue, in the remoteft 
Parts ; which was the Reafon why there appear'd at 
that time fo many learned Men, and excellent Arti- 
ficers, infomuch that fcarce any Age ever abound- 
ed more with ufeful and fine Arts. For nothing 
is more certain, than that the Manners and Stu- 
dies of Subjects are formed according to the Ex- 
ample of the Prince ; and that all the Decays that 
happen to States, are to the Honour or Difgrace 
of thofe who govern. 

Of all the Monuments of Antiquity, he had the 
greater! Efteem for Homer who he thought was 
the only Perfon that had perfectly defcrib'd that 
Wifdom by which Empires fubfift ; and had fuch 


20 FrcinfhemiusV Supplement 

a Paffion for him, that he was called Homer % Lo- 
ver. He was wont to cany his Books always 
along with him ; and even when he went to Bed, 
he put them and his Sword under his Pillow, cal- 
ling them his military Viaticum, and the Elements 
of -warlike Virtue. He efteem'd Achilles to have 
been happy in finding fo great a Man to celebrate 
his Virtues. 

Having found a moft curious Cabinet both for 
Matter and WorkmanuHip, amongft the Plunder of 
Damafcus, and his Friends having alk'dhim, What 
Ufe it was moft proper for ? he anfwer'd, We will 
dedicate it to Homer, fince 'tis but reafonable that 
the moft precious Monument of human Wit, fhould 
be prefervd in the fineft Piece of Workman/hip. 
From hence the moft correct Edition of that 
Poet, which Alexander was at much Pains to 
get, was call'd the Edition of the Box of Per- 
fumes, becaufe in that Cabinet the Perftans had 
us'd to keep Odours and Perfumes. One Day as 
a certain Meffenger of good News run towards 
him, in all hafte ftretching out his Right-hand, 
with the higheft Marks of Joy in his Countenance, 
What News can you tell me, fays he, that's worthy 
of fomuch Joy, unlefs that Homer is alive again ? 
He was then arriv'd to fucli a Degree of Happi- 
nefs, that he thought there wanted nothing to 
compleat his Glory , but one capable to trumpet 
his Praife. By frequent reading of him, he had 
got him almoft all by Heart; fo that no Per- 
fon that could quote him more readily or fa- 
miliarly, or judge of him more juftly. But of 
ail his Verfes, he was beft pleas'd with that where- 
in Agamemnon is prais'd both as a good General . 
and a valiant Soldier; and look'd upon it as his. 
chief Incentive to Virtue, and the Guide of his 
Manners. Thus 


Thus being Matter of thofe Arts and Accorn- 
pliiliments , he notably maintain'd the Grandeur 
and Dignity of his Fortune, and kept him- 
felf free from Haughtinefs and Libertinifm, by 
which molt Princes are acted. His Ornament 
andDrefs did hardly diftinguimhim from a private 
Perfon ; for he was of Opinion, that a Prince ought 
to furpafs his Subjects rather in the Culture of Vir- 
tue , than in the Finery of his Cloaths. He was 
chearful, civil, and affable, but fo as not to appear 
little. He was a Lover of Wine, but went not the 
length of Drunkennefs ; for in his leifure Hours, he 
preferred Converfation to Drinking. He had fuch a 
Contempt for Pleafures, that his Mother was afraid 
he was unfit for begetting Children. He held it 
as an inviolable Law, That he ought never to de- 
file another's Bed. He followed rhefe Maxims of 
Life and Manners a long while ^ and acted the 
Part of a great and worthy King, till fuch time as 
he was fhaken by a certain Impetus, and changed 
by a ftrong Current of Fortune, fo as to depart 
from his former Moderation by degrees. He 
fhew'd an extraordinary Courage and Dexterity, 
to the great Aftonimment of his Father and others, 
in managing the Horfe Bucephalus, which Name 
was given him from his being mark'd with the 
Figure of an Ox's Head. TheJ/aly was very much 
fam'd at that time for fine Horfes, and great 
Numbers of them were bred in that Country, but 
none of them was to be compar'd to Bucephalus 
either for Mettle or Beautifuinefc ; for which rea- 
fon Phitonicus a Pharfalian, thinking him worthy 
of the greateft Prince in thofe Parts, brought him 
to Philip, and propos'd to fell him for fixteen Ta- 
lents. But when they came to try his Speed and 
Management, by riding him out into the Fields, 


2x FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

there was none of the King's Friends or Atten- 
dants that durft venture to manage him ; for he 
rofe upon them, and frighten'd all that efTay'd to 
mount him, by his Fiercenefs: So that he was 
now look'd upon as unmanageable and ufelefs, 
upon the account of his Wildnefs ; at which, A- 
lexander lighing faid, What a fine Horfe thofe Peo- 
ple lofe through their Ignorance and Cowardice! 
After having repeated thefe Words over and over, 
his Father chid him, for finding fault with Horfe- 
men that were both older and more fkilful than 
himfelf, as if he could manage that Horfe better 
than they. To which he anfwer'd; J will ma- 
nage him better than they, Father, if you wilt give 
me leave. Upon this, his Father aflc'd him, What 
he woud forfeit if he could not execute what he had 
undertaken : I tvill forfeit the Price of the Horfe, 
reply'd he. At this every body fmil'd, and agreed, 
That if he won, the Father fhould pay for the Horfe, 
but if he lofi,-he fhould lay down the Money him- 
felf Then Alexander taking the Horfe by the 
Bridle, turn'd him directly to the Sun, that lb he 
might not fee his Shadow ; for he had obferv'd, 
that this frighten'd him, and made him more un- 
traceable. Finding his Fury was not much abated 
notwithftanding this, he ftroak'd his Mane, laid his 
Armour alide gently , and jump'd upon him at 
once, though he was foaming with Rage. Then 
Bucephalus , that was not us'd to obey, begun to 
fling with his Heels, and throw about his Head, 
and very obftinately refufe to be guided by the 
Bridle ; then he effay'd to get loofe, and run -away 
full fpeed. He was then in a fpacious Plain that 
was fit for riding in: Wherefore Alexander gi- 
ving him the Rein, and fetting his Spurs to his 
Sides, he run with incredible Speed, and with all 



the Vigor and Fury imaginable. And after he had 
travers'd a vaft Space of Ground , till he was 
weary, and willing to flop, he fpur'd him 'on till 
fuch time as his Mettle was exhaufted, and he be- 
came tame ; after which, he brought him back ve- 
ry gentle and traceable. When Alexander alight- 
ed, his Father embrac'd him with Tears of Joy, 
and kiffing him, faid, He muft feek out a larger Em- 
pire for himfelf, for that the Kingdom of Macedon, 
was too fmall for fo vaft a Spirit. Afterwards Bu- 
cephalus continu'd the fame Fiercenefs towards o- 
thers, while he obey'd Alexander alone with a 
wonderful Submiffion , and after he had been his 
Companion in many Labours # and Dangers, he 
was at laft kiird in a Battle againft Porus. The 
molt excellent Artificers thought this was a wor- 
thy Subject to celebrate their Skill upon : And 
there are two marble Statues of Alexander taming 
his Horfe, which were a Trial of Skill between 
Praxiteles and Phidias. And tho* it is not certain 
that they are the Statues of Alexander, yet fome 
Authors of very good Note, have believ'd them 
to be fo. 

By thefe and fuch like Trials of his Genius and 
Courage, he came to fo high an Efleem with Phi- 
lip, that when he laid Siege to the City of By- 
zantium, he thought his Son fit to be trulted with 
the entire Management of the Affairs of all Ma- 
cedonia, tho' he was then but fixteen Years of Age. 
Some of the Medarori ( who were a People of 
Thrace, and fubjecft to Macedonia) perceiving this, 
thought they had now found a fit Opportunity 
for a Revolt, which they had long meditated, and 
fo made no fcrupte of difcovering their Defigns. 
But the young Prince, glad of this Occafion of 
{hewing his Courage and Conduct, march' d againft 


^4 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

them in all hafte, with the Captains that his Fa- 
ther had left behind him ; and having overcome the 
Rebels, and banifh'd them from the City, he gave 
it to be inhabited by Strangers of feveral Nations, 
which they call'd Alexandropolts, after the Name 
of their Founder. Tho' this Sucoefs was the Caufe 
of great Joy to PhUip, yet fearing left the young 
Prince might undertake, to his own Deftruction, 
things beyond his Power, if he was left to his 
own Condiiift, he fent for him, to the end, that 
under his Tutorage , he might learn to moderate 
his Heat with Prudence, and made ufe of his ftre- 
nuous and ready Service, which was ever full of 

. Spirit and Alacrity, in fubduing the Cities of the 
Cherfonefiis. But finding that the Siege Of the 
City of Byzantium drew into length, both becaufe 
the Place was ftrong, and the Inhabitants fought 
bravely in Defence of their Liberty; and befides, 
being inform' d that both the Gr-eeks and Barbari- 
ans, who were jealous of the Growth of Philips 

* Power, were coming from all Patts to their Af- 
fiftance ; he defpair'd of being Matter .of that City, 
and was only folicitous how to break; up from the 
Siege with the greateft Safety for his Men, and 
-his Honour. Atheas was at that time King of the 
Qshft a People of Scythia ; who being prefs'd by the 
Iftrians, demanded Succours of Philip - promifing at 
the fame time to make him his Heir, if by his Af- 
firmance he could retrieve his defperate Affairs. But 
when he found that the Enemy's'General was dead, 
and himielf deliver'd from the Apprehenfion of 
War, "he fent back the Macedonians without ful- 
filling his Promife; telling them, That he neither 

■ wanted their AJftftance, nor the Adoption of Phi- 
lip ; That he had Troops enough of his own to de- 
fend him Againji his Enemies, and that he had a 



Son to fucceed him in his Kingdom. Philip being 
nettled at this foul Dealing , and bent upon Re- 
venge, rais'd the Siege of Byzantium, and march'd 
his Troops into Scythia , where he engag'd the 
Barbarians, whom he overcame by his wife Con- 
duel, notwithstanding their Superiority in Number. 
All the Booty of that Victory confifted of vaft 
Flocks of Cattle and Horfes, and female Captives 
and Children ; nor was there any other Prey ta- 
ken ; for the Get& were not defirous of Riches, 
but contenting themfelves with daily Suftenance, 
reckon'd Poverty amongft the Conveniencies of 
Life. When Philip return'd from Scythia, and 
march'd through the Country of the Triballi with 
a vaft Equipage and much Baggage ; that People 
taking P'ofleflion of all the Roads, denied him 
PalTage, unlefs he would give them a Share of his 
Booty. There were Greek auxiliary Troops in 
Philip's Army, who took it ill too, that they had 
not a Share in the Fruits of that Victory, fmcethey 
had been Sharers in the Danger. 

This occalion'd a Mutiny in the Army, which 
ilTued in a very hot Difpute , in which many of 
both fides lay dead on the fpot, and the King him- 
felf was wounded in the Thigh, and his Horfe was 
kill'd with the fame Wound, fuch was the force of 
the Dart, and fo great the ftrength of him that 
threw it. Here Alexander was theftrftPerfon that 
ran in to the Relief of his Father, who was lying 
upon the Ground, and covering him with his Shield, 
kill'd fome that were milling upon him, andturn'd 
others into flight. Thus was the Father fav'd by 
the Piety and Duty of his Son, while thofe who 
were juft ready to diipatch him ran away, as be- 
lieving he was already dead ; fo that he feem'd to 
owe his Life to the defperate condition of his 
wound, and efcaped Death, by the fuppofition of 
his having already fuffer'd it. 

Vol. I. C Mean 

% 6 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

Mean while, in this Hurry and Confufion, the 
Booty was loll. Philip was lame by this wound, 
and when at firft he feem'd to regret that imper- 
fection of his Limbs, his Son comforted him by 
this Saying, that deferves to be remembred by all 
fucceeding Ages, That he ought not to be angry at 
a wound -which put him in mind of his Valour at 
every fiep he took. 

Philip had by this time acquired Fame and Power 
enough ; he had receiv'd abundance of Wounds, 
and gone through Dangers enough, if his Mind 
that was blinded with Ambition could have fuf- 
fer'd him to live in quiet. He made the Macedo- 
nians , who had formerly been Tributaries to the 
lllyrians, Mailers not only of all their Neighbours, 
but alfo of very diftant Nations. He had fubdu'd 
the Triballi, redue'd Thrace under his obedience, 
and commanded many of the Greek States ; and 
influenc'd others, either by Fear, or by Bribes. 
JDaochaSy Cineas, Thraciddtis, Eudicws, and Scino 
of Larrffka, had conquer'd the Theffalians for 
him ; Ceridas , Hieronymus and Eucalpidao, the 
Arcadians ; Myrt'is, Telecamm and Muafeai, the 
Argives ; Euixtheut, Cleotimus and Arijl&chmm, 
the E leans ; Neon and Thrafylochus, the Sons of 
Philiadesy had fubdued the MeJJenians ; Ariftratu-s 
andDamarallus, the Syconians ; Noedorus y Helixus 
and Perilatis, the Megarenfians ; and Hipparchus, 
Clitarc.husy and Sofijiratus, the Euobeans. Now 
all theie great Men, were Chiefs of their City : 
Befides, Euthycrates and Lofihenes deliver'd up 
Olynth-im to him. 

In Abort, Sparta was the only Commonwealth 
that nobly preferv'd her Liberty, and was free from 
Treachery. But as Philip afpired at the Conqueft 
of all Greece, he eafily perceiv'd that the Power 
of the Athen'm?zs was' the greater!: Bar to his En- 
terprizes : Nor was that Commonwealth without 

Traitors ; 


Traitors ; but the People, who could do what they 
had a mind to, oppos'd the growing Power of the 
Macedonians , by the perfuafion of De?nofihenes ; 
having understood by frequent Contentions (as it 
often falls out among powerful Neighbours) how 
daring and cunning Philip was, and how little he 
regarded either Reputation or Faith, when Domi- 
nion was in the difpute. The King was mightily 
enrag'd againft the Athenians, becaufe it was to 
them that his late Mifcarriage at Byzantium was 
owing ; for they not only fent to their AlMance 
a Fleet of a Hundred and twenty Sail, but like- 
wife prevail'd upon the People of Chio and Rhodes 
to do the fame thing. Wherefore, while the 
Wound which he had receiv'd in the Country of 
the Triballi, was a curing, he made all manner 
of Preparations fecretly, in order to fall upon the 
Athenians, when they leaft fufpe&ed his delign. 
He kept an Army on foot, on pretence that the 
Illyrians , who were naturally fierce , and unac- 
quainted with Servitude, had already attempted 
to make off the Yoke that had -been lately put 
upon them. 

Alexander was fent againft thofe Barbarians, 
whom having defeated and put to flight, he gave 
the World fuch hopes of his Fortune and Virtue, 
and conceiv'd the fame of himfelf, that he now 
thought he was able to govern Affairs by himfelf, 
without his Father's direction. Thefe things were 
done in the fpace of two years. Now Philip ha- 
ving all things ready for his Enterprise, and think- 
ing it was high time to put in execution what he 
had for fome time defign'd, took hold of as good 
an occalion as he could have wifh'd, to lead his 
Army irito Greece, which he did before the Spring 
of the year, and fent for the Troops of his Allies 
out of the Peloponnefus. He had been created Ge- 
neral of the Greeks by a Decree of the Amphy- 
C z ttiones. 

a 8 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

flumes, to chadife the Infolence of the Locrians, 
who inhabited the City of Amphyjfa : For in 
Contempt of the Authority of the Amphydlwnes , 
they continued to poffeisthe Territory of Cyrrha, 
which was dedicated to Apollo, and had wounded 
their General, and cut to pieces feveral of their 
Men. Philip was at that time in Alliance with the 
Athenians ; but they lookt upon that but as a 
fmall Security, if the King could make any Ad- 
vantage of breaking his Faith. Wheiefore they 
fent Ambaffadors to him, to defire him to obferve 
the Treaty, or at lea ft to commit no Hoftility 'till 
the Spring was zvell advancd. That in the mean 
while the Athenians would confult about meafures 
to accommodate the Differences that were between 
them. They likewiie lent an Embafly to Thebes, 
to reprefent to the Thebans the common Danger, 
and to exhort them to concur zvith them in the De- 
fence of all Greece. 

But Philip prefer v'd the Friendship between the 
Thebans and Macedonians, through the mediation 
of his Partisans and Friends, the chief of which 
were Trinolacco, Theogitou, and Ancemetas, who 
had great influence over their Countrymen. In 
fine, periuading himfelf, that he Ihould eafiiy gain 
his point, if he had to do only with the Atheni- 
ans ; and having overcome the Locrians and their 
Confederates at Amphyffa, he march' d his Army 
with all fpeed into Che Phocides, made himfelf Ma- 
tter of Elatea, which equally commanded the Bor- 
ders of the Thebans and the Athenians, put a Ga- 
rifon into it, and fortified it, as if he had defign'd 
to make it the feat of the War. When this News 
was brought to Athens in the Night, the whole 
City was fill'd with fuch a Confternation , that 
early next Morning , when the People were Af~ 
iembled, as ufual, by the publick Cries, no body 
flood up to ask, Whether a?.y one there prefent had 
2. any 


ar/v thing to fay, that tended to the Safety of their 
Country ? At laft Demofihenes, after having dif- 
courfed of fuch things as were fuitable to the oc- 
cafion (perfuaded the People, That they ought 
without delay, to draw out their Army, and their 
fleet, and fend AmbaJJ'adors to all the Grecian 
States, but efpecially to the Thebans. A Decree 
being made agreeable to this Propolition, Chares 
and Lyficles were appointed Generals of the For- 
ces, and Demofihenes was order'd to go AmbafTa- 
to the Thebans. Thefe Proceedings could not e- 
fcape the Vigilance of Philip, who knew very well 
he fhould have a heavy War upon his hands, if 
thofe People fhould join in Confederacy. For the 
Athenians were at that time both rich and pow- 
erful ; nor was either the Power or the Reputation 
of the Thebans to be contemned. Nor was the 
Memory of the famous Battle of Leuttra yet out 
of Men's Minds, by which Victory they wrefted 
the Dominion of Greece out of the Hands of the 

Wherefore that he »might both confirm his 
Confederates, and baffle the Contrivances of 
the oppofite Faction, he fent thither two Macedo- 
nians, Amyntas and Clearchus, and with them one 
Pit ho a Bizantine, to whofe Eloquence he de- 
pended. This Byzantine is faid to have fpoke in 
the AfTembly of the Boeotians in the following 

" If you had no Alliance with Philip, and the 
" Athenian Army were in Pofleliion of Elatea , 
" while he lay idle in Macedonia, yet I have no 
" room to doubt but you would even then be de- 
*f firous of his Friendfhip and Alliance. For in- 
" deed , who would not prefer fo potent a King, 
" who has done fo many brave Things, to a Re- 
" publick whofe Reputation and Fame are fupe- 
'< rior to its Strength ? But now, fince that Prince, 
C 3 " who 

30 Freinfhemius\r Supplement 

u who as it were polTelTes the very Gates of your 
*•* City, with his victorious Troops, is your Friend 
** and Ally ; and fince you have received many 
u Affronts and Injuries from the Athenians both 
c * formerly and of late, it would be an Inlblence 
*' to perfuade you to an Alliance with them, and 
M to contemn the Friendmip of fo great a King., 
*' But thofe People, who are the proudcft and 
V haughtieft of Mortals, fancy that they alone are 
*' wife and prudent, and that all the reft of Man- 
** kind, but efpecially the Boeotians (for 'tis chief- 
" Iy you that they infult) are foolifh and unpo- 
*f Iim'd, and underftand neither what is profitable 
" nor r- >neft. Thus they fancy they (hall be able 
« to perfuade you to what you can never do 
*t without the extremeft Folly, and that is, to 
H chufe Friends and Enemies rather according to 
" their Humours than for your own Benefit ; con- 
«* tiding in a Flourifh of Words, in which confiits 
H all their Strength. But no Man in his Senfes 
" ever prefer'd Words before Facls , efpecially in 
*' _War, wherein the Hands are of Service, but 
h the Exercife of the Tongue is impertinent. 
" Whatever Strefs they may lay upon their Elo- 
*' quence, the Fortune and Virtue of Philip, which 
" are fupported by both his own and his auxiliary 
" Forces, will always be fuperior. In earneft, 'tis 
" hard to fay, whether the Folly or the Impudence 
t of their Demands be greateft. Thebans, fay 
" they, expofe your [elves to the Thunder that ho~ 
'* vers over Athens, make War upon a King who is 
" your Friend and Ally, at the Hazard of your 
<i own Ruin , that we may continue in Safety. 
1 * Stake down your Lives before him , to prevent 
* l Philip from revenging the Injuries of the Atheni- 
** ans. Are thefe the Demands of Men who are 
" in their Senfes, or think others have the ufe of 
" theirs ? They who but very lately omitted no 

" Occafion 


* Occafion of Oppreffing you, they who purfucd 
" you with Reproaches , Outrages and Arms, as 
" much as in them lay, and look'd upon your 
" Dangers and Misfortunes as their Happinefs ; 
" thefe fame People have the Confidence to pro- 
*« pofe to you, to chufe to perith with them, ra- 
ff ther than be victorious with Philip. But this 
** Prince, who was once your Gueft and Pupil, 
" who was brought up with that famous General 
" Epam'wondas, whole Life and Morals bear the 
fairelt Character, has from his Youth imbib'd 
" an Affection for your City, and the OEcono- 
" my and Manners of its Inhabitants. He re- 
" venged the Injuries done to you and to Apcllo 
" in the Phocian War, when the Athenians, out 
" of Hatred to you, fent Succours to one of your 
" Countrymen who was guilty of Sacrilege; and 
" when he was again invited by the unanimous 
" Decree of the Amphyttiones, he revenged the 
" Contempt of the lame Deity upon the Locri- 
" am i And fo careful was he of your Inte- 
u refts, that he would not depart, 'till fuch time 
** as he had delivered you from the Jealoufy of 
" that Rival City, which has always been your 
" Enemy. If you are inclined to execute this 
" Defign by your common Councils and Forces, 
H he will not be againft your coming in for a 
" Share of the Booty, rather than a Share of the 
" War: But if you had rather be Neuter, only 
" grant him a Pali age ; for he alone is able to re- 
" venge all your common Injuries : Even in that 
" cafe you mall reap equal Fruits of Victory. 
" The Flocks, Herds, and Slaves that (hall be 
" won from the Enemy, mall molt of them fall 
44 to your Share, as being the neareft Neighbours* 
" and thus mall you make up the Lofs you fu- 
" ftaind in the Phocean War. I leave you youi- 
C 4 H lelves 

3x FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

44 felves to judge whether this will not be more 
44 advantageous for you, than to have yourDwel- 
" lings burnt, your Towns ftorm'd, fet on Fire, 
f and plunder'd, and all your Affairs put in Dif- 
" order and Confufion, juft as the Athenians wifh 
44 them. In truth , Sincerity that is unjuftly fu- 
" fpe&ed, turns to Rage, and the greateft good 
" Will, when it is flighted, concludes in the bit- 
ff tereft Revenge. I do not fay this, as if I was 
44 upbraiding you for Ingratitude, which I have 
44 not the leaft apprehenfion of; nor tofhike ter- 
44 ror into you, which I truft there will be no oc~ 
*' cafion for; but that the memory of Philip's 
44 good offices towards you, and of yours towards 
44 him, may convince you, that thofe Alliances 
44 only are firm and perpetual, which it is the In- 
" tereft of both Parties to obferve. If he has me- 
44 rited more of you than you have done of him, 
44 it will be your Duty, to (hew the fame good 
" Difpofitions, and ufe the fame Endeavours not 
" to tall fhort of him in this refped. He thinks 
" that the greateft Recompence for all his La- 
" hours is his having fupported Greece by his Suc- 
44 cours ; for the Safety and Honour of which he 
" has waged continual War with the Barbarians. 
'« Would to the Gods, the Madnefs of the Athe- 
" nians had permitted him to follow his own 
" Courfes ! you would have heard by this time, 
" that his Arms , which he is now conftrain'd to 
" move about Greece, to reprefs the Difturbances 
" raifed by feditious and ill-defigning Perfons, 
*' were triumphing in Afia. He might certainly 
ft have been in Friendftup with the- Athenians, un- 
'* lefs he had thought it below him , and of bad 
" Example, to become a VafTal to this Demojlhe- 
" nes, and fome others, who drive the ignorant 
44 Multitude whither they pleafe , by the Breath 

44 of 


"* of their Orations, as the Winds \hive the Waves 

" of the Sea. Doubtlefs , had they any regard 

«' for Honour or Honefty, they would do their 

" Duty without being brib'd to it, But they 

*' who are accuftomed to fell their Honour, make 

u no Diftincftion between things that are ufeful,. 

** and things that are dangerous, between Juftice 

" and Injuftice, if they find their Advantage in 

* Wickednefs as well as in Goodnefs ; they are 

" wrought upon by Intereft, and not by the Love 

•< of Virtue or their Country, nor refpedl for 

«« Gods or Men. In vain will you expect any 

" thing from thofe Men that is either virtuous or 

«« reputable : They who have the Intereft of 

«« their Country fo little at Heart , will never be 

•« concern'd for your Interefts : They will in- 

« volve you in the fame Calamities from which 

" you have been lately delivered by the Courage 

" and Faith of the Macedonians. Calamities fd 

« much the greater , by how much Philip muft 

" be a more formidable Enemy than Philomelas 

" or Onomarchusweie. For in a precarious Com- 

" mand, the Endeavours of a good and able Ge~ 

" neral will be no lefs travers'd by his own Goun- 

" trymen, than by the Enemy. Whereas none 

" dares to oppofe or difobey the King's Com m and : 

14 His Will alone is the Rule by which they are 

M governed ; and of what Importance this is in 

«« Affairs of War, you all know. Nor is that 

" Security of the Macedonians coniin'd to one 

** Perfon : Tho' Fate mould difpofe of Philip y 

*< we have an Alexander to rife up in his Stead 5 

" who has even at fo green an Age , given fuch 
f* Proofs of his Courage and Genius, that it isal- 

<' moft evident he will be equal to the mofl: re~ 

" nowned Generals. On the contrary, the.Pow- 

£ er of Peace and War reliding in all the People 
C 5 £f promi- 

34 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

*' promifcuoufly among the Athenians , the bold- 
" eft Pretender aflumes it to himfelf as a thing 
€i that belongs to the firft Seizer : There all things 
V are managed rather by Starts of Paffion, than 
€i by Counfel and Deliberation : Men of ill De- 
" figns perfuade, and the Ignorant decree : War 
c< is undertaken with more Heat than it is car- 
" ried on ; and Treaties are broke with the fame 
Eafe that they were made. For they have a 
" Treaty with Philip , which how facredly they 
«' keep, appears from their Adlions and Behavi- 
" our. Nor do they think it enough that they 
«' break Faith themfelves, unlefs they fpread that 
M Contagion wider. But your Steadinefs, O The- 
" bans , by which you are no lefs famous and 
c< great, than by your brave and fuccefsful Ex- 
" ploits, leaves no room to doubt, but you will 
" prefer the FrienduSip of a King which you have 
«* had repeated Proofs of, to that of a City 
" which has always been your Enemy, and en- 
" vious of your Glory. Nor will Hercules , the 
" Averter of Evil , whom your City adores as 
" their own inmate Tutelary Deity with a pe- 
" culiar Veneration , ever fuffer you to engage 
" in an unjuft , and impious War , againft one 
" who is delcended from his Blood. As to his 
" other Allies , you may learn from themfelves, 
M what Value they have for the King's Friend- 
M fhip." 

Thefe were the Words of Pitho : Then the De- 
puties of the Allies -were heard , who praifed the 
Kings Ajfeclion to them ; and then remon- 
firated : 

" That he who was the Protector of Greece, 
" ought rather to be followed, than the Athenians, 
'J who were the Diilurbers of it. 




But when Bemojlhenes had liberty to fpeak, " I 
** was not ignorant, [aid he, that thofe Mercena- 
" ries of Philip's would neither fpare their Praifes 
w upon him, nor their Reproaches upon us. For 
" they who have laid afide all Shame , are little 
" folicitous either what they fay or do , fo they 
" gain their Point. But, O Thebans, if I under- 
" Hand your Temper, they will find themfelves 
" mightily difappointed in their Expectations, and 
" carry back an Anfwer to Philip that is worthy 
m of your Virtue, and of the Difcipline of the 
H Greeks : In the mean while, pray take good heed 
" to what lies upon us to do at this time. For 
" that your whole Fortune depends upon this 
" Day's Deliberation, I mall fhew, by irrefragable 
" Arguments , and not by the Charms or Magick 
" of Words, by which they are afraid you may 
" be impofed upon : They may lay afide their 
" Fear, fince they have no Occafion to be fo fo- 
" licitous about you ; for we fhall not in the leaft 
" endeavour to appear more eloquent than they. 
" A bad Caufe, indeed, has fometimes been migh- 
** tily indebted to the Power ot Eloquence ; but 
" when it is the Bufinefs of him that fpeaks, to 
" mew the naked Truth, if he is wife , he will 
" never take up his Time in a Flourim of Words, 
" As to Philip, we are very little concerned about 
" his Character; let him for us, referable the Pi- 
" clure they have drawn of him ; let him be hand- 
" fom, eloquent, or a good Companion at an En- 
V tertainment ; for fome People have praifed him 
'* even for thefe Qualifications ; and thus confefs'd 
** him deficient in real, and folid Glory. But 1 
" cannot help wondering, that his Ambaffador 
" mould reproach us in your Prefence, with thofe 
" things , which if they are Crimes , do without 
** difpute equally afFecl: the Thebans and the Athe* 
** mans, They have been endeavouring to ex- 
C 6 « pofe 

36 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

" pofe the Inconveniences of a popular Form of 
" Government, which tho' both you and we are 
" fenlible of, yet do we prefer it to Regal Ty- 
" ranny. They have talk'd to you at fuch a rate, 
" as if they had had a Mind to obtain Favour by 
M tickling the Ears of a popular Circle, or a pub- 
*t lick Affembly of Macedonians ; and not as if they 
" came to a free City, to execute the Office of 
" Ambafiadors. We very well know the irre- 
" concileable Hatred that Kings and their Slaves 
*? have to free Cities and People; and they have 
** done very foolifhly to difcover this : But we 
" are to take fo much the greater Care, Thebans, 
" to defend our Laws and Privileges. It were 
" to be wifh'd, above all things, that thole who 
" are call'd to the Adminiftration of Affairs in 
" Common-wealths, were engaged only in this 
" glorious Contention, who mould confult the In- 
*' terefts of their Common-wealth belt, or who 
ff mould beft execute the Resolutions that are ta- 
*f ken : Then none would prefer his own Advan- 
** tage to the Common Good ; none would re- 
" ceive Bribes; and none would betray his Coun- 
*' try to Philip, after the Example of thofe Depu- 
** ties. But, Thebans entire and perfect Felicity, 
*' was never the Lot of any Man or any State : 
" He is the happieft Perfon whofe Circumltances 
'* are freed from Misfortunes. It is paft difpute, 

that we have bad Citizens, nor have you been 
*' without them in former Times, Thebans, nor 
*' are you even at this time. If this were not lb, 

Philip would not threaten our Liberty at this 
" Day from Elatea, but mould be obliged to con- 
" tend with us for the Kingdom of Macedonia. 
" However, we have good Citizens too, and thefe 
" more numerous and more powerful than the 
" bad ones. Do you want a Proof of this ? We 
" are free : We are not Philip's Slaves, as you 

*« thought 

to Q^uintus Curtius. 37 

" thought to have made your Byzantines, Python ; 
t( but as for you Daochu*, and you ThraJid&tM, 
" you ibid your TheJJ'alians to the King. In effect, 
" Thebans, you behold TheJJaly languiming under 
«< the Servitude of Philip at this Day ; and if I mi- 
** ftake not, you deplore their hard Condition as well 
" as we. No Thanks to Python that Byzantium did 
" not fuffer the fame Fate with Olynthw, but its 
" Deliverance is owing to us. For that religious 
" and venerable Protestor of Greece, had refolved 
" to opprefs that Greek City, which was in our 
" Alliance and Confederacy, and in no apprehen- 
*f fion of being attack'd. Behold, wherein con- 
" lifts the Prudence of this great Prince ! With 
" him Artifice and Cunning is good Policy; Per- 
" jury is an Art or Science, and Perfidy a Virtue. 

f* If this be not the Cafe, pray let him tell what 
" other way he arriv'd at that formidable Power 
" he is now pofiefs'd of? If it was not by furpri- 
ft fing the Greeks with Frauds , Stratagems, and 
" Treachery ; if it was not by conquering the 
M Barbarians rather with Gold than with the 
" Sword; or in fine, whether he ever ftuck at 
" his Faith to any Mortal, or breaking it when it 
" was engaged. And yet thefe Deputies give him 
*' the glorious Title of Protedor of Greece, and 
" call us the Difturbers of it ! But what will they 
«' be afham'd of, who had rather charge us with 
" their own Faults, than not difcover to you thele 
" they are evidently guilty of ? If any one was 
" guilty of Treachery, you would make it your 
" Bufinefs to defend, protect, and melter him 
" from the Punilhment of the Laws; now that 
" you accufe others, you condemn your felves. 
" If you did this without any Aim or Defign , 
" then pray where was your Senfe or Prudence r> 
" But if you did it wittingly and willingly, then 

where was your Honefty ? It is a fufficient Vin- 

M dicatiori 

38 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

" dication of my Innocence, and of theirs who are 
" embark' d in the fame Caufe with me, that you 
" your felves own we have receiv'd nothing from 
" Philip ; for had we afk'd any thing of him, we 
14 fhould not have gone away empty handed from 
'* fo liberal a King as you give out yours is. Would 

* not he who thought it worth his while to cor- 

* rupt you, have alio given us Bribes, if we had 
4 aik'd them ? But you have juft now admoninVd 

* the Thebans not to follow the Council of thofe 
4 who have not the Interefts of their Country at 

* heart. From this Minute I ceafe to oppofe 

* them, Thebans, if they are really of that Mind: 
4 I come over to their Sentiments, and I exhort, 

* pray, and befeech you with all the Earneftnefs 

* poffible, and conjure you by your own Safety, 

* and that of all Greece, to embrace their Propo- 
4 fition. If you come into this, you will not fuf- 
4 fer your felves to be fold for Droves of Cattle, 
4 nor fuffer your PolTeffions to be made your 
4 Prifons, nor (hall be Slaves under the P&onmns 
4 and Triballi, like the reft of Philip's Slaves. For 
4 they would have you to look upon Flocks and 
4 Slaves, which are the glorious Reward of Ser- 

* vitude, and contemn your Wives, your Chil- 
4 dren, your Parents, your Liberty , your Repu- 
4 tation, your Faith, and in fine, every thing that 

4 is facred and venerable among the Greeks, as • 
4 not worthy of your Care. Thus certainly, 
4 Thebans, you have loft and forfeited ail thefe, 
4 unlefs you unite with us in refilling the Fraud 
and Violence of Philip. But if you fhould ima- 
gine your felves fafe in the Care and Endea- 
vours of others, I am afraid you will rind your 
felves egregioufly miftaken. For if Philip fhould 
accomplilh his Defigns (which I cannot think 
of without Horror and Deteftation) who can 
doubt but that ail Greece , as well as you, will 



1 lofe their Liberty ? And who, but they who 
1 have a mind to perim, would lay any ftrefs 
4 upon the Faith of fucli a Prince ? But if Vidtory 
4 fhould declare for us, pray confider what you 
4 ought to expecl: from Men whom you deferted 
4 and abandon'd, when both their Safety and 
4 their Glory were at flake ? For whatever way 
4 your Opinion may fway you, you may depend 

* upon it, that the Athenians are refolved to 

* venture all, and that they will never lofe their 
4 Liberty but with their Lives. Nor do we 

* diftruft our Strength, to which if you will join 
4 yours, we (hall, when united, be fuperior to 
4 the Enemy, to which either of us lingly might 
4 perhaps be equal. The Athenians are not ig- 
4 norant of his Power, which they forefaw while 
4 it was riling and encrealing ; and had all the 
4 Greek States been of one and the fame mind, 
4 we might eafily have fet Bounds to it. For 
4 we waged War with him a long time, not for 
4 AmphipolU or Halonefets , as many believed, 
4 but for the Safety and Liberty of Greece ; 'till 
4 being abandoned by all, and attacked by fome, 
4 we were forced to make a neceflary rather 
4 than an honourable Peace. But now, I truft, 
4 Minerva , tjie Guardian Goddefs of our City, 
4 and the Pythian Apollo , who is the Native 
4 God of our Country , and all the reft of the 
4 Grecian Gods , have at laft opened their Eyes, 
4 andraifed the Courage of all their Worfhippers, 
4 in defence of our ancient Liberty , which has 
4 been tranfmitted to us by our Fore-fathers. 
4 Sure Hercules could not hear the Words of the 
4 Ambaffadors without Indignation , when they 
14 derived Philip's Pedigree from that God. For 
;4 can that God own him who is a Contemner of 
!4 all Religions ? Can a Greek acknowledge a Ma- 
14 cedonian for his Defcendant ? Can one that 

" hates 

40 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

" hates, puniflies, and extirpates Tyranny, own 
" a Tyrant ? For in this appeared the illuftrious 
" and memorable Deeds of Hercules, more than 
" in any thing elfe. Philip, on the contrary, 
" exercifes unjuft Dominion over Greece , and 
" has fet Domeftick Tyrants over feveral Ci- 
" ties thereof; fuch as Philifiides over Oreum, 
" Hipparchus over Erotica, and Taurofthenes over 

Chalcides. For this Reafon the Euboeans,Ach&ans, 
" Corinthians, Megarenfians, Leucadians, and Cor- 

cyr&ans have declared for us : Others wait the 
" Event , which has hitherto been the only Sup- 
" port of the Power of Macedonia , and which 
" will fall of itfelf , when ever it begins in the 
" leaft to decline. As to the TheJJalians , by 
" whom Philip is now fo well furnifhed with 
" Horfe, they never Itood firm to one fide long: 
" The lilyrians and other Barbarians bordering 
" upon Macedonia , who are naturally fierce and 
H favage, and mightily enraged at their new Ser- 
" vitude , will immediately declare for us , and 
" eafe us of the Burthen of the War, if Philip 
" (hould meet with bad Succefs at firft. Only 

concur heartily with us in fo glorious a Detign* 
" and in the mean while lay afide thole Conten- 
" tions , which a very flight Caufe often produ- 
" ces among neighbouring States. Publick Joy 
«« will turn private Grudges into mutual Benevo- 
<* lence, when Succefs crowns our Endeavours ; 
" or when we have Leifure to give Vent to our 
" unreafonablePaffions, they may be refum'd per- 
" haps to the Dishonour and Damage of us both, 
" but without deftroying us entirely. I would 
M not have you to be afraid of the Artifices of 
« Philip , only ftiut your Ears againft his Promi- 
" fes, and keep your Hands clean of Bribes. If 
" you -have your Liberty moll at Heart, Cun- 
w ning and Gifts will have no Effecl: upon you : 

" As 


" As the Difcords of the Greeks have rais'd his 
" Power, fo their Union will overthrow it. Be- 
" fides as he is ram and headftrong, he may be 
" ealily catch'd; and if this happens, there is no 
" Danger to be fear'd from others : For he 
" feeks Glory and Dominion, while thofe who 
" are fubject to him defire nothing more than 
" Quiet. But perhaps you dread Alexander, be- 
" caufe his Partizans contemn you at fuch a rate, 
" that they think you may be frighten'd at the 
" Name of a Boy. 

You would have thought that this Speech of 
Demo/lhenes had perfectly chang'd the Thebans into 
other Men all of a hidden. They who had heard 
the Ambafladors of Philip but a little before with 
Attention, and even Pleafure, were now fo far 
of another mind, that they declard, they would 
look upon Philip as an Enemy, unlefs he quickly 
departed from their Borders , and thofe of their 
Allies; that they would drive from their City all 
that were in the Macedonian Intereft, and receive 
into it the Troops of the Athenians. But Philip, 
who was more vex'd than frighten'd at the The bans 
abandoning him fo unexpectedly, continu'd to carry 
on his Enterprize. After two flight Engagements, 
in both of which the Athenians had the better, 
the two Armies encamped with all their Forces 
near Cheron&a a City of Boeotia. The Greeks were 
animated by the Deeds of their Anceftors , and 
their Concern for Liberty ; and Philip trufted to 
his excellent Troops, that had been victorious 
in fo many Battles : Nor did he put fmall confi- 
dence in his own Conduct, becaule he excelled in 
the Art of War ; befides that, the molt renowned 
Generals of the Greeks were dead. The Thebans 
were ruled at that time by Theagenes, a Man who 
had but little Experience in War, and was not 
Proof againft Money ; and Philip infinitely fur- 


42* FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

parTed the Athenian Generals both in Experience 
and Courage. But the united Forces of two 
powerful States, whole Authority was followed 
by the Corinthians and others, made him appre- 
hend, that the Fortune of a fmall part of one Day 
might coft him both his Life and his Dominions. 
The Leading Men among the Thebans feem'd in- 
clin'd to liften to Propofals of Peace ; but the Ar- 
dour of the Athenians prevail'd fo far, as to make 
them confent to hazard all the Hopes and Power 
of Greece in one Battle. On the other fide, Alex- 
ander, whofe Fire and Spirit could not be re- 
ftrained, conjured his Father, not to let fo favour- 
able an Opportunity of getting Glory flip out of 
his Hands ; and having obtain'd leave to venture 
a Battle , he was the firft that began the Attack 
upon the Enemy. The Fight was carried on with 
Obftinacy, and Succefs was doubtful for a long 
time ; 'till at laft the young Prince, to whom his 
Father had given the Command of one of the 
Wings of the felecl: Troops , having with great 
Vigour and Refolution attack'd the facred Cohort 
of the Thebans, which confifted of their beft 
Troops, oblig'd them ro give Ground, and fo 
open'd a Way to Viclory. For the Athenians 
being difheartned by the Misfortune of their 
Allies, and weaken'd with the Heat and their 
Wounds, were not able to make Head againft the 
Macedonians any longer : Belides, Philip being rais'd 
by Emulation and Shame, left h£ mould come 
ftiort of his Son who was but a Youth, fell upon 
them with fuch Fury, that they were no longer 
able to ftand their Ground. Thus one Battle de- 
termin'd concerning the Liberty of Greece : Of 
the Athenians above a Thoufand were kill'd, and 
above Two Thouiand taken Prifoners ; a great 
many of the Allies alfo were either kill'd in the 
Action, or forc'd to furrender themfelves to the 



Power of the Conqueror. After which, Alexander 
was fent to Athens, to aflure the Athenians, that 
Philip both forgave 'em , and fent 'em Peace; 
and likewife reftor'd to chem their Prifoners with- 
out Ranfom, neither did he hinder them from 
burying their Dead. For, as the King being wholly 
intent on the Perjian War, endeavour d to fecure 
himfelf of the Fidelity and Affection of the 
Greeks, by his Clemency and Moderation ; yet he 
took from the Athenians the Sovereignty of the 
Sea, and the Illands : He dealt more feverely 
with the Thebans, by whofe Defection, he re- 
member'd his Affairs were brought into the great- 
eft Danger ; and becaufe he thought, that as they 
were his ancient Allies, and had receiv'd Favours 
from him, they had no reafon to join with the 
Athenians againft him : Therefore, upon the fur- 
render of their Town, he put into it a Garrifon of 
Macedonians, and having put to Death thofe he 
molt hated and fufpected, and banifh'd others, he 
conferr'd the Magiitracy and Judicature on thofe 
of his own Faction, whom he had recall'd from 
their Exile. He redue'd the other People 
who had taken up Arms againft him , with the 
fame Torrent of Victory, infomuch that there 
was not in all Greece any, except the Spartans and 
the Arcades, that remam'd exempt from his Power; 
forcing fome by his Arms, and others by difad- 
vantageous Alliances, to comply with his Autho- 
rity. Having therefore appointed a General Af- 
fembly of all Greece, at Corinth, he made a Speech 
to 'em about carrying the War into Perfia, telling 
'em, It was neceffary to go and meet the Barba- 
rians, whofe Pride had already laid a Scheme for 
XJniverfal Empire , that they mujl refolve to be 
Slaves for ever , or in time oppofe their Power, 
For the Cafe was not, whether the Greeks would 
have War or Peace; but, whether they had rather 


44 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

carry the War into the Enemy $ Country, or re- 
ceive it in their ozvn. That they ought not only to 
revenge former Injuries, but alfo remove the pre- 
fent Shame-, by delivering the Greek Cities, fituate 
in Afia, from the Perftan Slavery. That this might 
be eafily effected , if fettling the Affairs of Greece , 
they were at liberty to turn all their Forces to the 
War beyond the Sea. That Peace at Home would 
thereby be fecurd, having remov'd and employed 
in a remote and foreign War, thofe rejllefs and au- 
dacious Spirits , zvhofe Idlenefs was ufually the 
Grounds of Sedition, and Civil Commotions. That 
they ought therefore to make choice of a General, 
and fettle the Number of Troops with which they 
defignd to carry on this War. 

Moft People were fenfible of the vaftnefs of the 
Demand ; but they judg'd it unfeafonable to affert 
by Words, that Liberty they had loft in Arms : 
Wherefore, without any farther Deliberation, 
Philip is with loud Acclamations declar'd General 
of Greece, and order'd to march into Afia, for 
the Safety and Delivery of the whole World. An 
Account is therefore taken of the Wealth of every 
one, and it is enter'd into Books, what Soldiers, 
Corn and Money each (hould fupply. I find they 
engag'd for Two hundred thoufand Foot, and 
Fifteen thoufand Horfe * in which Number, neither 
the Macedonians , nor the Barbarians that were 
Subjects to 'em, were compris'd. 

But as there is no Felicity in Human Affairs, 
without a mixture of Adverfity, the Profperity 
Abroad was fucceeded by Domeftick Troubles. 
Olympics , as we hinted before , by her Morofe- 
nefs and haughty Temper, every Day more and 
more alienated the Mind of her Royal Husband. 
Some alledge that, for the Caufe of her Divorce ; 
but I find, that even whilft he cohabited with her, 
he admitted Cleopatra into a Matrimonial Fami- 


Jiarity. Indeed, it is not reafonable to think that 
Alexander would have been prefent at the Wedding 
of his Mother-in-Law, which was lb difhonour- 
able to his own Mother whom he lov'd fo dearly, 
and whofe Difgrace refle&ed on himfelf ; for there 
was a Sufpicipn of her being removed for Infide- 
lity : However , he was there ; and a Quarrel 
anting at the Entertainment, he carry 'd off his 
Mother. For Attains the Bride's Uncle , being 
elevated with Wine, and not being able to con- 
ceal his Hopes, telling the Macedonians ■, That they 
ought to offer up their Prayers to the Gods, to im- 
plore a Lawful Succeffor to Philip by this new Wife ; 
Alexander, who was otherwife prone to Anger, 
being provok'd by fo grots an Affront, reply'd, 
What dofl thou then make of us, Wretch as thou art f 
Am I a Baflard ? and at the fame time flung the 
Glafs which he had in his Hand , in his Face : 
Attains flinging another at him. A Quarrel ari- 
fing, Philip, who was not at the fame Table, be- 
ing offended at the Interruption of the Mirth of 
the Day, drew his Sword, and had kill'd his Son, 
if his Anger, and the Wine, and a Lamenefs con- 
tracted from a former Wound, had not hinder'd 
him , by cauting Mm to fall down ; which gave 
his Friends ( who were furpriz'd at the fuddennefs 
of the thing ) time to interpoie , and convey 
Alexander away. 

Nor was it a matter of lefs difficulty to prevail 
with him to fave himfelf. He thought he was 
injur' d many ways ; and though they put him in 
mind of the terms of Father, and King, and of 
the Law of Nature, and Nations, yet he could 
not forbear infulting Philip, reprefenting to the Ma- 
cedonians , what a fine Leader they were like to 
have for the Afian Expedition, fince he could not go 
from one Table to another without falling. Af- 
ter which, being in fear for his Mother, he took 


46 FreinfliemiusV Supplement ■ 

her along with him, and left her in Epirus, where 
her Brother reign'd, and wenthimfelf to the King 
of lllyrium. Being afterwards return'd to Mace- 
donia, through the Mediatorftiip of Demeratus the 
Corinthian, this perverfe Woman could not for- 
bear prompting her Son (who was of himfelf fo- 
licitous enough for power) to make himfelf ivhat 
Friends he could by a winning Carriage, and by 
Money, and to fortifie himfelf againft his lather s 
Anger, by contracting an Alliance -with the Men in 
Authority. It is true, Philip himfelf had formerly 
counfeird him to gain the affection of Men, by 
his affability and courteous behaviour ; but he no 
wife appro v'd of his doing it by Prefents ; nay he 
even reprimanded him by Letter, for daring to 
hope for the Benevolence of thofe Me?i tvhom he had 
corrupted by Gifts ; telling him he was mijiaken, 
who thought that became a King ; it being rather 
the bufinefs of a Servant, or mean Officer. 

But as he would frequently brag, that all things 
were penetrable by Money, and that he made ufe 
of it himfelf as often as of his Arms, he did not 
feem to write that, fo much with an intention to 
inftruct him in what was proper, as out of Fear, 
» left the Youth, his Son, mould make ufe of his own 
Artifices againft him. He alfo chid him for 
courting the Daughter of Pexodorm, that his Fa- 
ther intended for Arid&w, calling him degene- 
rate, and unworthy the Fortune his Birth and 
Education gave him hopes of; who could covet 
for a Father-in-Law, a barbarous Carian, the Sub- 
ject of a Barbarian King. Yet he himfelf had ne- 
ver flighted any Condition to confirm his Power, 
but could marry lllyrian and Getic Women, the 
rougheft and unpoliteft of all Barbarians, tho' he 
had, at the fame time a great many Children by 
other Wives and Concubines ; which feeming to 
make Alexander fomewhat uneafie , he took up 



his Sou with a gentle reproof; and exhorted him, 
That fince he was to have a great ma?iy Rivals for 
the Kingdom, he would take care to make himfelf 
more worthy and deferving than the^refi, that he 
might not feem to be obligd to Philip his lather for 
the Crown, but to his own Merit. 

But as for this and the like Caufes, they fre- 
quently disagreed, and that Friendlhip and Bene- 
volence being once broken, it was not eafie to 
cement new Affections again into a real Fidelity ; 
fo they fell to the lalt Extremities. The violent 
Temper of Olyjnpias was the chief fpring of this 
Mifchief, whole haughty and imperious Mind, 
prompted the contumacious frubbornnefs of the 
Sex, with a mafculine and unwarrantable Thirft of 
Revenge. She had us'd her endeavours to- make 
her Brother Alexander declare War againfl: Philip. 
But the wile King, that he might not be necefli- 
tated to that at fo unfeafonable a time ; tho' his 
Power was fuperior, contriv'd to ftrengthen their 
Friendfhip by a new Alliance , giving Cleopatra, 
Alexander's Siller, to the Epirote for Wife. All 
the petty Princes of the neighbouring Nations, 
and the Embafladors of the Greek States, met at 
Ag& to celebrate this Marriage. Philip made 
choice of this Place, not without fome kind of 
Omen, of what afterwards happen'd ; for the Ma- 
cedonian Kings us'd to be bury'd there. 

It is likewjfe reported that the Belphick Oracle, 
when he confulted it, on the account of the Per- 
fan War, foret6ld his Death ; which being am- 
biguous, as Oracles generally are, he flatter'd 
himfelf that it iignify'd the Dellrudion of thei^r- 
banans. There were feveral other Prefages, that 
no body then took notice of, 'till the Event made 
'em plain. Among the King's Guards, there was 
one nam'd Paufanias ; whom the King, to comfort 
him for the Affront he had receiv'd from Attains, 


48 FreitifhemiusV Supplement 

had promoted to that Honour. For Attalm had 
expos'd him, being loaded with Wine, tothefcan- 
dalous infults of the Guefts. Paufamns having 
apply'd himfejf to the King for Revenge, in lieu 
thereof receiv'd this Honour. Philip was fo far 
from being able to reiblve on the Punimment of a 
Man of that known fortitude in War, and whom 
he had united to himfelf lately by a near Alliance, 
that he gave him the Command of part of his 
Troops with Parmenio and Amyntas, and fenthim 
into Afia t defigning to make ufe of him in the 
Perfian Expedition ; and therefore defird Paufa- 
n'ms that he would for his fake, and the publick 
good , put up the Affront ; endeavouring by fair 
words, and a better Sallary, to appeafe and pacific 
him. But the young Man, having a greater re- 
gard to the Injury, than the Favours he receiv'd, 
turn'd the averfion he had for the Author of the 
Affront, on him that refus'd to vindicate it. 

It was thought he had confulted with thofe who 
were Enemies to Attalms Family, and were at 
variance with Philip ; but no body doubted of it, 
when it came to be .known , that Oly?npias had 
plac'd a Crown of Gold on the Head of the Parri- 
cide, as he hung upon the Crofs. There were fe- 
veral other bafe Adtions committed, by which the 
whole Contrivance and Caufe of the Villainy came 
to light. By break of day the Theatre was crowded 
with the multitude that came thither to behold the 
publick Shews, which it was faid, would very 
much exceed in Expence and Magnificence thofe 
of the preceding days. Among other things, in 
which wealthy Kings, and fuch as are not capable 
of the greatnefs of their Fortune, are us'dtofport 
and fquander away their Riches, there were the 
Effigies of twelve Deities fo exquifitely wrought, 
that the Art of the Workmen ieem'd to vie with 
the Excellency of the Materials. There was a 

thirteen ill 


thirteenth that reprefented Philip, in nothing infe- 
rior to the reft. 

This Contempt of his mortal Condition was 
quickly reveng'd ; and he, whom Succefs had ren- 
dcx'd lb infolent as to equal himfelf to the im- 
mortal Gods, was prevented by Fate, from enjoy- 
ing an Honour that no way belong'dto him. For 
Paufanias having watch'd him as he was going 
into the Theatre alone (he having fent before 
thofe that attended him , and order'd his Guards 
to ftay behind, defigning to mew, that he was fo 
generally belov'd, as to have no occafion for 'em) 
the Murtherer afTaulted him on the fudden , and 
plung'd a Sword of the Barbarian make, which 
he conceal'd under his Cloaths, into his Body, 
while he fufpedled no fuch Attempt. 

Such was the End of the greateft King of his 
time. He had mightily improv'd the State of 
Macedon, making it, of a poor andinconliderable, 
both a great and flouriming Kingdom. He had 
conquer'd the neighbouring Barbarians, enflav'd 
all Greece, and was preparing to reduce the Per- 
(2 an Empire. The Greek Auxiliaries were gather- 
ing together, he had already fent feveral Generals 
before him into Aft a, was on the very point of 
executing his Deiigns (promifing to himfelf great 
and durable Advantages from the Victory) when he 
unexpectedly loft his Life. 

Thus we fee how the greateft things are frail 
and uncertain, a fmall Accident being able to dis- 
appoint the boldeft Hopes of Mortals. 

Olympias being inform'd of the King's Death, 
fore :'d Cleopatra, Att Aj'siNiece, to hang her fclf; 
and a few days before Philip's Death, me had bar- 
baroufly murther'd the Child me had by him, 
roafting it in a brazen Veflel. Not content with 
rids, me made all her Relations and Dependents 
feel the Rage with which (he was tranfported ; 
Vol. I D and 

50 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

and very cruelly laid hold of this Opportunity to 
gratifie her implacable female Revenge. 

While thefe things were doing, Alexander, like 
a benevolent Planet, feafonably appear'd to com- 
pofe and calm fo furious a Tempeft. The Greeks, 
whom Philip had opprefs'd, began already to con- 
ceive fome hopes of their Liberty; the Neigh- 
bouring Barbarians began to be troublefome, and 
the Affairs of Macedon it felf were in fome Con- 
fuiion. Attains, who was at the Head of no con- 
temptible Army, by a dextrous and infinuating ufe 
of his Power, had procur'd to himfelf a great E- 
fteem among the Soldiery ; and befides his being 
related to the principal Men of Macedon, had en- 
gag'd to many the Sifter of Philotas : And there 
was no relying on him, who had been both hated 
and offended by Alexander and his Mother. Amyn- 
tas, who was Son to Perdiccas, Philip's Brother, and 
whom Philip had chofen for his Son-in-Law, gi- 
ving him Cyna in Marriage, afpir'd to theSuccef- 
iion of his Father's Kingdom, by the Murthcr of 
Alexander. A great part of the People, out of an 
Averuon to the Tyranny of olympms, and others 
out of a defirc of Novelty, were varioufly inclin'd 
to the one or the other; and fome again did not 
feruple to fry, the Crown (that Amyntas firlt, 
and Philip afterwards , had by Force and Fraud 
ufurp'd from the lawful Heir) ought to be re- 
ftor'd to Alexander the Son of Ceroptis. 

The Army likewife being compos'd of different 
Nations, diiagreed both in their Councils and Dii- 
courfes, according to the Inclination and Hopes of 
each Party. On the other fide, Alexander was 
new in his Government, and Philip's fudden Death 
had not given him time to make any Provihon 
againlt thefe unexpected Motions; and although 
he appear'd very promiling and hopeful, yet they 
<iefpis'd his Youth. They could not imagine that 

a young 


a young Prince of twenty years of Age, could take 
upon him fo great a Weight ; or if he did, they 
could not believe he would be able to fupport it. 
Moreover the Nerve of great Actions, Money, was 
wanting ; and the Perfians abounding with that, 
had difpatch'd Emifiaries all over Greece to corrupt 
the People. And that nothing might be wanting 
to thefe Evils, the Tufcan Pirates infefted and 
plunder'd the maritime Places of Macedonia. Alex- 
ander having therefore affembrd his Friends, and 
the prefent State of Affairs being lay'd before 
them, fome were of opinion, That omitting all 
icncem for Greece, he fbould endeavour by foft 
and gentle ufage to keep the Barbarians in their Du- 
ty ; the iniejlme Motions being once compos 'd and 
quieted, he might zvith more eafe apply himfelf to 
the fettling thofe at a greater dijfance. 

Bur the young Prince's Magnanimity was fuch, 
as made him look upon thefe cautious Counfels as 
cowardly, and therefore difdain'd 'em. He told 
'em, he jhould be for ever expos 'd to the Contempt 
of all the World, if in the beginning of his Reign he 
fufferd himfelf to be defpisd ; that the opinion ha 
raisd of himfelf at his enpring upon the Govern- 
ment, would influence the luhole eour fa of, his Life. 
That the Death of Philip was no lefs unexpected to 
the Rebels, than to himfelf ; that therefore while 
they were yet in a Hurry and Confujion, and unre- 
folv'd zvhat Meafures to take, they might eafily be 
fupprefsd; whereas the Delay of the Macedonians 
would be an Encouragement to the Authors of the 
Sedition, and thofe that zvere fill wavering would 
have time to joyn the Male-contents ; by which 
means the Danger ivould become greater, and the Suc- 
cefs more doubtful, againfi a prepard and con- 
firm d Enemy. But now it zvas not fo much the 
bufinefs of Strength, as who flwuld be mofi expedi- 
tious, and prevent the other. That if he fliew'd 
D a himfelf 

FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

himfelf to be afraid of 'em zvhile Jingle, and as yet 
disunited, what ivould become of him, when after 
fuch figns of Timidity, they Jhould with their uni- 
ted Forces, fall all at once upon him ? Having 
therefore made a Speech to the People, to the 
fame purpofe; he added, That he would take care, 
that both his Subjecls and Enemies fhould acknow- 
ledge, that by his Father s Death, the Name and 
Perfon only of the King was changd ; as for Con- 
'duti and Courage, they Jl)ould find the zvant of 
neither. That notwithjlanding fome ill-minded Peo- 
ple had taken this opportunity to make a Diftur- 
bance, they Jlwuld in a little time be puniflid accord- 
ing to their Deferts, if the Macedonians would but 
lend him the fame Bravery and Arms, they had 
with fo much Glory to themfelves, and advantageous 
Fruits of Vittory, affijied his Father with, for fo 
many Tears : And that they might do this with 
jhe greater Cheerfulncfs and Alacrity, he d'ifcharg'd 
'em of all Duties,, except that of the War. 

Fortune approv'd of the King's Counfel, and 
he executing each particular, with no lefs Vigour 
than he had fpoke, every thing fucceeded accord- 
ing to his Willi; for he prevented Amyntas, ha- 
ving dilcover'd his treafonable Practices; and he 
took off Attalus by the means of Hecattus and 
Parmenio. Of all thole that were laid to have 
confpir'd againfl: Philip, he only pardon 'd Lyn- 
cifies, and that becaufe he had attended him at 
his flrft entrance on the Sovereignty, and was the 
|trft that faluted him as King : He put all the reft 
to Death; being of opinion that he provided for 
his own Safety, by revenging Philip after fo fevere 
a manner; and that thereby he mould ltifle the 
Report, that reprefented him as pi.- y to his Fa- 
ther's Death. 

Their frequent falling out, had giv'n fome cre- 
dit to that Rumour ; and Paufinia> havnfg made 
3 his 


his Complaint to him , he is laid to have encou- 
raged his wicked Defign, by a Verfe out of a Tra- 
gedy, in which Medea not only threatens her Ri- 
val withDeftruftion, but likewife him that gave her 
in Marriage, and him that took her. However, he 
afterwards in his Anfwer to Darius s Letter , en- 
deavour'd to call the Odium of that Action, on the 
Perfians, faying, that Philip's Murtherers had been 
corrupted with their Gold. But that he might more 
effe&ually take away all Sufpicion of his having 
been concern'd in fo foul an A<ftion, he was think - 
ing a little before his Death, to build- a magnificent 
Temple in Honour of Philip. But that as well <vj 
many other Things that were found in his Memo- 
rials, was neglected by his Succeflbrs. 

Judging therefore that his retaining the Sove- 
reignty of Greece, that Philip had acquir'd, would 
be of great Moment to facilitate the Execution of 
his Defigns, he march'd his Army with the mmoft 
Expedition, and broke into TheJJ'aly when no Bo- 
dy had the Ieaft Sufpicion of his Motions. Some 
of the Theffalians began to raife their Spirits, and 
having poitefs'd themielves of" the Streights at Tern- 
fe, they had block'd up the way that leads thither 
from Macedonia. Thefe Countries are feparated 
by the celebrated Mountains Olympus and OJJa , 
through whofe Valleys the River Pcneus runs, and 
renders them delightful even to Admiration, for 
which it is honour'd with public]* Sacrifices. It 
has on each fide its Current ftvady Groves , where, 
the little Birds fcem to join in a Confort from the 
neighbouring Trees, with the noify Fall of the 
Waters.. There is a narrow Way that extends' 
it felf five Miles in Length, being hardly broad 
enough for a Beait that is loaded, fo that ten Men 
are able to defend it againft any Number what- 
ever. But he made his way through thofe Rocks 
that were thought altogether impracticable, cuttir g 
D 3 the 

^4 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

the fides of Mount Off a into Steps after the man- 
ner of winding Stairs ; and fo terrify 'd the People 
by his wonderful Hafte and Expedition, that with- 
out the leaft Oppofition , they decreed him the 
fame Tributes and Revenues, together with the 
Sovereignty of the Nation, and on the fame Con- 
ditions Philip had enjoy'd them. He granted an 
Immunity of all Duties to Pthia, in confident ion 
of its being the Birth-place of Achilles, from whom 
his Family deriv'd it felf; andfaid, he made choice 
of that Hero for his Companion and Fellow-Sol- 
dier, in the War he was undertaking again!! the 
jP 'erf* ans. 

From ThejTrJy he march' d to ThermopyU, where 
the Publick Diet of Greece was held. They call it 
the Pylicium. There, in the Publick Aflembly of 
States, he was created Captain-General of rhe 
Greeks in the room of his Father, by the Appoint- 
ment of the Amphiclyones ; he confirm'd the Li- 
berty of the Ambrachu, which they had recover'd 
a few Days before, by driving out the Macedonian 
Garrifon ; alTuring them that he mould of his own 
Motion have reftor'd it to 'em, if they had not 
prevented his Intention. From thence he advane'd 
to Thebes with his Army, and having overcome 
the Obftinacy and Stubbornnefs of the Boeotians and 
Athenians, who very" much oppos'd his Defigns, 
he order'd all the Greek Deputies to meet him at 
Corinth. There the Decree of the Amphiclyones 
was confirm'd, and he was by the common Confent 
of all, commiffion'd to be Captain-General of Greece, 
in the Place of Philip his Father; and the Aids and 
Supplies were appointed for the Perfian W,ar. It 
happen'd, that Diogenes liv'd in the fame City, who 
having embrae'd a voluntary Poverty, according to 
the Inftitution of the Cynicks, preferr'd the Liber- 
ty and Freedom of hi?. Mind to Riches and Cares. 
He was Sunning himfdf in the Cranexm, which 


is in the Suburbs of Corinth , where there is a 
Grove of Cyprefs Trees. Alexander beingr do 
iirous to fee him, went thither, and having grant- 
ed him the Liberty to afk him what Favour he 
would, he bid the King go a little ajide , and not 
intercept the Sun from htm. The Macedonian much 
mrprized at this unexpected Reply, could not but 
admire the Man, whom in that height of Profpe- 
nty, he had it not in his Power to oblige, and faid, 
He fljould cbufe to be Diogenes, if he were not A- 
lexander. For that Greatnefs of Soul which made 
him look down < v as it were from an Eminence) on 
all thofe Things, for whofe fake the reft of Man- 
kind gladly calt themfelves away , did not altoge- 
ther deceive the Mind of the penetrating Youth ; 
yet being blinded with infatiable D elites, he could 
not plainly difcover, that it was much better to 
want thofe Riches which were fuperfluous, than 
to have thofe that were neceflary. 

From Peloponefus he went to Delphi to confult 
Apollo , concerning the Event of the War he had 
in hand. But the Virgin Prieftefs who pronoune'd 
theDeftinies, or fatal Decrees, having declar'd it to 
be unlawful to- confult the Deity for fome Days, 
he went to her himfelf, and taking hold of her , 
dragg'd her to the Temple.} As (he was going along, 
reflecting within her felf, that the Cuftom of the 
Country was overcome by the King's Obftinacy : 
She cry'd out, Thou art invincible, my Son : At 
which Words he ilop'd her, faying, He accepted the 
Omen, and that there was no Occasion for any far- 
ther Oracle. Thefe Things being quickly difpatch'd, 
he return'd to his Kingdom , and with, the utmoft 
Amduity, apply'd himfelf to the puniihing thofe 
who had done any thing in Contempt of the Ma- 
cedonian Majefty. Having by this time, got all 
Things in readinefs, he left Amyhipolis m the Be- 
ginning of the Spring, and march'd .againft the free 
t>4 People 

5 6 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

People of Thrace, and after ten Encampments, ar- 
riv'd at Mount Hsmna. A great Body of Ihraci- 
ans had poilefs'd themfelves of the Top of the 
Mountain, with a Deii^n to hinder the King's Paf- 
Jage : They had plac'd their Chariots round their 
Camp in rhe nature of an Entrenchment, intend- 
ing to drive 'em againft the Enemy, if they were 
attack'd. Dut Alexander having difcover'd the 
Cunning of the Barbarians, gave Orders to his 
Soldiers, That upon the Chariots coming furioufiy 
againft 'em, they ftiould open to the Right and 
Left, and fo let 'em pals by without doing any 
Mifchief; or if they had not time for that, they 
ihould fling themfelves upon the Ground, covering 
tjieaafelves with their Bucklers, in the Form of a 
lortolfe. Thus :he Enemy's Stratagem became in- 
effe&ial, for a great part of the Chariots pafs'd 
through the Lanes contnv'd for 'em ; and thofe 
that feii among the Men, driving over the Buck- 
lers, by the Violence of their Courfe, bounded 
over them , without having Weight enough to 
crufn thofe that were under 'em ; fo that this Storm 
pad over without doing any Mifchief. The Ma- 
cedonians being deliver d from this Terror, with 
joyful Acclamations gave the Onfet. The Archers 
advancing from the Right Wing, gall'd the mod 
forward of the Barbarians , with their frequent 
Flights of Arrows. . So th?.t^tm -Phalanx ox Mace- 
donian Foot, having gain'd the Top of the Moun- 
tain without Danger, had no fooner got firm Foot- 
ing but the Victory ceas'd to be doubtful, they 
driving and difperiing the Enemy, who was either 
naked or but ilightly arm'd. But on the other 
iide, that very thing that had expos'd the Barba- 
rians during the Engagement, help'd them very 
much in their Flight ; for not being loaded with 
Arms, they eafily made their Efcape, being well 
acquainted with the Country. Thus about fifteen 



hundred of 'era being kill'd, the reft fav'd them" 
felves. A great Number of Women and Chil- 
dren were taken ; and conlidering the Condition 
of the Country, the Conqueror had a confiderable 

Having after this manner open'd himfelf a Paf- 
fage through Mount H&mus, he penetrated into 
the very heart of the Country o( Thrace. Among 
thofe People there is a Wood, confecrated to- 
Bacchus ,, which they have a long time held in 
great Veneration : Here, as Alexander was facri^ 
firing after the Cuftom of the Barbarians, there 
arofe fuch a Flame from the Wine he pour'd on 
the Altaiyas fpread above the Roof of the Temple, 
and feem'd afpiring to the very Heavens. From- 
hence, all that were prefent inferr'd , that the 
King's Glory was to have no other Bounds. Upon 
the neck of this, another accident happen'd, that 
confirm'd the Truth of this Conjecture. In the 
Country of the Odryfa, who are a People of 
Thrace, there is a Mountain call'd Libethrus, and 
a City of the fame Name, famous for being the 
Place where Orpheus was born : The King was in- 
form'd, by thofe that pretended to have been Eye- 
witneffes to the thing, that his facred Statue that was 
made of Cyprefs-wood, had fweat moil plentifully, 
Every body being felicitous for the Event, Ariftan- 
der remov'd their Fear, aiTuring them, That it re- 
ferr'd to Alexander s Exploits, which mould make 
the Poets and the Mufes Sons toil and fweat, in 
their Compofitions which fung of thofe Exploits. 

The Triballi are a brave People that inhabit the 
Country that lies beyond Mount H&mus. Alex- 
ander marching againft them , Syrmus their King 
(being inform'd before-hand of the Macedonian 
Expedition ) had fled to Pence , an liland form'd 
by the lfter ; there he defended himfelf, with the 
reit of what was weak, either by reafon of Sex. 

D S or 

5*8 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

or Age, the River ferving him as a Fortification : 
Alexander having but few Ships, and the Bank of 
the River being high and deep, and thereby of 
difficult Afcent, it was ealily defended by a vigi- 
lant and brave Enemy. The Macedonians were 
therefore fore'd to retire without doing any thing, 
and be contented with the Advantages they had 
gain'd fome days before ; for, in their Way hither, 
they had attackt another Army of the Triballi, 
and with the lofs of hardly Fifty Men, had kill'd 
Three thoufand of the Enemy. 

Having in vain attempted to force King Syrmm, 
he turn'd the Fury of his Arms againft the Get a, 
who had, on the other fide of the River, drawn 
up in Order of Battle Four thoufand Horfe, and Ten 
thoufand Foot. He enter d upon this dangerous 
Undertaking , not fo much on the account of its 
Ufefulnefs, with reference to the War, as out of 
a defire of Fame ; that he might be able to boah\ 
that ( notwithstanding the Oppolition of the fierceft 
Nations) he had fore'd his Paflage over the largefl 
River in Europe : Having therefore (nipt off as 
many of the Cavalry as he could conveniently, 
he convey'd part of his Infantry over in little 
Boats, (of which there was a great Number) 
and the reft upon Skins, contriv'd for that pur- 
pofe. The Get a , being ftruck with Terror , at 
the fudden and unexpected Attack of the Macedo- 
nians , ( for the Night , and the Corn that grew 
very thick on the Bank of the River, had favour'd 
their PafTage) hardly bore the firlt Charge of the 
Cavalry. But Nicanor was no fooner come up 
with the Phalanx, or Macedonian Foot, than 
they, with the greateft Precipitancy and Con- 
fuiion, took to their Heels, making the belt of 
their Way to a Town four Miles diftant from 
the River ; and upon Alexanders purfuing them 
clofely, they carry'd off their Wives and their 


to Qjjintus Curtius. 59, 

Children, and whatever elfe they could load their 
Horfes with, and abandon'd the reft to the Con- 

Alexander committed this Booty to the Care 
of Mekager and Philip ; and having demoliuYd 
the Town, and erected Altars to Jupiter and Her-- 
cules, and to the Ifter, on the Bank thereof, for 
his profperous PafTage over that River, he retir'd 
the fame Day with his Army,, having obtained a 
Victory without Bloodfhed. Hereupon, Ambaf- 
fadors came to him from the neighbouring People, 
as alfo from King Syrmus , with Prefents of fuch 
Things as were in efteem among them. The 
Germans too, that inhabit all that Tract of Ground , 
that lies between the Head of the Ijler and the 
Adriatick-GxsXU fent their Ambafladors to him ; 
for the Ifter has its rife in Germany , and in the 
Language of the Country, is call'd the Danube, He 
admiring at the Largenefs of their Bodies ,. and 
Sprightlinefs of their Mind, ask'd them, What of 
all things they mofl dreaded and fear d ? flunking 
with himfelf that they were apprehenfive of his 
Power, and that he fnould extort fuch a Confef- 
fion from 'em : But they , inftead thereof, re- 
ply'd, That they vjcre not much afraid of any 
thing, unlefs it -were, left the Heavens fhould-.fall 
upon 'em; tho at the fame time, they had a value, 
for the Friend/hip of brave Men. Being furpriz'd- 
at fo unexpected an Anfwer , he remain'd iilent 
forfome time, and then broke out in this Expre-f- 
lion, That ^ Germans zuere a haughty and arro- 
gant People. However, as they delir'd, he con- 
tracted an Alliance with them,, and granted Peace 
to Syrmm and the reft ; and thinking he had 
gain'd Honour enough by that Expedition,, he. 
turn'd his Mind to the Perfian War , from which 
he propos'd to himfelf greater Advantages ,, with 
lefs Hazard and Danger. It is faid, his Uncle, after- • 
IX & wards 

60 FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

wards upbraided him with that Notion, when he 
found the Difficulties he had to ftruggle with in the 
ltalianW^x ; for, complaining of the Inequality oi? 
their Lot, he faid, He had to do nit.b Men, where 
ai the Macedonian made War againjl Women. 

Alexander therefore taking along with him 
the little Princes of Thrace, and ?.W. thole who 
by realbn of their Wealth or Courage were likely 
to caufe any Innovation in his abfence , under 
the pretence of doing them Honour, by chuling 
them for his Companions in the FcrJianWzv; 
he by this means took away the Heads* of the 
Faction, who would not dare to attempt any thing 
without their Leaders. 

As he was returning to Macedonia by the Agri- 
ana and P&onians , News was brought him of the 
Commotions in Illyrium. A certain Collier,- whole 
Name was Lardylis, had advane'd himfelf to the 
Dignity of King over feveral Peopfe in thofe Parrs, 
and was become a troableibme Enemy to Mace* 
donia it' felf , till Philip overcame him in a great 
Battle ; however, he having mace a (hift ta re- 
new the War, Philip gave him a total Overthrow,, 
and made him become his VaiTal. This Bardylis 
was now dead, having liv'd to be fourfcore and 
ten Years of Age : His Son Clitus thinking it a 
proper time to recover his Liberty, while Alexan- 
ders Arms were employ'd againft the powerful 
Nations beyond the ifier ,. he prevail'd with the 
People to revolt,, making an Alliance with Claucias. 
King of thofe People of Iliyrium, they call Tau- 
Lmtij : The Autariata were like wife to fall upon 
the Macedonians as they were- on their March. But 
Langartts King of the Agriani, adher'd firmly to 
Alexanders Intercft, and beg'd he ivculd commit 
rhe Care of that People to him; afj'uring him he 
ivould find them fa much Employment at heme , 
that they fliculd no longer think of diflnrbing the Ma- 


cedonians , but hatv to defend their own. The 
King having- mightily commended the young 
Prince, and honour'd him with magnificent and 
noble Presents, diimifs'd him , promifing him his 
|ifter Gyna in Marriage, whom his Father had had 
by an* llhrian Woman, and had marry'd to Atnyn- 
tas. The Agrianian was as good as his Word , 
but falling lick, he was prevented by Death from 
receiving the Reward that was promis'd him for 
his Services. The Autarmta being thus reduc"d, 
Alexander arriv'd at Pelium (a Town in DejJ'atetia i 
fituate on the River Eordaicum) without any En- 
gagement. 'Tis true, they made a ihew as if they 
dem'd to come to Adlion , marching out of their 
Fortrelfes with great Fury, but yet they retir'd be- 
fore the Fight could begin, notwithstanding they 
had polTefs'd themfelves of all the advantageous 
Pofts which were full of Difficulty, by reafon of 
the Woods and narrow Ways. Here the Macedo- 
nians beheld a difmal Spectacle, three Boys, three 
Girls , and three black Rams lying together in a 
eonfus'd Slaughter ; the Barbarians having out of 
a cruel Superftition facriric'd 'em to their Gods, to 
infpire them with Courage in the Engagement: 
But the incens'd Deity reveng'd the Impiety on 
their guilty Souls-, by giving them Cowardice, iiv 
Head of Courage. 

The King having driven them within their own 
-Fortifications, had refolv'd to block them up in 
them , by an outward Wall he intended to raife , 
when the next Day Glaucias arriv'd with a great 
Body of the Taxlantii ; fo that laying alide all Hopes 
of taking the Town, he began to think of making 
a fafe Retreat. In the mean time, PhiUta* being 
fent out to forage witii the Cattle that bore the Bag- 
gage, under Convoy of Horfe, Alexander was in- 
formed his Men were in Danger ; for Glaucias had 
polTefs'd himfelf of all the Hiils and Eminences 


6z FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

round the Piam, watching all Opportunities to 
come to an Engagement. Alexander therefore 
leaving part of the Army in the Camp, to prevent 
any Sallies from the Town, march' d in all Diligence 
with the reft of the Troops to their Aififtance, by 
winch Means having terrify'd the Jllyrians , he 
brought the Foragers fafe back to the. Camp.. 
However, his March was like to be attended with 
many Dangers and Difficulties ; for on one hand,, 
the River, and on the other, the fleep and craggy 
Hills fo ftraiten'd the Way , that in feveral Places 
four Men arm'd could hardly march a Breaft ; and-. 
Clitus and Glaucias had polled on the Tops of the 
Hills, feveral Companies of Archers and Slingers,. 
and a considerable Detachment of heavy arm'd Sol- 
diers. This made Alexander place two hundred 
Horfe before the Right, and as many before the Left 
of the Phalanx, commanding them to hold up their 
Spears, and on the Signal given, to prefent 'em to the 
Enemy, as if they were going to charge 'em, turning 
themfelves fometimes to the Right, and fometimes to 
the Left. By this Stratagem he kept the Enemy 
in fufpence; and having divided his Phalanx, that 
had haftily advane'd, and afterward reunited it a- 
gain into one Corps,, he at laft drew it up in the 
Form of a Wedge, and fell furiouily on the illy- 
rian Forces , who being amaz'd at the Readinefs 
and Skill of the Macedonians, fled haftily towards 
the Town. There remain'd but few on the Top 
of the Mountain that the Macedonian Troops had 
already pafs'd; fo that having diftodg'd 'em, he 
with two thoufand Men took Pofleflion of the 
Poll of the Agrianian Archers , intending to cover 
and facilitate the Paflage of the lhalanx over the 
River: The Enemy having obferv'd this, march'd: 
with their whole Army towards the Mountains ,,. 
that thofe that were compleatly arm'd, having 
gain'd the other fide, of the River, they might at- 


tack the Rear, where the King himfelf was in Per- 
fon. But the King receiv'd them with an undaunt- 
ed Courage, and the Phalanx huzzaing at the fame 
time, as if they defign'd to repafs the River to fuc- 
cour their Fellow-Soldiers, ftrucka Terror into the 
Enemy. The King judging how things would 
happen, had order'd his Troops to draw up in or- 
der of Battle, as foon as they were landed on the 
other fide, and to extend their Left (which was 
neareft the River and the Enemy) as far as they 
could, that they might make the greater Appear- 
ance. By which Stratagem the Taulantjj, imagi- 
ning the whole Army was ready to fall upon them, 
retir'd a little. Alexander therefore taking this 
Opportunity, march'd in all hafte to the River, 
where being arriv'd, he pafs'd it over with the firft 
Body; and as the Enemy harrafs'd very much 
thofe that brought up the Rear, he fo difpos'd his 
Machines on the Bank, and play'd fo furioufly on 
the Enemy from them, that he forc'd 'em to give 
back. They that were already enter'd the River, 
plying them at the fame time with their Darts and 
Arrows. By this means he march'd off quietly, 
without the Lofs of one Man. Three Days after, 
he was inform'd, that the Enemy imagining he 
was fled through Fear, and looking on themfelves 
to be out of all Danger, ftraggled up and down 
without Order , having neither Breaft-work nor 
Trench before their Camp, nor fo much as Guards 
or Centinels : Taking therefore with him the Ar- 
chers and Agrianians, and that Body of Macedoni- 
ans that Perdiccas and Cmos commanded , he re- 
pafs'd the River in the Night, and march'd towards 
them with the utmolt Diligence, commanding the 
reft of the Army to follow him. But being ap- 
prehenfive he mould let flip the Opportunity, if he 
waited till that came up, he fent before him the 
light arm'd Soldiers, then falling himfelf with the 


^4 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

rell upon the Enemy, that was half afleep, and 
without Arms, he made a great Slaughter of 'em,, 
took a good number Prifoners, and put the reft to 
flight, purluing them as far as the Mountains 
of the Taulantij. Clittis, in fo great a Con- 
firmation, firft went to Pelium ; but afterwards, 
either diftrufting the Fortifications of the Place, or 
the Courage of his Men, letting fire to the Town, 
he went and liv'd in Exile among the Taulanty. 

About this time a Rumour was fpread ail over 
Greece that Alexander was kill'd by the Triballi r 
which fiU'd the Enemies of the Macedonian Inte- 
reft, with great hopes of fome Revolution. And 
indeed it may be reckon'd none of the leaft Mif- 
fortunes in human Affairs ; that how inconfider- 
able foever the Authority is, we art apt to believe 
thofe things we wiflv for, with as much Confidence 
and AfTurance, as if an impertinent and ill-ground- 
ed Opinion was able to bear down even Truth it 

Nay, there was one went fo far, as to affirm,, 
that he faw the King furrounded ; and that they 
might the lefs doubt of the Truth hereof, he af- 
fur'd them, he had himfelf receiv'd a Wound in 
that Action. This being eafily credited , and 
fpread up and down, was the occaiion of the 
greater! Calamities to the Tbebans. For fome of 
them that Philip had baniftvd, being animated and 
encourag'dby it, did, under the Conduct of Ph&nix 
and Prothytes, bafely murther the Officers of the 
Macedonians, that kept Garrifon in the Cadmea, 
as they were walk'd out of that Citadel, not ha- 
ving the lealt fufpicion of any Treachery ; and 
the Citizens flocking together on the fpecious and 
plaulible account of delivering their Country from 
Opprellion, belieg'd the Garrifon,. furrounding it 
with a double Rampart and Ditch,, to prevent 
their receiving either Provifions or Succour. 


This done, they Tent EmbafTadors in. a Suppliant 
manner to all the Greek Towns, to entreat them 
that they would not rcfufe their Aflifiance to thofe 
who were fo gencroully endeavouring to recover 
the Liberty they had been lb unworthily depriv'd 
of. DemoJlhe;;es too, out of an ancient Pique to 
the Macedonians, mov'd the Athenians to .fend 
fpeedy Succours to 'em : They were not how- 
ever fent, becaufethey were fo furpriz'd at the un- 
expected Arrival of Alexander, that they thought 
it advifable to fee firft which way Fortune was 
inclin'd Ttemojlhencs neverthelefs fent the The- 
bans what private AlLltance he could, fupplying 
them with a great quantity of Arms at his own 
Expenee ; by the help whereof, they who had by 
Philip been depriv'd of their own, ftraiten'd the 
Garrifon of Cadmea very much. 

There was alfo a llrong Body of Peloponef.ans 
got together at the Iflhmus, to whom Antipater 
(who was Governor of Macedonia in the King's 
Abfence) having difpatch'd Meffengers, requiring 
them not to joyn with Alexanders profefs'd Ene- 
mies in violation of the General Decree of all 
Greece ; they, notwithstanding, gave Audience to 
the Theban EmbafTadors. The generality of the 
Soldiers feem'd to be mov'd with Companion ; 
but Aftylus their Leader, who was an Arcqdian by 
Extraction, fpun out the time in Delays; not fo 
much out of any apprehenfion he had, from the 
Difficulty of the Undertaking, as out of an ava- 
iiciousTemper ; hoping, that their prefling Necef- 
fities requiring a fpeedy Succour, he mould obtain 
from them a larger Sallary. He demanded ten 
Talents,., but the Thebans not being able to make 
them up, thofe of the Macedonian Party, offer'd 
him that Sum to be quiet. Thus the Thebans. 
were fruftrated of their hopes of any Afliftance 
from the Arcadians. However, Demojlhenes with 

a fum 

66 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

a fum of Money prevented fome other Troops 
of Peloponefus from taking up Arms againft the 
Thebans ; for he is faid to have receiv'd three 
hundred Talents from the Perfians, in order to 
embarafs Alexanders Affairs as much as he could. 
Alexander receiving Advice hereof, he march'd 
his Army with all poflible Expedition along Bord&a 
and Elymiotis, and the Rocks Stymph&a and Parg&a, 
and the feventh day after he fet out from Pelium, 
he arriv'd at Pellene a Town in Theffaly. In fix 
days more he reach'd Boeotia, marching to Orche- 
fius, which is about fix Miles diftant from Thebes. 
In the mean time the Thebans a died with greater 
Courage than Prudence, as being entirely ignorant 
of the Enemies Tranfa&ions. They did not be- 
lieve the Macedonian Army had yet pafs'd the 
PyU ; and as for the King's coming in -Perfon,. 
they were fo far from giving Credit to it,, that 
they did not fcruple to aflert it was another Alex- 
ander, the Son of JEropus, that now headed the 

The King having pitch'd his Camp near the 
Temple of Iolaus, before the Gate Pratida, was. 
refolv'd to give 'em leifure to repent : But they 
inftead thereof made a Sally,, and fell upon the 
Out-Guards of the Macedonians, killing fome, and 
driving the reft from their Poft, and were got 
pretty near the Camp, when the King order'd the 
light arm'd Troops to drive them back. The next day 
the King advane'd his Army to the Gates that lead 
towards Attica, that he might be ready at hand to fuc- 
courthofe that were fhut up in the Citadel, ftill ex.- 
pe&ing their laft Refolution ; and giving them to un- 
deritand he was yet difpos'd to pardon- them, if 
they did but repent of their Error. But they that 
were inclin'd to Peace, were over-rul'd by the 
Power of the Exiles, and thelntereft of thofe who 
had recall'd 'cm ; for they being fenfible there was 



no hopes of Safety for them, if the Macedonians 
became Matters of the Town, chofe rather to be 
bury'd in the Ruins of their Country, than to 
purchafe its Safety with their own Deftruftion. 

They had alio prevail'd with fome of the 
Princes of Bosotia to come into their Meafures*: 
But to what degree of Folly and Madnefs they 
were arriv'd, will from hence appear ; that when 
Alexander requir'd they would deliver up to him, 
the Authors of the Rebellion, alluring them, that 
two Heads mould expiate the Crime of the whole 
City ; they were fo bold as to demand on their 
part, that Alexander would furrender to them Phi- 
lotas and Antipater, two of the greater! Favourites 
the King had; and at the fame time caus'd a He- 
rald to make Proclamation, That if any were wil- 
ling to joyn with the great King (meaning the King 
of Perfia) and the Thebans againfi the Tyrant, 
for the Recovery of their Liberty, they might repair 
to Thebes, as to a place of Safety. 

All this notwithstanding, Alexander did not give 
orders for the ftorming of the Town ; but as 
Ptolomem relates (though there are fome that give 
another Account ) Perdkw ( who commanded 
that pajt of the Army that fae'd the Works the 
Enemy had caft up, in order to block up the Cad- 
mean Fort) fell furioufly upon them without ex- 
pecting the Signal ; fo that having fore'd the Works, 
he came to a clofe Engagement with them. Amyn- 
tas (who lay. next to him) charg'd them at the 
fame time with the Troops under his Command, 
being encourag'd by his Example ; all which Alex- 
ander obferving, and fearing the ill Succefs of his. 
Men, approach'd with the main Body of the Ar- 
my ; and Laving commanded the light arm'd- 
Troops to mccour their Companions, he re- 
main'd with the reft before the Trenches. 


68 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

The Fight was obftinate, and Perdlccas (being 
defperately wounded, as he was labouring to 
force the inward Retrenchment) was carry'd off 
from the place of Action ; a great many of the 
Cretan Archers, with their Leader Eurybotas, 
were deftroy'd. The Thebans prefs'd hard upon 
the Macedonians (who in their Fright gave way) 
and pudu'd 'em as they retir'd to Alexander. 
Whereupon the King having drawn up the Pha- 
lanx in order of Battle, fell upon the Enemy, 
whofe Troops were in Confufion and Diforder, 
and routed 'em. 

It was here that Fortune fnifting the Scene, the 
Jhebans were put into fuch a Confternation, that 
they had not prefence of Mind enough to (hut 
the Gates after them, through which they enter' d 
the Town. TheGarrifon of the Cadmea Tallying 
out at the fame time, into the Streets that lay 
next the Citadel, produc'd fuch a happy ErTecl, 
that the nobleft City in all Greece was taken the 
very fame day it was attack'd. There was no in- 
stance of Cruelty omitted in the Dellrudion of 
this unhappy'Place; Men and Women were pro- 
mifcuoufly llaughter'd, nor did Weaknefs and 
Childhood find Companion. 

This inhuman Barbarity was chiefly owing to 
the Phocenfes, Plat&enfes, the Orchomeni and the 
Theftienfes, to whom the Profperity and Weakh 
or' Thebes ; had been by reafon of its Vicinity, very 
pernicious and prejudicial. As for the Macedo- 
nians, they kept themfelves within the bounds of 
the Laws of War. 

Orders were now giv'n, to abftain from any 
farther Slaughter, there having perifh'd already 
Six thoufand Men, the reft were made Prifoners,. 
of whom Thirty thoufand Free Perfons were fold. 
Clitarchm fays, that the whole Booty amounted 
to Four hundred and forty Talents : Others will 



have it, that the very Captives were fold for that 
Sum. The Theffali were indebted to the Thebans 
in a Hundred Talents ; which Sum Alexander 
forgave 'em 1 , as being his Allies. Some few, who 
were known to have been againft the War, efcap'd 
Captivity, as alfo the Priefts, and thofe with whom 
the King and his Father had us'd to refide when 
■in that Town ; among the reft, Timoclea receiv'd 
as a Reward of her Noble and Manly Behaviour, 
not only her Liberty, butlikewife the Honour of 
having her Fame celebrated to Pofterity. 

A certain Thracian, who was a Captain of 
Horfe in Alexanders, Service, having offer d Vio- 
lence to this Woman, in a threatning manner 
ask'd her, where fhe had hid her molt valuable 
Effects ? She being more afrli&ed at the lofs of 
her Honour, than coricern'd for her Riches, turn'd 
the Covetoufneis of the Barbarian into an Oppor- 
tunity of Revenge; and pointing to a Well, (he 
pretended -(he had fecured therein her Jewels, and 
■other Things of Value; he prefently went thither, 
and as he was with a greedy Curiofity looking 
down the Well , (he tripp'd up his Heels , and 
pufh'd him into it, and flinging Stones upon him, 
kill'd him ; he labouring in vain to get out of it, 
it being very deep and narrow. His Men feiz'd 
her, and brought her before Alexander, that (lie 
might be duly puniuYd , for having kill'd their 
Officer. The King having ask'd her who (lie was, 
and what fhe was brought before him for ? (he, 
with an undaunted Countenance, reply'd, That fie 
was the Sifter of that Theagnis who commanded 
the Thebans , and loft his Life for the Liberty of 
Greece. / have revengd the Affront that Wo* 
offer d me , by killing the RavifJier of my Honour. 
If you command me to ftiffer Death , by way of 
Atone?nent, know, that to a -vertuous Woman, there 
is nothing fo defytcable as Life 3 after her Chaftity 


jo Freinihemias\r Supplement 

has been violated ; let me then perifl as foon as you 
pleafe, I flail fl 'ill die late enough, fwce I am fo 
unhappy as to have outlivd my Reputation and 
Country. Alexander having with Attention hearcj 
her, declar'd the Thracian defervedly kill'd ; and 
that he neither approv'd nor allow'd of Rapes to 
be committed on Gentlewomen, and thofe that 
were Free-born : Having therefore fpoke much in 
her Commendation , he gave her her Liberty, 
• and on her Account, to all her Kindred, with 
the Privilege of departing to what Place me 
pleas'd : He alfo pardon'd Pindar s Pofterity, out 
of Refpecl: to that Poet , who had made mention 
in his Poems , of Alexander the prefent King's 
Great-Grand-father, and gave Orders that his Home 
mould not be burnt. For he not only lov'd the 
Virtue of his own Days, but alfo had a Venera- 
tion for the Memory of Great Men, heaping Fa- 
vours on their Pofterity. For afterwards having, 
in the laft Action againft Darius, overcome that 
Prince, he fent part of the Booty to the Crcto- 
niates , in consideration , that in Xerxes § War, 
when all the reft of the Greek Colonies defpair'd 
of Greece, they had fent one Galley to Salamis, 
under the Command of P hay litis. Fie likewife 
beftow'd feveral Honours and Gifts on the Pla- 
t&ans, becaufe their Anceftors had given their Ter- 
ritory to thofe Greeks that fought againft Mar- 

The Deftru&ion of Thebes was preceded by 
feveral ftrange and wonderful Appearances. About 
three Months before Alexanders coming before 
Thebes, wasobferv'd in the Temple of Ceres, call'd 
Thefmophoros, a Black Cobweb, which had appear'd 
White about the time of the LeuRrian Fight, by 
which Thebes attain'd to its higheft point of Glory 
and Frofperity : And a little before the arrival of 
the Macedonian^ the Statues in the Forum were 
z fecn 


feen to fweat, and difmal Cryes were heard from 
the Lake, near Oncheflm, which, together with the 
Fountain Dirces nTuing great Streams of Blood, 
inftead of Water, might have terrify'd thefe obfti- 
nate People, if their Pride had not predeftin'd 
them to their Ruine. For looking back on the 
Glory of their Anceftors , whofe Manners they 
had altogether forfaken, they promis'd themfelves 
the fame good Fortune and Succefs , without ha- 
ving the fame Vertue and Merit, and fo haften'd 
on their Deftiny ; for they were fo fooliftily rafh, 
as with little more than an Army of Ten thou- 
fand, to make Head againft Thirty thoufand 
Foot , and Three thoufand Horfe , all Veteran 

Alexander having made himfelf Matter of the 
Place, call'd a Council of his Allies and Friends, 
and referfd it to them, to coniider what Ufe 
ihould be made of it. There were amongft 'em 
Phoceans, and a great many Boeotians, whofe an- 
cient Difcords with the Tbebans had been very 
detrimental to 'em. Thefe could not think them- 
felves either fufficiently reveng'd, or their Safety 
duly provided for, if Thebes mould be left Hand- 
ing ; wherefore their Authority prevail'd, that the 
Walls and Edifices mould be demoliih'd , and the 
Territory belonging to it mould be divided among 
the Conquerors, at the Pleafure of the King. 
Thus one Day took from the very middle of 
Greece this noble City , that could boaft of not 
only having produc'd Great Men, but even Gods, 
after it had for almoft Eight hundred Years from 
the Oracle of the Crows , been inhabited by the 
fame People. 

The Boeotians having been formerly driven out 
of their Country by the Thracians and Pelagians, 
they were told by the Oracle, That after four Ages, 
they Should recover their paternal Habitations, that 


72, FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

in the mean time they fltould fettle themfelves where 
they Jhould behold white Crows. Being therefore 
come to Arne , a Town in Thejj'aly, and feeing 
ibme Crows that the Children had whiten'd over 
with Parget, they fettl'd there. The Town was 
demolihYd at the Sound of the Flute, in the fame 
manner as Lyfander had threefcore Years before 
demolihYd Athens. However, Alexander gave Or- 
ders to abftain from the Temples and other facred 
Buildings , being folicitous, leaft through want of 
Care, they might alio be damnify'd ; being i-nclin'd 
to it (befides his own natural Veneration for the 
Gods) by the fad Example that had been made of 
fome Soldiers, who attempted to pillage the Temple 
of t\\tCabiri that flood before the Town ; who, while 
they were employ'd in this propria ne and impious 
Work, were confum'd by a fudden Storm of Thun- 
der and Lightning. The Images and the Statues 
of the Gods, as well as thole of Men renown'd 
for their Virtue , were alfo left untouch'd in the 
publick Places where they flood ; and it is record- 
ed, that in the Confternation and Fright People 
were in, upon the taking and plundering the City, 
fome had hid their Gold in the Folds and Plaits 
of the Garments of thofe Statues, and found it fate, 
when Caffander, Antipaters, Son, twenty Years af- 
ter, rebuilt the Town ; which he is thought to have 
done, not fo much out of Companion to the Ex- 
iles, as out of Hatred to Alexander , thinking to 
leflen his Glory by that Action. But notwith- 
standing he rertor'd the former Com pals of its 
Walls, yet he could not reftore its ancient Man- 
ners and Prolperity ; fo that it never could "recover 
its primitive Strength, but being frequently afflict- 
ed with Calamities, it has with Difficulty preser- 
ved to our Days, the Appearance of a final! in- 
considerable Town. It is laid, that Alexander af- 
terwards reDented what he had done, when he re- 

to Quintus "CurtiuS. 73 

Hefted, that by the Definition of Thebes, he had 
put out one of the Eyes of Greece : It is alfo fa id, 
ie look'd upon the Death of Cluus , and the Ob 1 - 
ftinacy of the Macedonians, who cowardly refus'd 
to penetrate any farther into the Indies, as a vin- 
dictive Judgment of Bacchus upon him, for having 
ruin'd and deftroy'd the Place of his Birth ; nay, 
fome did not fcruple to fay, that the King's Death 
that proceeded from an Excefs of Wine, was alfo 
a PimiiTiment inflided on him by the Refentments 
of that Deity. 

Thefe things being finifli'd, he fent to Athens, 
To let the People know, that he requir'd they would 
■deliver up to him thofe Orators , that zvere perpe- 
tually Jiirring them up againjl the Macedonians; 
■and that if they were unwilling to part with 'em* 
they mufl expecl the fame Reward of their Contu- 
macy • as they might vkiv in a late infiance of the 
Miferies of the Thebans. Upon this, Phocion, (who 
was in great Efteem with the People, on the ac- 
count of the integfity of his Life) representing that 
it was not advifable to irritate and provoke the Mind 
of the young victorious Kmg; and that he exhorted 
thofe whom the Danger particularly threaten'd, 
that in imitation of the Daughters of Leus and Hy- 
acinthus, they would not fcruple to lay down their 
Lives for the Good of their Country. Demaflhenes 
who was by name demanded, now rofe up, and 
i'nform'd them, That the Athenians tvere miflaken, 
if they imagind, that by the furrender of a fevj y 
they fljould procure fafety to themfelves ; that on ths 
contrary, ^Macedonians cunningly requird thofe 
Perfons from 'em, whofe Vigilance and Vertue they 
■7110 f fufpected and hated, and that having remov d 
the Patrons and Protestors of the publick Liberty , 
they would afterward fall upon the defencelefs and 
deftitute City, as Wolves' do upon the Sheep, when 
their Guardian Dogs are remov d. 

Vol, I. E Demoflhems 

74 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

Demojlhenes had fliewn himfelf a bitter Enemy 
of the Macedonians, and therefore very reafonably 
concluded, there was not the leaft room left him 
to hope for Mercy. For Philip being kill'd , he 
mov'd the Athenians to build a Chappel in Ho- 
nour of Paufanias; that publick Thankfgivings 
might be made in the Temples of the Gods, and 
that all the other ufual marks of great Joy might 
be cxprefs'd • calling Alexander fometimes a Child, 
and fometimes the Margite ; a word of contempt, 
that meant his prodigious Folly and Madnefs. And 
being corrupted by the PerfianGold, he bad been 
the Incendiary and Promoter of almoft all the 
Wars the Greeks had made with Alexander, and 
Philip his Father. 

He had beiide excited Attalm (who was Alex- 
anders bittereft Enemy) to declare open War a- 
gainft the King, promifing him the Afliftance of 
the Athenians. And the Athenians had not of- 
fended a little, having caft down Philip's Statues, 
and converting the Materials to the moil Scanda- 
lous Ufes; committing befides all the other Indig- 
nities the ignorant Rabble (who have no concern 
for the future) are apt to be guilty of, when in- 
ftigated by the Direction and Management of a 
few. But of all their Tranfgreflions, none offend- 
ed the King fo much, as the Humanity and Com- 
pafiion they exprefs'd for the Thebans ; whom they 
had contrary to his Edicl: receiv'd, when they 
made their efcape from the Ruins of their Coun- 
try ; (hewing fo great a Concern for their Misfor- 
tunes, as to put off the Solemnity of the Myfte- 
ries they were wont to celebrate with the greater! 
Devotion every Year in honour of Bacchus, mere- 
ly on the account of this publick Calamity. But 
out of his ftrong inclination to the Perfian War, 
he chofc rather to forgive the Greeks their Injuries, 
than to puni/h them. 



Wherefore Demades (who had been in great 
favour with Philip) having prefented to him the 
humble Interceflions of the City, he granted to 
the Athenians, that they mould keep Demofthenes, 
Lycurgu*, and the others he had requir'd of 'em, 
provided they did but banim Charidemtu. Here- 
upon Charidemus went over to the Perfians, and 
did them great Service ; 'till giving his Tongue 
too great a liberty, he waskill'd by Darius's Or- 
def. Many other considerable Perfons, out of ha- 
tred to the King , left the City , and repair'd to 
his Enemies , and gave the Macedonians a great 
deal of trouble. After fo great a tide of Succefs, 
there was no Power left in Greece; that reflecting 
on the Theban Victory (whofe heavy arm'd Sol- 
diers were formerly in great efteem,) or on the 
taking of Leucadia, could repofe any confidence, 
either in their own Strength, or that of any Forti- 
fications ; for he redue'd the Leucadians ( who 
were elated and arrogant, on the account of the 
ftrong fcituation of their Town, and the great 
quantity of Stores and Provifions they had laid in 
for a long Siege) by Famine ; firft making himfelf 
Mafter of all the Forts and Caftles round it, and 
giving to thofe he found therein, liberty to go in- 
to Leucadia ; by which means the People daily 
encreafing in multitude, foon empty'd their Ma- 
gazines. Ambafladors were therefore fent him 
from Peloponnefa, to congratulate him on his ha 
ving, according to his defire, finiuYd the War a- 
gainft the Barbarians, and chaftis'd the Infolence 
and Temerity of fome of the Greeks. 

The Arcadians, who had been in motion, pre- 
paring to aflift the Thebans, gave him to under- 
hand they had pafs'd Sentence of Death on thofe 
Leaders who had been the caufe of their extrava- 
gant Proceedings. The Elei acquainted him like- 
wife that they recall'd thofe they had banifiYd, out 
E 2 of 

y6 FreinfhemiusV Supplement, &c 

of this Confideration only, that Alexander had a 
kindneis for them : And the JEtoli excus'd them- 
selves, that in fo general a Dilturbance of Greece, 
they had not been free from fome evil Practices. 
The Megareans caus'd the King and thofe about 
him to laugh, by the new kind of Honour they 
pretended to confer upon him ; telling him, That 
in confideration of his good dipofition and favours 
to the Greeks, the Megareans had by a Decree .of the 
People ', made him free of their City. But being af- 
terwards inform'd, that to that very day they had 
not beirow'd that Honour on any except Hercules, 
he gracioully accepted of it. To the others he 
made Anfvver, That he had nothing more at heart, 
than the (^uiet a?id Safety at Greece ; and that 
provided they refrain d making any difiurbance for 
the time to cot?ie y he readily forgave "em -what was 
pa ft. However he very much dirlrufted the Spar- 
id ;7 j, and therefore reftor'd the Sons of Philias to 
Meffene, from whence they had been driv'n ; he 
gave alio to Ch&ron the Government of Pelene, a 
Town belonging to the Ach&ans, and put Sicyon 
and other Towns of Peloponnefus into the hands of 
his Friends and Dependents, that they might have 
an Eye upon the Couniels and Deportment of the 

A few Months fume'd him for the performance 
of fo many great and weighty things ; in which 
he put an end to fo difficult and doubtful a War, 
with more eafe than another could in that time 
have been prepar'd for it. He acknowiedg'd he 
ow'd his Conqueft to Expedition and Celerity ; 
telling one that afk'd him by what means he chiefly 
fubdu'd Greece ? that it zvas by delaying nothing. 


The Second BOOK 

O F 

John Freln/hemius's Supplement 

T O 


CHAP. r. 

ARIUS was King of Perfia at that 
Time ; having been rais'd to that 
Dignity by the Intereft of Bagoas the 
Eunuch, a little before the Death 
of Philip. King Ochus and his Son 
Arfes being dead, and all that Line 
utterly extinct, Bagoas thought it adviiable to make 
a friendly Prefent of that Empire which he could 
not keep himfelf ; judging he fhould for ever be 
fure of the Favour of him he (hould fo highly 
oblige. At the fame time Darius was not look'd 
upon by the People to be unworthy of that high - 
Station, he not being altogether a Stranger to the 
Royal Family. For Ojlanes, Ochus's Unkle, had 
E 3 for 

78 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

for his Son Arfanes, who was Father to Cadman- 
nus\ this being Darius s Name, while a private 
Verlbn. But after he was feated in Cyrus's Throne, 
according to the Cuftom of the Perfians, he laid 
afide his former Name, and took that of Barms. 
He had a Mb diftinguifti'd himfelf in the Army, ha- 
ving kili'd his Adverfary upon a Challenge, du- 
ring the War Ochus was engag'd in againft the Ca- 
dafii, and thereby eftablmYd a great opinion of 
his Bravery and Courage. He was the tenth from 
Cyrus (who founded that Empire) who recover'd 
Perfia. For Ochus fucceeded Artaxerxes his Fa- 
ther, who had fucceeded Darius. To this, Ar- 
taxerxes the Son of Xerxes left the Kingdom. 
Xerxes fucceeded his Father Darius, who was the 
Son of Hyftafpes, and who (when Cyrus's Line 
was extinct by the Death of Cambyfes) in the fa- 
mous Confpiracy of feven Perfians, wrefted the 
Mmpire from the Magi. Under thefe Kings the 
Perfian Affairs flourifh'd in an un-exampled ftate 
of Profperity, for the fpace of two hundred and 
almoft thirty Years; having had a noble and brave 
beginning ; while the Nation no way addicted to 
Pleafure and Voluptuoufnefs , fought gallantly for 
Liberty, Glory, and Riches. In procefs or time, 
when they had reap'd the advantageous Fruits of 
their Vertue, they at length neglected the thing it 
felf, and ow'd their Safety not fo much to their 
own Strength and Bravery, as to the Reputation 
of the Power their Anceftors had acquir'd, and 
their Riches ; with which however they were not 
much lefs fuccefsful againft the Greeks than with 
their Arms. 

At laft then, when they found their Gold ineffe- 
ctually oppofed to the Power of Alexander, and 
that upon the Removal of all other Foreign Means 
of Afliftance , they were now to depend upon 
themielves ; fo debauched were their Minds, their 



Spirits fo broken and foften'd to fo low a degree 
of Effeminacy, that they could not fupport them- 
felves under the firft fhock of their declining For- 
tune. For Poverty Jharpens Induftry ; zuhere.ts 
Luxury and Jdlenefs are the Effecls of Affluence and 
Plenty. Being, however, inform'd of the Death 
of Philip, ( whofe Succefs and Preparations alarm'd 
and terrify'd 'em) they were freed from their 
Fears; and defpis'd Alexanders Youth, who they 
imagin'd would be well enough fatisfy'd, if he 
might walk up and down unmolefted at Pella. But 
receiving every Day freih Intelligences of his 
Wars and Victories, they began very much to 
dread the Youth they before contemn'd; and ac- 
cordingly, with great Care and Diligence, prepar'd 
themfelves for a vigorous and long War. And 
having in their former Wars found by Experience, 
that the Afiatkk Troops were not a Match for the 
Europeans , they fent proper Perfons into Greece, 
to hire into their Service Fifty thoufand Men, the 
Flower of the Youth of that Country. Memnon 
the Rhodian was appointed to command thefe 
Forces, he having on feveral Occafions given the 
Perfians Proof of his Fidelity and Bravery. He 
was order'd to make himfelf Matter of Cyzicum ; 
marching therefore in great diligence through that 
part of Phrygia that joins to the Trojan Territory, 
he came to Mount Ida , which declares the Na- 
ture of its Situation by its Name ; for the Antients 
us'd to call all Places which were planted thick 
with Trees , Idas. This Mountain rifes higher 
than any of the reft that are near the Hellefpont. 
In the middle of it there is a Cave much celebra- 
ted in Fables, out of a religious Horror;- for it is 
faid, the Trojan here pafs'd his judgment on the 
Beauty of the Goddefles, when having been expos'd 
by his Father's Command, he was educated to 
Manhood upon this Mountain. It is faid alfo to 
E 4 have 

8o FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

have been the Birth-place of the Idean Dadyfes, 
who by the Initruftion of Cyhle , or the Great 
Mother, found out the various Ufes of Iron ; it 
being no iefs uieful and beneficial to us, when our 
Occasions require it, or our Labours , than per- 
nicious, when it is the cruel Inurnment of our 
Anger and Rage. There is another thing worthy 
Admiration, reported of it, viz.. That when the 
Winds, at the rile of the Bcg-ftar , ruffle and 
difturb the lower Parts , the Air in the top of 
Mount Ida is calm and quiet: As alfo, that while 
there is yet a great part of the Night hovering 
over the Earth, the Sun is there to be feen, not 
in the Figure of a Globe or Round, but extended 
m a large Breadth , and embracing both iides of 
the Mountain, as it were, with diftinci Bodies of 
Fire, 'till by degrees it unites again, and becomes 
one ; and that at the approach of the Light, it 
does not take up a greater fpace than that of an 
Acre of Ground ; and contracting itfelf a little 
after into its ufual Compafs , it performs its ap- 
pointed Courfe. As for my part, I am of Opi- 
nion, that this falfe Miracle appears to our Eyes, 
when the imperfect: Image of the Rifing Sun 
fpreads itfelf through the Air that is condens'd by 
the' Nocturnal Cold, and no way ihaken or di- 
vided by the Wind, 'till the Sun thawing and 
diflipating it by degrees, gives the Eye a free 
Parage to the Orb of this Planet : For then the. 
Air is pure and ferene, and the Rays of the Sun 
are eafily tranfmitted through it ; whereas when 
it is condens'd, it obftru&s and flops them , and 
as if they fell upon a Looking-glafs, it difperfes 
'em with an Encrcafe of Splendor and Bright- 

The Territory of Cyzicxm extends itfelf from 
the foot of Mount Ida to Propontis. The Town 
is iituate in an Ifland of a moderate compafs, be- 


ingjoin'd to the Continent by two Bridges. But 
Alexander undertook the Work fome time after, 
and was upon the Sea when Memnon undertook 
his Expedition. Memnon having, by his unex- 
pected Attempt, in vain terrify'd the Cyzikians, 
(the Inhabitants making a vigorous ReMance, 
and defending themfelves gallantly ) was forc'd to 
retire, having firft plunder'd the Country round 
about it, and carry'd off a considerable Booty. 
All this while the Macedonian Generals were not 
idle ; for Parmenio took Grynium a Town in 
JEolia, and made Slaves of the Inhabitants : After 
which, paffing the River Caicm, he lay down be- • 
fore Pitane, a rich and wealthy Place, having two 
convenient Ports, whereby it could receive Relief 
from Europe; but, upon the feafonable arrival of 
Memnon,h.e was forc'd to raife the Siege. Cala- y 
with a imall number of Macedonians, and fome 
hir'd Troops, carry'd the War into the Country 
of Troy , and came to an Engagement with the 
Perfians; but finding he was not a Match for their 
Multitude, he retir'd to Khoztium. 


I-N the mean time, Alexander having fettled the 
Affairs of Greece , and being return'd to Ma-. 
cedon,wzs deliberating with his Friends about thofe 
Things he ought to provide againft, and about 
thofe he ought to execute, before he enter'd upon 
fo great a War. Aniipater and Parmenio, who 
were the chief amongft 'em, both for their Age 
and Quality, earneftly begg'd of him, that he 
would not in one Per/on expofe the Welfare and 
Profperity of the xvhole Empire to the treacherom 
Vncertaintks of Fortune , but would -firfl marry 
E 5 and 

82, FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

and get Children ; and having by that means pro- 
vided for the Safety of his Country , afterwards 
apply him f elf to the enlarging his Dominions. The 
reafon of which Advice was , that there was at 
this time only Alexander left of Philip's Blood, 
that was worthy of the Empire, Olympias having 
deftroy'd all Cleopatra's IlTue : And Arid&ws, on 
the account of the mean Extraction of his Mo- 
ther, and the Disturbance of his Mind, was look'd 
upon as one that would not become the Mace- 
donian Sceptre. However, Alexander being of a 
reftlefs Temper, could think of nothing but War, 
and the Glory that refults from Victory ; where- 
fore he reply'd in this manner : Like Men of Pro- 
bity, and good Patriots, you are not without Caufe 
felicitous about the thing that may either benefit or 
damnife your Country. No body can deny but it 
is a hard ar.d difficult Task we are undertaking ; 
which if we rafirty attempt, and the Event fhould 
not anfwer Expectation, a late Repentance could 
make no Amends : For it is our Bufinefs, before we 
hoifi our Sails, to confult, whether it be advifeable 
to undertake the Voyage , or keep quiet at Home. 
But when we have once committed ourfelves to the 
Winds and the Waves , we are altogether at their 
Mercy. J therefore do not take it ill, that you 
differ from my Opinion ; on the contrary, I com- 
mend your Sincerity, and defire you will Jhew the 
fame Integrity with reference to thcfe Matters thai 
fhall hereafter become the Subjects of our Debates. 
They, who are really their Kings Friends, if there 
be any worthy that Title, in their Advice, do not 
fo much confider how to procure this Favour, as 
how to promote their Intereft and their Glory. He 
that advifes any otherwife than he would aci him- 
felf, is fo far from injlruclmg him that confult: 
him, that he impofes upon him, and deceives him. 
Now that I may lay my own Opinion open to you , 

I am 


1 am fatisfyd, that nothing is lefs conducive, to the 
Jnterefl of my Affairs, than Belay. After having 
curb'd all the Barbarians in the Neighbourhood of 
Macedon, and quieted the Commotions of Greece, 
fhall we fuffer a brave and victorious Army ta 
wafte away in Eafe and idlenefs, or lead it into the 
wealthy Provinces of Afia, which they have already 
taken Pojfejfion of in Hopes ; de firing the Spoils of 
. the Perfians, as a Reward of thofe Labours they 
have gone through in their long Service under my 
Father, and for thefe three Tears pafl under our 
Command ? Darius is but lately come to the 
Crown, and by his putting Bagoas to Death, by 
whofe means he obtain d it, has giv'n his People a 
Sufpicion of his being both cruel and ungrateful, which 
Vices are apt to caufe an Averfion in the befi Subjects 
againfi their Rulers, and to render 'em lefs ready to 
Obey, if not altogether Refractory. Shall we fit ftM, 
then till he has confirm d his Authority, and having 
fittl'd his Affairs at home, of his own accord, tran- 
fiates the War into Macedon ? There are great Ad- 
vantages to be reap'd from Celerity and Difpatch, 
which, if we lye ftill, will accrue to the Enemy. 

The firfl Inclination of the Mind, is of great Mo- 
ment in things of this Nature ; now that is always 
ready for them that lay hold of it : For no Body by 
delay, courts the Reputation of being ftrongefi and 
bravefi : But he is efieemd the firongefl and bravejl, 
that declares and carries abroad the War, and not 
he that receives it at home. Befides, hew much fijall. 
we hazard our Reputation, if we deceive the Hopes of 
them, who,notwithfianding our Touth,have thought 
us worthy of that Honour that our Father, who 
was a Great Captain, and had given fo many Proofs 
of his Bravery and Conduct, did- not yet receive till 
a little before his Death? Nor did the Council of 
Greece decree us the Sovereign Command, that we 
fhouid live idly in Macedon, minding nothing but 
Ti 6 our- 

84 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

our Pleafures, -without the leaf Concern for former 
Injuries, and thofe that have of late been offer & to 
the Grecian Name : But that we jhould revenge 
and puniflj thefe Infolencies ; which the Extra- 
vagance of their Pride has induced them to offer 
with fuch a?i Air oj Boldnefs and Arrogance. What 
/hall I fay of thofe Greek Nations, that being fcat- 
tered up and down Alia , are opprefsd by the in- 
fupportable Slavery of the licentious Barbarians? It 
zvere needlefs to reprefent to you with what Prayers 
and Arguments Delius the Ephefian pleaded their 
Caufe, fince it is f ill frefh in your Memories. This 
is however certain , that the very Moment they 
behold our Standards , they will immediately repair 
to us, and readily embrace the greatejh of Dangers, 
for the fake of their Deliverers and Protestors, a- 
gainfi their unjuft, cruel, and inhuman Mafters. But- 
zvhy, as if zve had forgot our felves and our Ene- 
mies, Jhould we look about for Afflftance and Suc- 
cour againfl a People, which to be flow in conque- 
ring, would redound more to our Shame than Glory * 
la our Father s Time, a fmall Body of Lacedaemo- 
nians having march 'd into Alia , were in vain op- 
pas d by vafl A.rmies of the Enemy , who fuffer'd 
Phrygia, Lydia, and Paphlagonia, to be harrafsd 
a/id plunder d; or if they offer d to hinder or oppofe 
it, they were beaten and fain , even to the tiring 
their Enemies zvith their Slaughter; till Agefilaus 
being call'd away zvith the Troops under his Com- 
mand, on the account offome Commotions in Greece, 
gave 'em (when they zvere in the greatefl Confufion, 
and altogether uncertain what meafures to take ) 
fnfficient Time to recover themfelves from their Triglot. 
A few Years before ' him, fear ce ten thoufand Grecians i 
without Leaders, and without- Provifions , open d 
themfelves a Paffage with their Sword , through 
fo many Nations of Enemies, even to the Heart of 
V/;-?- Periian Empire, though they were purfu d at the 


fame Time by the Kings tuhole Army, with which 
he had lately difputed the Crown with his Brother 
Cyrus, and conquer d him ; and yet whenever they 
came to an Engagement, this victorious Army was 
always beaten by the Greeks, and put to fliglrt^ 
Shall we then, after we have overcome Greece in 
fo many Vtclories , and brought it under our Obe- 
dience, having either kiWd the braveft amongft 'em, 
or got 'em in our Camp; Shall tve, 1 fay, be afraid 
of Alia, when a few of thofe zvhom zve have beaten? 
have given it fo many fhameful Defeats ? 

After this, he hid a great deal more to the fame 
Purpofe , by which he fo mov'd the Minds of his 
Hearers, that they all came into his Opinion ; nay, 
Parmenio himfelf , who iiickl'd moil to have the 
War delay'd, was now for having it enter'd upon 
with all fpeed, and even made preffing Speeches 
to Alexander on that account. Wherefore making 
it his whole Buflnefs to get every thing in readi- 
nefs for his March, he offer'd a folemn Sacrifice 
to Jupiter the Olympian, at Dium a Town in Ma- 
cedon. This Sacrifice was originally inftituted by 
Archelam, who reign'd after Perdiccas, the Son of 
Alexander. He alfo had Stage-Plays in Honour 
of the Mufes, which lafted nine Days, according 
to the Number of thofe GoddefTes. After this, he 
gave a magnificent Entertainment, in a Tent that 
held a hundred Beds; there he feafted with his 
Friends , his Generals, and the Deputies of the 
Towns ; he order'd likewife, that Part of the Vi- 
dtims fhould be diftributed among the Soldiers with 
other Provifions, that this Day, which was dedica- 
ted to Mirth, might be celebrated with all Enter- 
tainments, and lucky Omens of the future War. 


%6 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 


IN the beginning of the Spring, having gather'd 
his Forces together, he pais'd into Afia ; the 
Strength of his Army confined more in its Cou- 
rage and Bravery , than in its Number of Men. 
Parmenio led thirty thoufand Foot, of which there 
were thirteen thoufand Macedonians, the reft were 
Troops fent by the Confederates. Thefe were 
follow'd by five thoufand others made of Illyrians, 
Thracians, and the Triballi, to which were added 
a thoufand Agrianian Archers. Phiiotas had the 
Command of the Macedonian Horfe that confifted 
of one thoufand eight hundred. Galas headed the 
like Number of TheJJ'alians. The reft of Greece 
fent only fix hundred Horfe, which he gave the 
Command of to Erigym : CajJ'ander commanded 
the Van, which confifted of nine hundred Thra- 
cians and P&onians. With this Army, having only 
thirty Days Provifion, he ventur'd to make Head 
againft an infinite Number of Barbarians , relying 
on the Strength and Bravery of his Men ; who be- 
ing grown old in a continud Series of Victories, 
were by their Courage and ikilful Ufe of their Arms, 
more than a Match for any Number of Enemies 
whatever. He entrufted the Government of Mace- 
donia and Greece, Vf ixhAntipater, leaving him twelve 
thoufand Foot and fifteen hundred Horfe, giving 
him withal this Charge , to make conftant Levies 
to recruit his Army, and fupply the Confumption 
of War, and the necefiary Decays of Mortality. 
This was the only tiling he had referv'd to him- 
felf, when he divided the reft amongft his Friends. 
For before he took (hipping , he had diftributed 
among 'em all that he could, without impairing 
the Majefty of Regal Dignity. Perdkcas refus'd 



the Lands that were offer'd him , and defir'd the 
King to tell him, what he would have left for 
himfelf? To which the King anfwer'd, Hopes. 
Why then, reply'd he, we Jhall partake of them, 
fince we fight under your Conduct and fortune. 
There were a few that imitated him, the reft ac- 
cepted his Gifts. Alexander being again afked, 
Where his Treafures were now ? anfwer'd, in the 
Bands of his Friends. And indeed, as he had flung 
himfelf upon Fortune, and flaked his All upon the 
Hazard of her Dice, he did not feem to have mif- 
plac'd his Riches : For as by conquering he flood 
fair for greater, fo if he were overcome, he could 
expect no lefs than to lofe thofe he had ; in the 
mean time, he was fure of being ferv'd with great- 
er Qieerfulnefs and Alacrity. And as for the pre- 
fent Neceflities, they did not furTer much by the 
Grants he had made of his Lands , Mannors, and 
Revenues, whofe Time of Payment was ftill re- 
mote. As for the Money, it was fet apart for the 
Ufe of the War, and was with fo much the great- 
er Care hufbanded in the Difpenfation, by how 
much it was lefs in Quantity. For when Philip 
was kill'd, there was hardly threefcore Talents of 
coin'd Money in the Exchequer, and a few Silver 
and Golden Veffels : Whereas the Debts at that 
Time, amounted to five hundred Talents. And 
notwithftanding he had very much augmented the 
Macedonian Power and Intereft, and fo far im- 
prov'd the Golden Mines near Crenides (which he 
call'd Philippos) that he drew from thence the 
yearly Income of a thoufand Talents ; yet by rea- 
fon of his continual Wars , and the large Prefents 
he made, the Treafury was quite exhaufted : He 
had befides , laid out vaft Sums in repairing and 
adorning Macedonia, which he found in a very poor 
and low Condition. A great many could remem- 


88 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

ber, that at his coming to the Crown, he was but 
in indifferent Circumftances , infomuch that he 
us'd to lay under his Pillow, every Night when he 
went to Bed, a Gold Cup which he had, that weigh'd 
about fifty Drachma's. And yet this Man's Son 
ventur'd to attack the King of Ptrfia, who had five 
thoufand Talents of Gold for his Pillow, and three 
thoufand Talents of Silver for his Footftool, plac'd 
under the Head and Feet of his Bed, in proper Repo- 
fitories; altho' he had added to his Father's Debts 
eight hundred Talents which he had taken up up- 
on Loan, of which there hardly remain'd the tenth 
Part. He is faid to have fet out, Tlmothem play- 
ing on the Flute, and the Army expreffing the 
greateft Cheerfulnefs imaginable, as having alrea- 
dy engrofs'd in their Thoughts, all the Wealth and 
Riches of the Barbarians they were going to fight 
againft. After this manner he was carry'd to the 
Strymen, through a Lake call'd Circinites, (from a 
neighbouring Mountain) where he had a Fleet. He 
came firft to Amphipolis, from whence he proceed- 
ed to the Mouth of the Strymon • which having - 
pafs'd, he march' d by the fide of the Mountain 
PangAtu , and ft ruck into the Way that leads to 
Abdera. and Maronea.- He on purpofe march'd a- 
long the Shore , that he might be ready to aflift 
his Fleet that fait'd by him, in cafe the Perfians 
fiiould attack it, for they were at that Time alfo 
Mailers at Sea, and he had but a moderate Fleet: 
Whereas the Enemy had Ships from Cyprw and 
Ph&nkia, and Mariners harden'd to Sea-affairs, and 
very experienc'd Rowers. For the Macedonians 
having but lately attempted the Sovereignty of the 
Sea, did not abound with Ships, and the Allies fur- 
nifli'd em but fparingly, and as it were againft 
their Will Even the Athenians, when they were 
requir'd to fend in their G allies, fent but twenty. 


to s Curtius. 89? 

Their Orators perfuading 'em that it was dange- 
rous, left upon its Arrival, it fhould be employ'd 
againlt thofe who had fent it. 

From hence he march'd to the River Hebrus 1 
which having pafs'd without much Difficulty, he 
came into P&tica, a Country in Thrace ; from 
thence paffing over the River Mela*, on the twen- 
tieth Day from his fetting out , he arriv'd at Se- 
flus , a Town fituate in the Extremity of the Con- 
tinent, and looking into the Hellefpont, where the. 
Sea contracting it felf into ieveral Windings , di- 
vides Aft a from Europe; for Macedcn is join'd to 
Thrace, which extending itfelf to the Eaftward in 
two Points, would reach Afia if it were not fepa- 
rated from it by the Sea ;. on the right hand the 
Hellefpont hinders it, and farther on the BofphortM f _ 
flrnam'd the Thracian, divides Byzantium from 
Chalcedon. Propontis that is contracted between 
thefe Streights , enlarges its Channel near the 
Countries of Bithynia and Pcntus. Below Bi- 
thynia, lies Myfia , and then Phrygia , and Lydia 
that joins to- that, are more remote from the.. 
Sea ; the more inward Provinces- that are very 
fpacious and large, and celebrated for their Fer- 
tility and Riches , are inhabited by Ieveral Nati- 
ons. The Coafts that face Thrace and Greece are 
poffefs'd by the Hellefpont ins , and farther on by 
the Trojans, famous for their Misfortunes and Ca- 
lamities. Beneath thefe Aiolis and Ionia, in a long 
Extent of Shore, ftretch themfelves out on the 
Borders of Lydia. In the next Place is Caria that 
joins to the Country -of Boris, and is in a great 
meafure encompafs'd with the Sea, and the Inland- 
Parts of which are of a large Extent. Near thefe 
Territories are the noble Iflands, the Alolic Lesbus, 
the Ionian Chius and Samus, and the Doric Rho- 
dus, and feveral others whofe Names are celebra-. 
ted in the Writings of the Greeks : For formerly 


jo FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

the Greeks had Colonies in thefe Places , which 
were ftill remaining, but when they became fub- 
jed: to the King of Perfid, and his Governors, 
they loll their antient Liberty and became Slaves. 
Alexander being arriv'd at Seftus, order'd the grea- 
teftPart of his Array to repair to Abydus> feated on 
the oppofite Shore , under the Conduct of Par- 
menio, with whom he left for this purpofe, a hun- 
dred and threefcore Gallies, befides feveral Ships of 
Burthen : while he with the reft went to Eleunte, 
which is dedicated to Protefilaus, whofe Grave is 
there, with a Tomb erected to his Memory. The 
Tomb is encompafs'd with a great many Elms, 
which are of a wonderful Nature; for the Leaves 
that put out in the Morning , on thofe Branches 
that look towards Huim, fall immediately, while 
the others retain a lafting Verdure : It is thought 
that they hereby exprefs the untimely Fate of the 
Hero, who being in the Flower of his Age, 
when he accompany'd the Greeks in their Ajran 
Expedition , fell the firft Victim of the Trojan 
War. Alexander therefore paying him the Rites 
of the Dead, implor'd that he might be attended 
with better Fortune when he landed on the Ene- 
mies Shore. From hence he went to sigeum ta- 
king with him fifty Gallies, and beheld that Ha- 
ven that was become remarkable by the Greeks 
putting in there with their Fleet in the Trojan 
War. When he was in the middle of the Helle- 
fpont (for he himfelf was Pilot of his own Ship) he 
facrific'd a Bull to Neptune and the Nereids, flinging 
the golden VelTel (out of which he had made the 
Libation) into the Sea , as a Prefent to the Dei- 
ties of the Sea. The Fleet being come into the 
Harbour, the King calling a Dart upon the Shore, 
leap'd out of the Ship , and was the firft who 
lauded', protefting at the fame time , that with 
$h$ Afiftance of the Gods , he propos'd by a jufi 



War to make himfelf Majler of Afia. He after- 
wards erected Altars in the Place where he made 
his Defcent, to Jupiter, Minerva, and Hercules : 
he alfo order'd Altars to be built in that Place of 
Europe from whence he fet out. 


FROM hence he proceeded on to the Plains, 
where he was ftiew'd the Seat of the ancient 
'iroy. Here, while *he was examining curioully 
the Monuments of the Works of the Heroes, one 
of the Inhabitants , promis'd him Paris s Harp : 
To whom he made Anfwer, That he did not fit 
any Value on the mean Inftrument of Effeminate 
Pleafures : But give me, if you can, that of Achil- 
les, on which he usd to celebrate the Praifes of the 
Heroes, with the fame Hand, with which he fur- 
pafs'd their Atchievements. For he was a great 
Admirer of Achilles, valuing himfelf for being de- 
fended from him ; he therefore with his Friends 
run naked round his Tomb, and anointed it with 
Oyl, and adorned it with a Crown. Heph&fiion like- 
wife put a Crown upon that of Patroclus : hint- 
ing thereby that he held the fame Rank in Ale- 
xander's Favour, that the other did in Achilles' s. 
Among the various Difcourfes they had concern- 
ing Achilles , the King faid, he look'd upon him ta 
have been doubly happy ; for having had, while li- 
ving, a true and faithful Friend ; and when dead, 
a good Poet to celebrate his Actions. He alfo facri- 
fic'd to the other Heroes , whofe Tombs are to 
be feen in thofe Countries. He offer'd Sacrifices 
likewife to Priamus , on Hereius's Altar, either to 
appeafe his Ghoft, as having being kill'd by Achil- 
les 's Son ; or elfe on the Account of the Relatioa 


9^ Freiniliemius\r Supplement 

he thought there was between him and the Tro- 
jam, fince Neoptolemus marry 'd Andromache, He- 
it&r's* Widow. He with great Devotion facri- 
fic'd to Minerva , for whom he had a particular 
Veneration : and hanging up his Anns in the 
Temple , he took down others that were faid to 
have been there , ever fince the time of the Tro- 
jan War. Thefe he caus'd to be bore before him, 
as if they were lent him by the favour of the Dei- 
ty, to conquer and fubdue Afia; and it is faid he 
actually had them on , when he fought the Per* 
fian Generals near the Granicum : Otherwife he 
took great Delight in fine Arms, being in nothing 
fo nice as in them. I find him to have made ufe of 
a Buckler that was very bright, and that his Head- 
piece was finely fet off with a Tuft of Feathers, 
that fell down on. each Side, and were remarka- 
ble for their extreme Whitenefs- and Largenefs. 
It is true his Headpiece was of Iron, but then it- 
was fo neatly polim'd that it look'd like Silver, 
and was the Work of Theophilns. His Collar was, 
alfo of Iron, but it was curioufiy adorn' d with 
precious Stones , that caft a glorious Luftre. His 
Sword was remarkable both for its Edge and Tem- 
per ; and it was the more valuable for this, that 
notwithstanding its Strength, it was light and ea- 
fily handl'd. Over this Armour he would fome- 
times wear a military Sur-tout of that kind that 
was then call'd the Sicilian Fafliion. Some of 
thefe Arms he had not till afterwards; as for In- 
ftance , the Breaft-plate which we mention'd , 
w r as found amongft the Spoils after the Battel near 
IJfits; the Sword was prefented him by the King 
of the Citici a People of Cyprus. The V^hodians 
made him aPrefent of his Belt, which was wrought 
with imcomparable Art, by Helicon that famous 
Artificer. We are not afiSam'd to relate thefe 
Particulars which have defervedly found Place in 


the Works of ancient Authors ; be fides the Say- 
ings and Actions of great Kings, how minute and 
light foever they may be , are reflected on , with 
both Profit and Pleafure. It is moft certain that 
the Arms of Alexander were held in great Eiteeni 
by following Ages, nay Time it felf, that general 
Deflroyer, feem'd* to fhew a refpect to 'em ; for 
one of the Roman Generals, after the Conqueft of 
the Pontkk Kingdoms, wore his Cloak at the So- 
lemnity . of his Triumph ; another having put 
©n his Bread Plate , run up and down the Bridge 
he had made over the Sea, m Imitation of Da- 
rius and Xerxes. Alexander march'd from the 
Temple of Minerva to Arisbe, where the Mace- 
donians , that Parmeris commanded, were en- 

The next day he pafs'd by the Towns Percote 
and Lampfacus , and came to the River Pratfius ; 
which riling out of the Jd&an Mountains, runs 
through the Territories of Lampfacus and Abydus 9 
and then winding a little to the Northward, em- 
pties it felf into Propontis. From thence paffing 
by Hermotusy he march'd to Colon*, a Town fftu- 
ate in the middle of the Lampfacenian Territory. 
Having taken all thefe into his Protection , upon 
their Submiffion to him (for he had pardon' d the 
Lampfacenians) he fent Penegorus to take Poflef- 
iion (3f the Town of the Priapeni, which the In- 
habitants furrender'd to him. Then he order'd 
Amyntnt, who was the Son of Arrab&us, to take 
four Troops , (whereof one confifted of Apollo- 
mates, and was commanded by Socrates) and go 
upon the Scout in order to get Intelligence of the 
imemy, who was not now far off, and was making 
all the Preparations pofhble for the War. Among 
them Memnon for Skill in military Matters , tar 
exceeded the relt. He endeavour'd to perfuade 
'em i To dejlroy every thing all round about them 
. j that 

94 FreinlhemmsV Supplement 

that could be of any ufe to the Enemy, and then 
retire farther into the Country ; to caufe the Ca- 
valry to trample down and zvajie all the Grafs ; to 
burn all the Villages and Towns ; leaving nothing 
behind 'em but the bare, naked Land ? That the 
Macedenians had hardly a Month's Frovifion, and 
they would afterwards be necejfitated to live upon 
Plunder-, now if that Means of fubfijling were re- 
mov'd , they zvoud in a little time be fore d to re- 
tire, fo that all Afia wou'd be fafe at a cheap rate. 
It w as true, that there was Jomething very difmal 
in his Advice ; but on all occafions, where Dan- 
gers were impending, wife Men made it their Bufi- 
nefs to get off with as little Damage as they could. 
Thus the Phyficians, if one part of the Body be 
feiz'd with a Difiemper, which is likely to fpread 
into other Parts , they lop it off, and fo with the 
Lofs of a Limb, fecure the Health of the refl of the 
Body : That the Perfians would not do this with- 
out a Precedent. Tor Darius had formerly dejlroy'd 
all thefe Countries , lejl the Scythians in their Paf- 
fage through them, fhould find Accommodation. If 
they came to a Battle , all zvould be at Stake , and 
if the Perfians were beat, all that Country would 
fall into Alexander'* Hands ; whereas, if they got 
the better, they would be Jlill but where they were. 
That indeed there was no fmall Danger from the 
Macedonian Phalanx , that the Perlian Toot, tho 
much more numerous, would not be able to refift it : 
Befides, the King's being prefent would not contri- 
bute a little to the gaining of the Viclory t fince the 
Soldiers fighting in the Prefence of their General, 
would be fpurrd on zuith Hope, Shame, and Glory 
at the fame Time; all zvhich Advantages the Mace- 
donians had, zvhile Darius zvas abfent from them. 
Befides, no Body doubted but that it was much bet- 
ter to make War in a foreign Country than in ones 
*wn ; that they would be fure of that Advan- 


tagt if they followed his Advice And invade^ Ma- 

But this Speech did not pleafe any of the other 
Generals : They faid, Perhaps this might feem 
proper to Memnon the Rhodian, who would find a. 
benefit by protracting the War, fince he would there- 
by enjoy his Honours and Salaries fo much the lon- 
ger ; but it would be a foul Difgrace to the Per- 
sians to betray the People that were committed to 
their Truji and Care, and that they could not an- 
fwer it to the King, whofe Infiruclions to them 
laid down a very different Scheme for the Profecu- 
tion of the War : For Darius being inform'd of 
Alexander's Motion , had lent Letters to his Go- 
vernors and Lieutenants, commanding them, Firfi 
to put that rafl) Youth of Philip'* in mind of his 
Years and Condition, by whipping him , and then 
to fend him to him cloatWd in Purple and bound ; 
to fink his Ships with their Crew, and carry all 
his Soldiers to the remotefi Parts of the Red-Sea. 

So fecure was he of Futurity, through his ex- 
ceffive Pride and the Ignorance of his Deftiny, he 
divefted himfelf of all Senfe of human Weaknefs , 
pretending to be related to the Gods ; rather be- 
caufe he did not feem much inferiour to 'em in 
Power, than on the fcore of the ancient Fable 
that deriv'd the Pedigree and Name of the Kings of 
Perfia from Per feus the Son of Jupiter. He had a 
little before writ to the Athenians in the fame 
haughty Stile ; adding, That fince they had pre- 
fer/ d the Friendjbip of the Macedonian to his , 
they muft not for the future ask him for any more 
Gold t for though they fijould beg it of him , he 
would fend them none. 


96 Freinfliemius'j Supplement 


BUT Alexander being advanc'd as far as that 
Portion of Land that the King of Perfia had 
beuow'd on Memnon , gave fpecial Orders not to 
offer any Injury either to the Perfons of his Te- 
nants, or the Product of the Lands; by which 
Proceeding he prudently contnv'd to caufe at 
lead a Sufpicion of the only Man he did not de- 
fpife among all the Enemy's Generals , if he 
fhould not be able to bring him over to his Inte- 
reft. Hereupon lbme wondering at the King's 
Moderation and Goodnefs, did not fcruple to fay, 
that he being the mofl cunning and bitter Enemy 
the Macedonians had, he ought to be put to Death 
as foon as they could get him in their Hands, and 
tri the mean time they ought to do him all the 
Damage they could: To which the King reply'd, 
That on the contrary, they ought to win him by 
good Offices, and to make him a Friend of an line* 
'■my, and that then, he zvould extrt the fam-e Cou- 
rage and Conduct on their Side. 

They were now come into the Adraflean 
Plains, through which the River Granicus runs 
with a fwift Current. There lbme of thofe that 
were fent before with Hegelochus to get Intelli- 
gence , bring him an Account , that the Perfians 
waited for him , in order of Battel , on the other 
iide of the River. He therefore halted for fome 
time, tp confult about the paffing the River , and 
call all his Generals together. The major part 
were of Opinion, that it was altogether rafti and 
im practicable to ftem the Current of that deep 
River, in the Prefence of lb many thoufand 
Horle and Foot, that were drawn up on the other 
tide, and the Bank itfelf being very lleep and of 



difficult Accefs. There were not wanting fome , 
that fuggefted, that it was then the Month call'd 
Defim , (which anfwers to that of June) which 
was always very unfortunate to the Macedonians. 
Hereupon Alexander, tho* he was not uneafy on 
the account of the Danger, yet he did not de~ 
fpife the Superftition ; being lenfible of tlie pow- 
erful Effects even of vain and ill-grounded Reli- 
gion, in weak Minds. He therefore ordain'd that 
they ihould repeat the Name of the preceding 
Month, and inltead of Defius, have another Arr 
temifius. And the more effectually to fettle the 
Minds of them that were alarm'd, he caus'd Ari- 
fi under (who was to facrifke for a profperous Paf- 
fage) to be fecretly admonifli'd, to write with an 
artificial Ink, on that hand that was to receive the 
Intrails, (inverting the Characters, that the Liver 
being impos'd thereon might by its Heat attract 
the fame, and exprefs 'em properly) That the 
Gods granted the Viclory to Alexander. This Mi- 
racle, being divulg'd , fiU'd every Body with fuch 
mighty Hopes of the future, that they unani- 
mouily declar'd, in loud Acclamations , That af- 
ter fuch Tokens of the Favour of Heaven, there was 
no room left to doubt of any thing. Thus being 
by a Wile brought into a Confidence of Succefs , 
they as it were run away with the Viclory, be- 
caufe their Thoughts were convine'd it was their 

The King thinking it advifable to make ufe of 
this bold Difpofition of their Minds, immediately 
led them over ; notwithstanding Parmenio very 
much entreated him to itay till the next day, (for 
the belt part of that Day was already fpent) paf- 
fmg a Jell at the fame time upon Parmenio for his 
Concern ; telling him, That the Hellespont would 
have Caufe to blujh , if after he had furmounted 
the Difficulties of faffing that, they flould boggle at 
Vol, I. F thz 

98 Freinfliemius\r Supplement 

the puffing of a Brook. The King with thirteen 
Troops of Horfe had hardly pafs'd through the 
Violence of the Streams , but before he could 
either get firm Footing on the Shore, or make 
good the Ranks that had been diforder'd in the 
PafTage, he was on all Sides prefs'd by the Perfian 
Cavalry : For upon their difapproving Memnons 
Advice, and their refolving to light, (Arfites, who 
was Governor of Phrygia, having openly declar'd, 
he would not fuffer the leaft Hut to be burnt with- 
in his Jurifdiction, and the reft having enter'd in- 
to his Sentiments) they had polled themfclves 
along the River Grankus, to the number of one 
hundred thoufand Foot, and twenty thoufand 
Horfe ; making ufe of the River as of a Fortifi- 
cation, and deligning as it were, to bar that Door 
of Afia againft Alexander. Being therefore in- 
form'd of his Arrival, they fo drew up their Ca- 
valry (in which confifted the main Strength of 
their Army) that the Right Wing of the Macedo- 
nians , which was commanded by the King him- 
felf , ( for the Left he had committed to Parme- 
nuts Care) was oppofed by Memnon and his Sons, 
together with Ar fanes the Perfian ; Arfites was 
alfo here with the Auxiliary Paphlagonian Horfe. 
spithridates , who was the King's Son-in-Law , 
commanded the Body of Referve : he was ac- 
companied by his Brother Rhdfaces, who was Go- 
vernor of Lybta and Ionia, and by the Hyrcanian 
Horfe. In the Right of the Foot were two thou- 
fand Medes and as mmy Bactrians under the Com- 
mand of Bhecmithres. The main Body was com- 
manded by Pbamaces the Queen's Brother , Ar- 
bxpalesy and Mithrobarzanes Governor of Cappado- 
c'm ; thefe were join'd by Niphares and Petanes , 
as alfo by Arfaccs and Atizyes, who had brought 
along with 'em Troops of feveral Nations ; thefe 
being fuperior in number, and having the Advan- 


tage of the Ground prefc'd vehemently upon the 
Enemy, and the Fight was very flra.rp : the King 
was here particularly in Danger, who being re- 
markable by his Arms, by his Bravery and by the 
Orders he gave up and down, was chiefly at- 
tacked by a great many. 

In the Heat of the Adion a Dart that was le- 
vell'd at the King , lhick fait in the Folds of the 
lower part of his Armour , but did not wound 
him ; however he was in real Danger from Rh*- 
faces and Spithridates, two of the boldeft of all the 
Perfian Generals , who attack'd him at the lame 
Time. For having broke his Lance upon Spithri- 
dates his Breaft-plate ; as he was going to make 
u."c of his Sword, Spithridates's Brother riding up 
to him, flruck fo great. a Blow with his Cy meter 
on his Helmet, that he cut it through, and light- 
ly touch'd the King's Hair ; part of the Helmet 
falling down by the force of the Stroke , he was 
juft going to give him another , on that part of 
his Head that lay bare, when Clitus obferving the 
King's manifeft Danger, flew to his Affiftance and 
prevented him, by cutting off the Sword Arm of 
the Barbarian-, Alexander (lew Spithridates at the 
fame time. 

Notwithftanding this the Perfians made a gal- 
lant Refiftance ; rill at laft, being difhearten'd by 
the Lofs of their Generals (of whom the major 
Part were already kill'd) and the Approach of the 
Macedonian Phalanx that by this time had pafs'd 
the River , they betook themfelves to a precipi- 
tous Flight : After which the Foot made but a 
imall Refiftance ; for imagining that , their Horfe 
was more than fufficient to overcome the Enemy, 
their Mind was more intent on the Plunder than 
on Danger : till by the fudden and unexpected 
Event, they became a Sacrifice to the Macedoni- 
ans * for it was now no longer a Fight, but a per- 

ioo FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

fe<ft Butchery. The Mercenaries however, who 
were commanded by Omares , having pofleft'd 
themfelves of an Eminence, made a vigorous De- 
fence : For he had admitted of none that would 
furrender upon Terms. In this Conflict therefore 
there fell more Macedonians than in the Engage- 
ment of the Horfe : Nay, the King himfelf (who 
fought amongft the forwarder!:) was here fo near 
Danger, that the Horfe he rid upon, was run thro' 
tire Body with a Sword. This Accident fo en- 
fiam'd his Anger, that having furrounded them, 
both with his Cavalry and Phalanx, he made an 
entire Slaughter of 'em, except two thoufand that 
furrender'd at Difcretion. There were in all kill'd 
of the Enemy , twenty thoufand Foot , and two 
thoufand Horfe, and very near the like Number 
taken Prifoners. The Generals Memnon, Arfaces, 
Rheotnithres , and Antizyes , fav'd themfelves by 
flight ; the others dy'd honourably of their Wounds. 
jlrfites being got into Phrygia, laid violent Hands 
on himfelf, under a Conflict of Shame and Re- 
pentance, that he fhould not undefervedly be look- 
ed upon as the Caufe of this Defeat. Alexander 
loft in this Battle but few in Number , but they 
were the boldeft and belt of his Men.. Of the Foot 
only thirty were kill'd, and fev^nty of the Horfe. 
That all might therefore be fenfible, that they were 
fure of a Reward from him in their Fortune, he 
enrich'd the Survivors with the Spoils of the Per- 
sians, and magnificently interr'd the Bodies of the 
Dead, with their Arms, and other Ornaments; 
granting at the fame time to their Parents and 
Children, an Exemption of all Offices. The wound- 
ed were alfo particularly taken care of; for the 
King going about their Tents, vilited them one by 
one, and exprefs'd thereby his Concern even for 
the meaneft Soldier, comforting them in their 
Misfortune, either by his Bounty, -Commendations, 



or Promifes. This condefcending Carriage fo en- 
dear'd him to them, that they were ready on all 
Occafions, to encounter the gveateft Dangers for 
his fake, with the utmoft Conftancy and Fidelity ; 
none being unwilling to lay down their Lives fox 
him, who neither fuffer'd them to live in Want, 
nor to die without Marks of Honour. But he in 
a fpecial manner diftinguim'd the five and twenty 
of the Band of his Friends, who fighting in a dis- 
advantageous Ground, were at the firft Onfet op- 
prefs'd by a Multitude of the Perftans. For he 
commanded Lyfipptu (who alone on the account 
of his wonderful Art, had theTrivilege to caft his 
Statue in Brafs) to reprefent every one of them 
in a Statue on Horfeback , which were fet up in 
Dion a Town of Macedonia, and were afterwards- 
upon the Fall of that Empire, tranflatcd to Rome 
by Metellus. The chief eft Glory of this Victory, 
was due to the King himfelf, who drew up the 
Army with ail the Skill imaginable, and having ob- 
ferv'd the Nature of the Ground, he led them thro* 
the River in an oblique Order, that they might 
not be attack'd by the Perfians , immediately on 
their getting out of the Water; then, when they 
were put in Diforder , and fomewhat terrify'd, he 
animated them by his Exhortations, and prevail'd 
with them at leaft to make one vigorous Attack 
more ; this was not all , for he fought gallantly in 
his own Perfon, killing feveral with his Lance, o- 
thers with his Sword, infomuch that thofe that he 
encounter'd with himfelf, were the firft that fled. 
His Conduct likewife , though it had an Appear- 
ance of Temerity and Rafimefs, yet it was ground- 
ed upon Reafon ; for as his Army was to engage 
with a new Enemy, much fuperiorto it in Num- 
ber, he had a Mind to arm it alfo with Defpair, 
that obferving their Retreat to be cut off by the Ri- 
ver, they might place all their Hopes of Safety in 
F 3 the 

ioz FreinihemiusV Supplement 

the Victory. The Thejfalians, in whom the main 
Strength of his Cavalry confifted , fignaliz'd them- 
felves on this Occalion; nor were the reft want- 
ing in their Duty, efpecially the Horfe, for it was 
the Horfe that chiefly did the Work, the Ene- 
mies Foot making but little Refinance, and foon 
giving way. Moreover, he gave Orders that the 
moft conflderable of the Perfians , mould be de- 
cently buried, as alfo the mercenary Greeks that 
ferv'd the Enemy : But thofe of 'em that were 
taken alive, he caus'd to be diftributed among the 
Prifons in Macedonia, becaufe that contrary to the 
general Decree of all Greece, they had ferv'd the 
Barbarians againit their own Country. However, 
hedifmifs'd the Thebans, in Confideration that their 
Town being raz'd, and their Lands taken from 
*em, they feem'd to be necemtated to what they 
did ; befides, the many Calamities they had fuftain- 
ed , had in a manner glutted even Revenge , and 
made room for Pity. After this, he chofe three 
hundred Bucklers out of the Spoils of the Enemy^ 
and fent 'em xo^ithens to be hung up in the Tem- 
ple of Minerva , with this pompous Inscription , 
Alexander the Son of Philip, and the refi of the 
Greeks, excepting ^Lacedemonians, dedicate thefe 
Spoils taken from the Barbarians who inhabit Alia. 
He did this with this View, that by making the 
Greeks partake of the Glory and Praife of the Vi- 
ctory, they might the more readily comply for the 
future with the other Neceffities of the War ; at 
the fame time he upbraided the Lacedemonians con- 
tumacious Temper, who acting by a feparate In- 
tereft, had cut themfelves off from the main Body 
of the Greeks , and by that Deportment had de- 
priv'd themfelves of their Share in fo great an 
Honour. Neither was he unmindful of his Mo- 
ther, for whom he had always a true filial Duty 
and Veneration; for he fent her the Plate, the 



Purple,, and the other valuable Spoils of that na- 
ture, referving only a few for his own Ufe. 

I . „,, (l ' mV, .., r ;f ji n .i l ^ ■ - „T , u 1 1 * VM! Wrt* 


AFTER this Battle, Alexander repair'd again 
to Troy, and return' d Thanks to the Goddefs, 
who had upon his undertaking fo dangerous a 
War, furnifh'd him with Arms, and encourag'd 
him with profperous Prefages of the Event. For 
when he went thither firft, immediately after his 
pairing the Hellefpont (as we before took notice) 
he faw an Equeftrian Statue lying on the ground, 
Jtift oppofite to the Temple of Minerva, which 
represented Ariobarfanes, who had formerly been 
Governour of Phrygia. Upon the light hereof, 
Arifiander promis'd Alexander a glorious Victory 
in fome Horfe Engagement ; more efpecially if 
the AdHon happen'd not far from Phrygia ; and 
alfo that he ftiould with his own Hand flay the 
General of the Enemy. Accordingly the Event 
made good the Prediction ; for Spitkridates being 
kill'd by the King's Sword, fulfill' d the Prophecy. 
He therefore not only made rich Prefents to the 
Temple, but gave the Title of City to Troy, that 
before hardly exceeded in Compafs a moderate 
Village ; and that it might with Credit bear that 
Honour, he appointed proper Perfons to reftore 
and enlarge it, beftowing on it at the fame time, 
all manner of Immunities. And becaufe he ob- 
ferv'd that the Temple of the Goddefs was too 
fmall , for the great Concourfe of People, that re- 
forted thither out of a religious Motive , and that 
it was decay'd; he had refolv'd hereafter to build 
a magnificent one in the room thereof. But thefe, 
as well as a great many other noble Defigns, were 
F 4 prevented 1 

104 FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

prevented by his Fate, his Succeffors neglecting to 
put them in Execution. By this Victory, the King 
laid open to himfelf all that part of Afia that is on 
this fide Mount Taurm and the Euphrates, the In- 
habitants being aftoniuYd at the unexpected Over- 
throw : For having not only loft their Troops, but 
their Generals too in the Battle, they had now no 
Hopes left, but in the King's Clemency ; in the 
obtaining of which, they endeavoured to prevent 
one another, by a fpeedy Surrender of themfelves 
to his Mercy. Arfitcs had by laying violent Hands 
on himfelf, render'd Phrygia defencelefs ; Alexan- 
der therefore conftituted Callas (who was General 
of the Thefjalians) Governor of that Country. 
There came feveral Embames likewife from the 
mountainous Parts, to furrender themfelves and 
all they had to Alexander, who having taken them 
into his Protection, fent them home. He alfo for- 
gave the Zeliti, becaufe he knew they had been 
compell'd by the Perfians , to ferve againft him. 
He impos'd the fame Tribute on them all , that 
they had us'd to pay to Darius ; obferving the fame 
Method with reference to all the other Provinces 
of Afia he afterwards redue'd. Alexander was fen- 
lible, that all foreign Government is odious and 
fubject to Envy, notwithstanding it be administer- 
ed with more Lenity and Mildnefs than the Do- 
meftick ; but if the former Burdens of the Subject, 
are increas'd by the Addition of new ones, it is 
then look'd upon as altogether intolerable ; where- 
fore when a certain Perfon told him, that he might 
draw much greater Tributes and Revenues from 
fo large an Empire ; he anfwer'd, That he hated 
even a Gardener, that pulld thofe Plants up by the 
Roots, which he ought only to crop. 

Being inform'd, that JDafcylium was poflefs'd by 
a Garrifon of Perfians , he fent Parmenio thither, 
whom the Inhabitants readily receiv'd; the Per- 



fans having quitted it, as foon as they heard of 
the Approach of the Macedonians. In the mean 
time, he went himfelf to Sardis, which is the Me~ 
tropolU of all the Places which the Kings of Perfia 
had put under the Jurifdiclion of the Governours 
of the maritime Country- He was within three-, 
fcore and ten Furlongs of the Town, when Mith- 
renes (to whom Darius had committed the Care 
of the Catadel of Sardis) with the Chief of the 
Sardian Nobility, came and furrender'd to him the 
Citadel, with the Money that was depofited there. 
Having gracioufly receiv'd 'em, he advanc'd to the 
River Hermus, that is about twenty Furlong diftant 
from the Town ; having there pitch'd his Camp, 
he fent Amyntas, Andromenes Son, to take Pof- 
feffion of the Citadel. It is lituated on the Top 
of a very high Hill, and every way of difficult 
Accefs ; fo that it might have been maintain'd a- 
gainft any Force whatever, even without the Kelp, 
of its Wall, that had alfo a tripple Rampart. Ha- 
ving therefore applauded his Succefs upon the Sur- 
render of fo important a Place , which by reafon 
of its Strength, might have held out a long Siege, 
and fo retarded the Execution of his other great 
Deiigns, he refolved to build a Temple there, in 
Honour of Jupiter Olympics; and as he was dili-. 
gently looking about, to find out what Place would 
be. molt proper for fuch a Structure, there arofe on. 
a fudden a furious Storm, .which pour'd down a 
great Quantity of Rain on Part of the Citadel, 
where formerly the Palace of the Lydian Kings had 
flood. Believing therefore that the Gods thereby 
pointed out what Place they had deftin'd for that 
purpofe, he order'd the Temple to be built there. 
Then he made Paufanias, who was one of the- 
Band of his Friends, Governour of the Citadel, af- 
figning to him the Auxiliaries of the Arrives. The 
other Troops of his Allies he allotted to Cak* 
F 5 and 

io 6 Freinfliemius\r Supplement 

and Alexander the Son of JErop&m , giving them 
Memnoris Government. He appointed, at the fame 
time, Nicias to colled the Tributes and Impofts. 
AJJ'ander Philotsu his Son, had the Government of 
Lydia, with the fame Bounds and Limitations Spi- 
thndates had held it before. He granted to the 
Lydians the Privilege of living according to their 
own Laws : And becaufe he underftood the Sar- 
dians were very much devoted to Diana, whom 
they call Coloene, he gave her Temple the Privi- 
lege of an Afylum. He did great Honours to 
Mkhrenes, that by his Example others might be en- 
courag'd to revolt; and in procefs of Time , he 
bellowed on him the Government of Armenia. In 
this Citadel, he found an Account of what Money 
had been diftributed by Barms % Generals, to bring 
about a War upon Macedon, from the Greeks : It 
appear d alfo, that Bemnfihenes had receiv'd vaft 
Sums for this purpofe , fome of whofe Letters 
were there to be feen. But by reafon he had 
made a Peace, and concluded all Matters with the 
Athenians, he did not think it proper to complain 
publickly of thefe Proceedings ; however he thought 
it neceffary , to be the more careful to keep the 
Athenians in their Duty, and to prevent their be- 
ing prevail' d upon by this Man's wonderful Elo- 
quence, fince their Defection would go near to 
draw along with it that of all Greece. He had no 
Body in greater Efteem than Pbocion, whofe Inte- 
grity and Innocency, together with his conltant 
Adherence to Virtue, render'd Poverty it felf ho- 
nourable. He valu'd him at fiill for the ufe he 
made of him, but being afterwards on feveral Oc- 
casions, convinc'd of his Magnanimity, he honour- 
ed him out of Admiration of his Virtue; infomuch 
^tiiat, when (after Darims Overthrow) he was 
grown fo haughty, as to think it beneath him to 
honour any one he writ to with the common Form 



of Salutation , he referv'd that mighty Favour for 
Antipater and Phocion only. It is certain the King 
fenf him a hundred Talents at a time', and gave 
him the Choice of four no inconfiderable Towns 
in Afia; viz. Cius , El&a , MylaJJa, and Gergetho; 
fome put Par at a inftead of the laft ; but he refu- 
fed all thole Offers ; yet left he mould feem to 
flight the Friendship of fo great a King, he denYd 
that Echeratides the Sophift, Athenodorm the Im- 
brian, with Demaratus, and Spartan Rhodians, who 
were Prifoners in the Caftle of Sardis, might be fet 
at Liberty. But thefe Tranfa&ions run into a la- 
ter Date. 

After this, he march'd to Ephefrs , which the 
Garifon had quitted (being inform'd of the Defeat, 
of the Perfians) going off in two Ep hefi an Gallies 
among the reft, was Amyntas Antiochuss Son, who 
had fled from Macedonia, without any other Pro- 
vocation , than that he was afraid of the King, 
whom he mortally hated, making a Judgment of 
his Difpofition from his own. Alexander enter'd 
into Ephefus the fourth Day after he left Sardis \ 
Here he recalTd thofe that were banifti'd in the 
time of the oligarchy, and reftor'd the Govern- 
ment to the People. The People having now ob- 
tain'd their long-wiuYd-for Liberty , denYd thar 
thofe who had call'd in Memnon, and thofe who 
had plunder'd the Temple of Diana, and had caft 
down Philip's Statue that ftood there , or had dug 
up Her ophy thus $ Monument that was plac'd in the 
Forum, as to the Deliverer of the City, might all fuf* 
ferthePunifhment they deferved. Of thefe there- 
fore Pelagon with his Brother Syrphaces, and his 
Coufin were dragg'd out of the Temple, into which 
they had fled for Protection, and fton'd to Death, 
All things tended to Blood and Confufion, when 
Alexander putting a Stop to the outrageous Li- 
cenfe of the Rabble, forbad making any farther 
F 6 Enquiry. 

io8 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

Enquiry into thofe Matters, or molefting any one 
on that account. Thus the chiefeft and belt Citi- 
zens were fav'd, who would otherwife on the fcore 
of their Dignity or Riches, under the Pretext of 
real or fictitious Crimes, have been expos'd to the 
Hatred and Avarice of the enrag'd Multitude. 
While thefe Things were doing, the Magnepans 
and Trallians fent AmbaiTadors to him to notify 
their Sub million to his Will and Pleafure ; he there- 
fore fent Parmenio thithfer with five thoufand Foot 
and two hundred Horfe ; he fent Alcinalm with 
the fame Number , to the JEolick and Ionian Cities , 
within the Persian Jurifdiction ; giving Orders to- 
both to abolifli the Oligarchy's^ and to efiablifti eve- 
ry where a popular State ; for he had found by 
Experience, that the People were well inclin'd to. 
him, which had been the Caufe of the Barbarians 
reftraining 'em by the Government of Tyrants. 

While Alexander ftay'd at Ephefus> he frequent- 
ly went to Appelles's Shop to divert himfelf after the 
Fatigues of Bufmefs, who was the only Perfon he 
would allow to draw his Picture, and was fo high 
in his Favour, that he beftow'd on him the beft 
belov'd of his Concubines , bec&ufe he found Ap- 
pelles was deeply in love with her. Her Name 
was Pancajla, fhe was born at LarijJ'a, a conlider- 
able Town in TheJJ'aly : And the King lov'd her 
tenderly as well for her exquifite Beauty, as be- 
caufe (he was the ftrft he took a Fancy for in his 
youthful Days. Tins Action was very fuitable to. 
Alexander's Greatnefs of Soul. But I do not give 
Credit to the Report, that Apelles by a flirewd Re- 
partee, iilenc'd Alexander \ who let his Tongue run 
very fall, but unfkilfully, concerning many Things 
in his Art; for this is not agreeable to the Vene- 
ration that is due to the Majefty of fo might/pa 
King, nor to the Modefty of the Painter, who nei- 
ther wanted Parts, or the Addrefs of a Man of 



Letters. Befides, as Alexander from his tender Years, 
had been converfant with the liberal Sciences, it is 
to be fuppos'd he could make a proper Judgment, 
even in thofe Arts he was not thoroughly vers'd 
in. What others fay , feems more probable, that 
it was one of the Ephefian Dianas Priefts, general- 
ly call'd Megabizi, that was To reprov'd by Appelles y 
who told him, That while he held his Tongue, his 
Ornaments of Gold and Purple render d him 'vene- 
rable to the Ignorant ; but when he pretended to {peak 
concerning things he knew nothing of, he became ri- 
diculous even to the Boys that grind the Colours. It 
was in this City that Herofiratus burnt the fo much 
celebrated Temple, as we before obferv'd. 

The Ephefians were now very intent on the 
rebuilding that curious Structure, fparing no Ex- 
pence in the Work. Alexander therefore, to. af- 
fift their Zeal, ordain'd, that the Subfidies which 
they us'd to pay before to the Perfians , mould; 
for the future, be paid to Diana ; and confirmed 
to it the Privilege of an Afylum, which he under- 
flood had formerly been preferv'd to it, both by 
Bacchus and Hercules, and enlarg'd its Bounds, al- 
lowing them to reach every way to the extent of 
a Furlong. Sometime after, when he had fettled 
all Things in Afia, he writ to the Ephefians, That 
he would reimburfe all the Charges they had been at 
in the refioring that Edifice -,, and moreover r would 
fupply whatever fijould hereafter be wanting, provi- 
ded his Name were infcriUd on the new building : 
But the Ephefians excus'd themfelves from grant- 
ting that ; and becaufe it was of dangerous Confe- 
quence to refufe Alexander any thing he requir'd, 
their AmbaiTador had recourfe to Flattery, which 
he knew had a mighty Influence over him , and 
told him, That it was an Affront to his high Dig- 
nity, to Confecraie any thing to the Gods, fince he 
was himfelf a Gcd, that being an Honour paid by 

I Men 

no FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

Men to the Deity', as to a fuperior Nature : So great 
was the Contention for Glory betwixt this mighty 
Monarch and one fingle City. However, the E~ 
phefians gain'd their Point, chiding rather to go 
without fo vaft a Sum, than to yield to the King 
the Infcription of the new Temple. Now how great 
their Expences were in this Work, may be guef- 
fed from the price of one iingle Piclure they hung 
tip in it, which coft 'em twenty Talents of Gold: 
It reprefented Alexander with a Thunder-bolt in 
his Hand. ; Apelles had drawn this Piece after fo 
inimitable a Manner , that he made ufe of but 
four Colours, which heighten'd the Admiration 
of all who had any Tafte or Judgment in that 


ABOUT this Time the Smyrn&ans had the 
Seat where they had formerly flourim'd re- 
ftord to 'em, after they had for the fpace of four 
hundred Years liv'd fcattefd up and down in Vil- 
lages, upon the Lydians having deftroy'd the an- 
cient Smyrna. The King rebuilt it about twen- 
ty Furlongs diftant from the Place where the Town 
had flood, being admoniuYd in a Dream to do 
fo. Alexander us'd, (when his Affairs of Moment, 
would permit) to divert himfelf in Hunting; one 
time particularly having fatigu'd himfelf with that 
Exercife, he fell afleep on a Mountain ctiVdPagtu; 
while he was taking his Reft, he fancied he heard 
the Nemefis (who had a Temple hard by) com- 
mand him to build a City in that very Place, and 
People it with the SmymAans. This Dream was 
afterwards confirm'd by the Oracle of Apollo Clarim^ 
which promis'd the Smyrnaans, that their Remo- 


val would redound to their Advantage ; hereupon 
the Foundations of the new Town are laid by the 
Kings Orders, but Antigonu* had the Glory of fi- 
niming it, Alexander having fome time after com- 
mitted to him the Government of Lydia, Phrygia, 
and the neighbouring Countries. 

The Clazomenij inhabit that part of the Gulph 
of Smyrna that is narrower!, and joins to the Con- 
tinent the Lands that run into the Sea, forthefpace 
of fixty Furlongs, making a kind of Peninfula. Taos 
ftands on that fide of the ifthmtts which is oppo- 
fite to the Clazomenij , and Erythra is lituate in the 
utmoft Point of the Peninfula, which was even 
then famous for its ProphetefTes : Hard by this 
Tczvn is the high Mountain Mimas, over againlt 
the Ifleof Chio, and looks into the Sea; then fal- 
ling with a gentle Declivity, not far from the 
Straits of the Clazomenij , it terminates in Plains. 
Alexander having view'd the Nature of thePIace, 
refolv'd to cut through that narrow Neck of Land, 
and divide it from the Continent, that fo he might 
encompafs Erythr& and Mimas with the Sea, and 
unite the upper and lower Gulph. It is obferv'd, 
that this was the only Thing in which he was dis- 
appointed, Fortune labouring, as it were, to ac- 
complish all his other Undertakings. This Difap- 
pointment caus'd a fort of religious Reflection, as 
if it zvere not lawful for Mortals to change the Face 
of Nature, iince others who had made the fame 
Attempt had likewife been frultrated before; how- 
ever, he joyn'd Clazomen& to the Continent by 
a Bank of two Furlongs, the Clazomenij having 
heretofore made an Ifland of it, out of fear of 
the Per fans ; but thefe Works were committed 
to the Care of the Governors. As for himfelf, 
having been very Magnificent in his Sacrifices at 
Efhefm, he made a general Exercife of all the 
Troops that were with him, in honour of the God- 

defs 3 , 

iiz FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

defs, and march'd the next Day to Mile turn, taking, 
with him all the Foot, the Thrac'tan Horfe, and 
four Troops of thofe he call'd his Friends, the 
Royal being one of 'em. For Hegiftratus, who 
commanded the Garifon, had given him Hopes in 
a Letter, that he was ready to furrender to him ; 
but underftanding afterwards that the Perfian Fleet 
was at hand,, healter'd his Mind, and was for pre- 
ferving the Place to Darius, for he wanted nei- 
ther Arms nor Provifions, nor any other Necef- 
faries requifite to endure a long Siege ; befides, 
his Garifon was numerous, Memnon having re- 
inforc'd it (when he fled thither after the Battle) 
with a confiderableBody of Troops he had with him. - 
Alexander therefore coming fuddenly upon 'em 
with his incens'd Army, he* at his very firft Arrival, 
poffefs'd himfelf of the outward Town, as they 
call it ; for the Townfmen and Soldiers (that the 
ftrength of the Place might not be too much fcat- 
ter'd) had retir d into the inward Town, refolving 
there to wait for the Succour of their Friends; 
wha, as. N they were inform'd, were not far off. 
But thefe Hopes were fruftrated by the feafonable 
Arrival of the Macedonian Fleet, under the Com- 
mand of Nicanor, who had taken PoiTellion of the. 
Illand Ladd, that lies above Miletum; and, upon 
Information that the Enemy's Fleet lay at Anchor- 
under the Mountain Mycale, failing into the Mi-, 
lefian Harbour, he cut off all hopes of Succour 
from the Perfians to the befieged. Neither did 
the Barbarians offer to oppofe him, notwithftand- 
ing they were fo much fuperior to him in Num- 
ber of Ships, for they had near four hundred Sail, 
whereas Nicanor had not above one hundred and 

While thefe Things wer£ doing, Glaucippus, the 
moft confiderable Man of the Town, was fent to, 
Alexander, to defire that the Town and Harbour 



might be in Common to the Perfians and Mace- 
donians ; but he return'd with this melancholy 
Anfwer, That he did not come into Alia to receive 
what others would bejlow on him, but that every 
Body Jhould be contented with zvhat he fpard them ; 
that they ought to knozu it was their Duty to re- 
fign all their Fortunes to their Superior, or be ready 
the next Morning to decide the Matter by the Sword. 
But the Townfmen repell'd the firft Shock of the 
Enemy with a great deal of Gallantry, killing, a- 
mongft the reft, the two Sons of Hellcnica, who 
was Alexanders Nurfe, and Sifter to Clitus, who 
had with fo much Bravery fav'd the King's Life. 
Hereupon the Macedonians being enrag'd with 
Grief and Anger, and having planted, their Ma- 
chines, they foon made a considerable Breach in 
the Wall, and were juft ready to ftorm the Town, 
when the Befieged perceiving the Enemies Gal- 
leys in the Port, were feiz/d with a frefti Terror, 
and fome of them betook themfelves to theoppo- 
lite little Ifland for Safety upon their Bucklers, 
others got into little Boats , and endeavour'd 
to imitate 'em , but were taken by the Enemies 
Ships at the very Mouth of the Harbour. Alexander 
having thus made himfelf Mafter of the Town, 
difpatch'd Ships after thofe who had gain'd the 
Ifland, providing them with Ladders , whereby 
the Soldiers might overcome the difficult afcent 
of the Coaft, as if they were fcaling the Walls of 
a City. But obferving the Greeks that were in the 
Enemy's pay, (who did not in all exceed three 
hundred Men ) ready to undergo the laft Extremi- 
ties, he took Companion of 'em on account of 
their Bravery ; and feeing 'em fo conftant to thofe 
that hir'd 'em, as to venture periming for their 
Fidelity, he pardon'd 'em, and took 'em into his 


H4 FreinlliemiusV Supplement 

As for tliofe 'Barbarians he found in the Town, 
lie made 'em all Slaves ; granting at the lame time 
to the furviving Milefians, their Lilerty, in Con- 
fideration of the ancient Glory of their City : For 
Miletus was once fo Rich and Powerful as to have 
no lefs than feventy Colonies in the neighbouring 
Seas ; moreover, it was celebrated on the Score 
of feveral of its Gallant Citizens, who had in the 
facred Combats often won the Prize, and thereby 
advane'd the Glory of their Country. For thefe 
kind of Victories were (according to the Practice 
even of the Greeks) efteem'd the greater! Orna- 
ments of Vertue. This made Alexander, when he 
beheld the great Number of Statues that were e- 
rected on this Account, ridicule the Cuftom with 
a biting Reproach; for he afk'd 'em, where were 
the ftrong Arms of thofe Men, when they receivd 
the Periian Yoke ? For, as he was a Gallant Man, 
and judg'd of all Things that were fubfervient to 
War, he thought it a mameful thing to waftc that 
Strength that ought to be employ'd only in Battles 
of Moment, in the fruitlefs Diverfion of the Rab- 
ble , out of a vain and unprofitable Oftentation. 
In the mean time the Soldiers who had enter'd 
the Town by mere force, pillag'd every Thing 
before 'em, and were come to the Temple of 
Ceres ; and as fome of 'em broke into it, with a 
defign to plunder it, a fudden Fire that came from 
the inner Parts, ftruck the iacrilegious Wretches 
blind. Here Alexander found fome Monuments 
of his Progenitors, and particularly a Fountain, 
whole Waters, tailed at the Spring-head, were fait, 
and yet were freth when they ran into Streams. 
The Milefians call it Achilles^ Fountain, and it is 
rumour'd, that that Hero bath'd himfelf near it, af- 
ter he had vanquiftYd Strambelus, Telamcns Son, 
who was bringing Succour to the Lejbians. The 
Milefians had with 'em alio the Oracle of Apollo 



Didymeus , much celebrated for its Riches and 
Fame. Seleuctts (who was very powerful after 
Alexander ) then confulted it, about his Return to 
Macedon, and received for Anfwer, That bidding 
adieu, to Europe, he jhouid embrace Afia. 

There was another Thing that awaken'd the 
Kings Attention, whofe curious Genius was greedy 
of Knowledge, and was wonderfully delighted 
with Novelty ; he was told, that a Youth of %af- 
fus, that is not far diitant from Miletum, was be- 
lov'd by a Dolphin, and that the Filh knew his Voice 
fo well, that whenever he call'd upon it, and would 
be carry 'd on its Back, it readily receiv'd him ; 
whereupon the King inferring, that he was in Kep- 
tune's favour, made him his High Prieji. 


Alexander after this manner madehimfelf Ma- 
fter of Miletum, and as the numerous Fleet 
of Barbarians kept ftill hovering thereabouts, and 
out of Confidence in their Multitude, and Superi- 
ority of Skill in maritime Affairs, provok'd the E- 
■nemy to a Battle, frequently prefenting it felf be- 
fore the Port where the King's Ships rid ; he fent Phi- 
lotas with the Horfe, and three Regiments of Foot 
to Mount Mycale, near which the Perfian Fleet lay 
at Anchor ; giving him Orders to repel the Ene- 
my, if they offer'd to land, either to take in frefti 
Water or Wood, or any other Neceffaries. This 
redue'd the Barbarians to the greater! Straits, and 
kept them, as it were, confln'din their Port, with- 
out being fufFer'd to land, or accommodate them- 
felves with thofe Neceffaries they wanted. Here- 
upon they call'd a Council, and fteer'd towards 
Samos , where having taken in Provifion, they 


ii6 FreinfhemiusV Sufplemetrt 

came came back again to Miletum, and preferr- 
ed themfelves before the Harbour in order of 
Battle. In the mean time five of the Perfian Ships 
perceiving feveral of the Enemy's Fleet in a cer- 
tain Port between the little I/land we before men- 
tion'd, and the Road where the Macedonian Fleet 
lay - y . made all the fail they could thither , imagi- 
ning they ftiould find 'em in a manner unmann'd, 
and consequently an eafie Prize ; for they con- 
jeclur'd,, that the major part of their Men were 
taken up in many other different Employments. 
But the King immediately putting thofe that were 
prefent on board ten Galleys... commanded 'era 
to go and meet the Enemy. Who being terrify* d 
both by the Number of Ships, and the unexpected- 
nefs of the Thing (finding themfelves attack'd by 
thofe they thought to have furpriz'd) made off 
as faft as they cou'd ; however, one of their 
Ships that was mann'd with Japans was taken, 
the reft being fwift Sailors regain'd their Fleet : 
Thus the Barbarians were forc'd to leave Miletum 
without effecting any of the Things they intended. 
Alexander confidering now that his Fleet was in- 
ferior to that of the Enemy, and wou'd be of no 
great Ufe to him for the future, and befides that, 
it was a great Charge to him ; refolv'd to dif- 
mifs it, retaining only a few Ships with him to 
tranfport the Machines and Engines necefifary in 
Sieges; but Par memo was of a different Opinion, 
and advis'd the King to hazard a Sea Engagement, 
fince if the Macedonians xvere victorious, many Adr 
vantages would arife therefrom ; and if they were 
beaten, they would lofe nothing, fince the Perfians 
were even now Mafiers at Sea, and it would be no 
very difficult Tafk for thofe that were Jlrongejl at Land 
to defend their Coajls. That his Advice might the 
fooner prevail, he offer'd to execute it himfelf 
and to pare the Danger with the reft of that Ile£t 


to Qui nt us Curtius. 117 

the King fiould affign him for this Purpofe. More- 
over, his Opinion was back'd by lucky Prefages, 
for fame Days before an Eagle was feen to reft 
on the Shore, behind the King's Fleet. However 
Alexander reply'd, That his Opinion was ill ground- 
ed, when he flatter d himfelf that fo [mall a Fleet 
zv as able to encounter ivith fo great a Multitude of E- 
nemies, and that it was not advifable to oppofe fkil- 
ful Rowers and expert Sailors, to raw and unexpe- 
rienced Men in both Capacities ; that tho he did 
not diflrufl the Bravery of his Subjecls, yet in Sea- 
Tights he was fenfible, that was but of little Mo- 
ment towards the obtaining the Victory. That 
thofe Aclions zuere liable to many Dangers from the 
Waves and the Winds, both which were, by the 
•Experience of the Pilots and Rowers, either declind 
or turnd to an Advantage ; That a great deal de- 
pended even on the very building of the Ships ; That 
the Macedonians would in vain ufe their braveft 
Endeavours, fmce it would be in the Power of the 
Barbarians, either to baffle 'em, or, if an Accident 
happen d, totally to deftroy 'em ; which was a thing 
of the laft Conference as Affairs flood , fmce all 
Alia would be animated and encouragd, if in the 
beginning of the War he fliould receive fo great an 
Overthrow ; That the generality of Men were na- 
turally of fuch Tempers as to expett the Event of 
Things to be anfiverable to the preconceiv d Hopes 
or Tears from the firfi Succeffes ; and that we may 
not doubt of the Truth hereof, with refpefl to Alia, 
who will en fur e ?ne that the Greeks themfclves 
ivill remain in their Duty, if they find our Felkity 
and Succefs once forfake us, which, to fpeak the 
Truth , is all they admire and venerate in us ? 1 
,muji confefi I look upon it to relate to my Fortune, 
that an Eagle was feen behind my Fleet, and I 
take it as an Omen of Profperity. But then the 
Augury feems plainly to indicate^ that we Jhall o- 


1 1 8 Frebfhemius V Supplement 

vercome the Enemy s Fleet by Land ; for the Eagle 
that prefaces the Viilory, did noj; reft upon our 
Ships, but on the Shore, and fo does not more ex- 
prejfly point at the Event than at the Place of 
Action. This is certain, that if, as we have begun, 
Wt continue to pojjefi our felves of the Maritime 
Tozvns, the Perlian Fleet will wafte of it felf, for 
it will neither have Recruits, Provifions, nor Har- 
bours ; and if thefe are remov d, the greater their 
Stre7igth is at Sea, the fooner they'll be undone. By 
this Means we fhall -make good the Prophecy that 
was engravd on the Copper-plate that w/is ( as v:e 
are inform d) caft up by a Fountain in Licia, and 
fignifyd that ^Perfian Empire was haftening to its 
Period. Having therefore difcharg'd his Fleet, he 
left Pontus and its adjacent Countries to his Go- 
vernors to fubdue, and purfuing his intended De- 
figns he advanc'd towards Carta, for he was told, 
a great Number of the Enemy had reforted thither. 
Indeed Halicarnajj'm, which was ftrong by its Si- 
tuation, and was befides provided with two Cita- 
' dels, gave fome Hopes that the Macedonian, who 
like a Torrent bore down all before him, might 
be ftopt there, as by a ftrong Bank. There was 
great Hopes alfo in Memnon, who was, with the 
utmoft Diligence, making all the neceffary Prepa- 
rations for maintaining a long Siege, for he had 
lately been made Admiral by Darius, and Gover- 
nor of all the Maritim Coafts ; and as he was a 
Man of great Subtilty, and an obferver of the 
Turns, and favourable Occafions of Times, fo he 
was very fenfible that he exceeded all the Per/Ian 
Generals in the War ; notwithstanding which, he 
was not rewarded according to his Merit, for this 
Reafon only, that as he was a Greek by Extraction, 
and had formerly been well receiv'd in the Ma- 
cedonian Court, there was fome room to fufpect 
him of Treachery ; he therefore fent his Wife 


to Quint us Curtius. 119 

and Children to Darius, as if he were folicitpus 
for their Safety, but in Truth by thofe Pledges to 
convince the King of his Fidelity. However, 
Alexander having enter' d Caria, had, in a little 
time, made himielf Mailer of all the Places be- 
tween Mile turn and HalicamaJJ'us , molt of 'em 
being inhabited by Greek Colonies, to whom it 
was his Cuftom to reftore their Liberty, and the 
Privilege of living after their own Laws, alluring 
them he came into Aha to deliver them from Op- 
preffton. Not long after he infinuated himfelf in- 
to the Favour of the Barbarians, by his courteous 
Behaviour to Ada, a Woman of Royal Blood; 
who being inform'd of his March into thofe Parts, 
repair'd to him and implor'd his Protection, deli- 
nng him to re-eftabhPn her in her Kingdom ; 
for Hccatomnus, King of Caria, had three Sons 
and two Daughters , of whom Maufolus marry'd 
Artemifia ; and Ada, the youngeft Daughter, had 
marry'd his Brother Hidricus. Maufolus being 
dead, was fucceeded by his Sifter and Wife, ac- 
cording to the Cuftom of the Country, which 
allows thofe that are born of the fame Parents to 
be join'd both in Marriage and Dominion ; but 
Artemifia dying with Grief for her deceas'd Hus- 
band , Hidricus enjoy'd the Crown , and dying 
without Iffue, teft the fame to Ada ; but Pexoda- 
nis, who was the only one left of Hecatomnus% 
Sons, drove her out of the Kingdom j and altho* 
he alfo was dead, fhe rcmain'd mil depriv'd of 
her' Right, becaufe Pexodarus had marry'd his 
Daughter to Orontobates, a Nobleman of Perfia, 
that he might by his W 7 ealth and Intereft be pro- 
tected in his new Ufurpation; fo that his Father- 
in-Law being dead, he held the Kingdom inRight 
of - his Wife. Ada having therefore made her 
Condition known to Alexander , and furrendring 
to him at the fame time the ftrong Cattle of a- 
2 lindt, 

rxo FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

lindz, obtain'd from him the Approbation of her 
calling him Son, and a promife of his fpeedyAf- 
fiftance to reftore her to her Dignity. In the 
mean time the Rumour of this Queen's courte- 
ous Reception being fpread all over that Country, 
procur'd Alexander the Affection of a great many 
Towns; for moft of 'em were in the Hands of 
Adas Relations or Friends, infomuch that they 
fent Ambaffadors to him with Prefents of Crowns 
of Gold, and folemn Aflurances, That they put 
tioemfelves under his Protection and Power, and that 
they would readily obey his Command. 

While thefe Things were doing, Ada was whol- 
ly taken up with providing the moft exquifite 
Meats for Tafte, and drefs'd after the moft curi- 
ous Manner, and Sweetmeats of all Kinds, and 
fent 'em with the Cooks and Confectioners to the 
King, asaPrefent, thinking to fhew her Gratitude 
for the Favours me had receiv'd from him, if fhe 
entertain'd him after his Fatigues and Toiis, with 
the Delicacies of the Afian Luxury : But being 
too wife not to know, that Intemperance is of 
pernicious Confequence to the Man that is em- 
ploy'd in ferious and weighty Matters, he very 
civilly return'd her Thanks, but told her at the 
Fame time , She had been needleffly folkitous for 
him, who had himfelf better Cooks , with which 
his Tutor Leonidas had formerly provided him, 
viz. a walk early in the Morning to get him a Sto- 
mach to his Dinner, and a frugal Dinner to pre- 
pare him for Supper. 



C H A P. IX. 

BY this time almoft all Caria had fubmitted to 
Alexander , except Halicarnaffus, the Capital 
City thereof, in which there was a ftrong Gari- 
ibn ; wherefore concluding the Siege would be 
tedious, he order'd Provisions, and all the necef- 
fary Machines for battering the Place to be brought 
from on board his Fleet, and went and encamp'd 
with the Foot at the diftance of five Furlongs 
from the Town. But while his Men were bar- 
tering the Walls of the Place, near the Gate that 
leads to MylaJJd , the Befieged made an unex- 
pected Sally ; however, the Macedonians behav'd 
themfelves with a great deal of Bravery, drove 
'em back to the Town with little Lofs. Some 
few Days after, Alexander having had Hopes 
given him that the Town Myndus would, upon 
his appearing before it, be deliver'd up to him, 
he took along with him part of the Army, and 
march'd thither in the dead time of the Night. 
But no Body offering to ftir, he commanded the 
heavy arm'd Soldiers to undermine the Wall, for 
he had brought neither Ladders nor Machines a- 
long with him, by reaion he did not go thither 
with an intention to make a formal Siege. Thefe 
Men flung down one of the Towers, and yet for 
all that made no Breach they could enter at, for 
the Tower fell after fuch a manner that the Ruins 
defended the fame Ground that the Tower did 
• while lUnding, and the Inhabitants made a vigo- 
rous Refinance, and were reinforc'd by Succours 
from HalicamaJJiis , which Memnon ( hearing of 
the Danger they were in) had fent them. Thus 
the Macedonians Attempt was fruftrated. Alexan- 
der being now return'd to the Siege of Halicar- 
Vol. I. G natfus, 

izz Freinfnemius'j- Supplement 

maffm, refolv'd firlt of all to fill up a Ditch about 
thirty Cubits broad, and fifteen in depth, that the 
Enemy had made for the better fecurity of the 
Place ; he therefore prepar'd three Tortoifes y un- 
der the Protection of which the Soldiers might 
with fafety bring the Earth, and what other Ma- 
terials were necefiary for that Purpofe, and ha- 
ving fili'd the Ditch , he order'd the Towers and 
other Machines us d in the battering of Walls, to be 
properly apply'd. By thefe means having made a 
fufficient Breach in the Wall, he endeavour'd to 
force his Way into the Town through it ; but the 
Enemy being firong in Number, was conftantly 
Succeeded by frdtk Men in the room of thofe that 
were tir'd, and being befides encourag'd by the 
Prefence of their Generals, omitted nothing that 
was necefiary for a vigorous Defence. The Day 
being-walled in a drawn Fight, and Memnon ima- 
gining the Enemy might be tir'd with the fatigue 
of the Adlion, and fo would be more negligent 
in keeping their Guards, made a ftrong Sally out 
of the Town, and fet Fire to their Works ; 
hereupon the Macedonians advancing to oppofe 
them , while thefe labour' d to extinguifii the 
Flames, and the others to encreaie 'em. The 
Macedonians, tho' much fuperior to their Enemy in 
Strength and Courage, and their familiarity with 
Danger, yet were mightily prefs'd by the Num- 
ber and Contrivance of the Perfians; and as the 
Fight was not far from the Walls, they were very 
much gall'd from thence by their Engines and 
'Machines, fo that the Macedonians receiv'd many 
"Wounds, which they had no opportunity of Re- 
venging. The Shouts were great on both Sides, 
each encouraging their own Men, and threatning 
their Enemy ; beiides, the Groans of the wound- 
ed and dying, together with the darknefs of the 
Ts T icht, fili'd every thing with Horror and Confu- 

2 fion, 


fion, which was dill encreas'd by the Clamour of 
the reft of the Multitude, who while their Com- 
panions were fighting, were intent on the repair- 
ing the Damage the Walls had fuftain'd from the 
Shock of the Engines and Machines : At Ialt the 
Macedonians puthing bravely on, drove the Ene- 
my within the Walls , having kill'd about one 
hundred and feventy of 'em, and among the 
led Neoptolemtu, who with his Brother Amyntas 
had fled to the Per fans. Of the Macedonians 
there did not fall in that Aclion above fixteen, 
but there were near three hundred wounded, 
which may be afcrib'd to the Night, in the dark- 
nefs of which they could not decline the Blows, 
nor avoid the random Darts. A few Days after, 
an Accident, inconfiderable in it felf, prov'd the 
occafion of a notable Contention which begun 
between two of PerdicM his Veterans ; they were 
Comrades, and had been drinking together, and 
among the reft of their Difcourfe, they happen'd 
to enlarge on the Gallant A&ions they had each 
perform'd, till at laft they quarreli'd about the 
Preference ; upon which one of 'em broke out 
in this Expreffion , Why do we fully fo glorious a 
Contention with empty and ufelefi Words ? The 
Matter is not who has the beji Tongue , but the 
Jfrongeft Arm, and here is a fine Opportunity to 
decide the fame : If you are the Man you pre(£nd 
to be, follow me. They were both heated with 
W r ine and Emulation, and therefore of their own 
accord took their Arms, and advanc'd to that part 
of the Wall that ftands near that fide of the Ci- 
tadel that faces Mylajfe. 

Their ram Enterprise being obferv'd by thofe 
of the Town, caus'd fome of the Enemy to go 
out againft 'em ; they undauntedly flood their 
Ground, and came to an Engagement, and re- 
ceiv'd thofe who came neareft 'em Sword in Hand, 
G 2. flinging 

ii4 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

flinging their Darts after thole who retreated. 
But their bold Attempt had not reinain'd long 
unpuniuYd from fo many, who had beiides their 
Number the Advantage of a riling Ground ; if a 
few of their fellow Soldiers at firft obierving the 
Danger they were in, had not come to their Af- 
fiftance , and afterwards , as occafion requir'd, 
more and more, the Befieged doing the fame 
to fuccour their Men. This made theSuccefs va- 
rious, according as each Party was fuperior either 
in Strength or Number, till Alexander himfelf co- 
ming up with thole that were about him, firuck 
a Terror into the Enemy*, and drove 'em within 
their Fortifications, and was very near entring the 
Town at the fame time with 'em : For the Be- 
iieged being wholly intent on what pafs'd before 
the Town, the defence of the Walls was carelelly 
minded ; and two Towers were already beat 
down with the adjoining part of the Wall , by 
the repated Violence of the battering Rams, and 
the third was fo fhaken that it could not iland 
long againft the Mines. But by reafon of the fud- 
dennefs of the Action, and that the whole Army 
was not drawn out, this Opportunity, however fa- 
vourable, was loft. Alexander hereupon delir'd a 
Sufpenlion of Arms, and leave to bury his dead, 
not withftan ding that according to the Greek No- 
tion, it was yielding the Victory to the Enemy, 
yet he chofe rather to do it than leave the Bo- 
dies of his Men unburied. But Fphialtes and 
Thrafibulut, Athenians (who were then in the Per- 
fian Service, and who had a greater regard to their 
Averiion to the Macedonians than to Humanity ) 
openly declar'd , That fuch an Indulgence ought 
not to be granted to fuch inveterate Enemies ; how- 
ever, this did not hinder Memnon from repre- 
fenrfhg, That it was altogether unbecoming the Pra- 
ctice of the Greeks, to refufe an Enemy the privi- 


lege cf burying their Slain ; that Arms and Force 
were to be aid aga'mft Enemies that made Head a- 
ga'mft ut, and that it ivas an unworthy thing to 
infult thofe^tvhofe Fate had put it out of their Power- 
to dom either Good or Harm. It is moil certain, that 
Memnon, beiides his other Virtues, was remark- 
able for his Moderation ; for he did not think it 
at all honourable, out of a virulent Prejudice, to 
(lander an Enemy, and load him with Inve&jves; 
on the contrary, he ftrove to overcome him by 
Bravery and Conduct. This made him, when he 
heard one of the Mercenaries fpeak with Difre- 
lpedt and Petulancy of Alexander, ftrikehim with 
his Pike, and tell him , He did not hire him to 
rail at Alexander, but to fight aga'mft hi?n. 

chap. x. 

IN the mean time the Befiegedtook all the Care 
they could for their Security, andrais'da Brick 
Wall within that which was be it down ; and in- 
ftead of carrying it on in a fttait Line, they made 
it bend inwardly after the Refemblance of the 
new Moon. This Talk was foon finiuYd by the 
help of a great many Hands. The next Day 
Alexander began to batter this Wall, that he might 
with lefs difficulty beat it down while the Work 
was yet frefti. The Befieged took the Opportu- 
nity of the Macedonians being thus employ'd, to 
make a vigorous Sally from the Town, and fet 
Fire to fome of the Hurdles with which the Works 
were cover'd , and to part one of the Timber 
Towers : But Phihtas and Hellanicnt, who had 
that Day the Guard of the Machines , hinder'd 
the Fire from fpreading, and Alexander appear- 
ing fealbnably, ftruck luch a Terror into the Minds 
G 3 of 

iz6 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

of the Enemy, that flinging away their Torches, 
and fome their Arms, they fled back to the Town 
with great Precipitation. The Advantage they 
had here from the Situation of the Place , en- 
abled them to repel the Force of the Enemy with 
eafe, and the Wall ( as we before took Notice ) 
was built fo that what part foever the Macedoni- 
ans attack'd,- they were not only oppos'd in 
Frontj but were alfo fure to be flank'd horn each 
fide thereof. 

While thefe Things were doing, the Perfian 
Generals finding themfelves ftraiten'd every Day 
more and more, and being well aflur'd that the 
Macedonian would not go off till he had made 
himfelf Mailer of the Town, held a Council on 
what was neceftary to be done in the prefent 
Juncture of Affairs; and Ephialtes, a Perfon e- 
qually remarkable for the Strength of his Body, 
and the Courage of his Mind, made a Speech on 
the many Inconveniencies of a tirefome Siege ; 
'and argu'd againft expecting till they were altoge- 
ther weaken 'd, and unable to refifl, and of courfe 
fall a Prey, with the Tozvn, to the Enemy ; and 
advife 'em, that while they had yet fome Strength, 
to engage the Enemy chearfully, with the choicefi 
of the hird Troops : That this hus Counfel, by how 
much it was more bold in Appearance, zvets by fo 
much the more eafe to Execute ; for the Enemy 
expecting nothing lefi than this, might be eaftly far- 
priz'd, being altogether unprepard againjl fuch an 
Accident. Nor did Memnon ( who otherwife 
us'd to prefer the cautious and wary Counfel, to 
the fpecious and plaufible in Appearance) oppofe 
him ; for he confider'd, that altho' no great Alte- 
rations mould happen, yet as there was no hopes 
of any Succour at Hand, the lime of the Siege 
would be fatal, he therefore did not think it im- 
proper, in fo great an Extremity, to try what fo 




brave a Man could do, fmce he feem'd, as it were, 
infpir'd to execute the boldeft Undertakings. 

Ephialtes therefore having made choice of 
two thoufand, out of the whole Body of hir'd 
Troops , commanded them to get a thoufand 
Torches, and by break of Day to be ready with their 
Arms to receive hi* Orders. Alexander, as foort 
as Day appear'd, had advanc'd the Machines a- 
gain to the Brick Wall, and the Macedonians were 
intent on their Bufmefs ; but Ephialtes Tallying out 
of the Town on a iudden, order'd one half of his 
•Men with their Torches to fet Fire to their Works, 
and he follow'd in Perfon with the other half to 
oppofe thofe who mould offers hiinder them ii> 
the Execution of their Del(gn : fiut Alexander 
being inform'd of what was doing, quickly drew 
up his Army, and having ftrengthen'd the Suc- 
cours with chofen Men , he difpatch'd fome to 
put out the Fire, while he himfelf attack'd thofe 
that were with Ephialtes ; and Ephialtes, on his 
part, as he was of a prodigious Strength, kill'd 
all thofe that engag'd him Hand to Hand, ani- 
mating his Men by his Voice and Looks, but 
molt by his Example. The Befiegers were not a 
little annoy'd alfo from the Walls, for the Be- 
fieged had erected a Tower thereon of a hundred 
Cubits in height, from which (having conveni- 
ently planted their Engines) they gall'd rhe Ene- 
my with Javelins and Stones. While thefe things 
were doing, Memnon likewife with another Body 
of Troops, made another Sally, from a different 
part of the Town, whence it was leaft expected ; 
this caus'd fo great a Confuiion in the Camp , 
that the King himfelf was at a ftand what Meafures 
to take. However, by his Magnanimity and fea- 
fonable Orders, he obviated all the Danger, and 
Fortune came to his Affiftance in a very proper 
time, for they who had fet Fire to the Machines, 
G 4 were 

iio Freinfhemius'j" Supplement 

were repuls'd with great Lofs, by the Macedonians 
that kept Guard there, and the Reinforcement he 
had fent 'em ; and Ptolemy, the Son of Philip, 
who was Captain of the King's Guards, having 
with him the Regiments of Addam and Timander, 
befides his own , receiv'd Memnon fo warmly, 
that the Macedonians on that fide, had much the 
better of it, notwithstanding they loft in the Acti- 
on Ptolomy , Add&us and Clearchus , Captain of 
the Archers, and about forty private Men. The 
Enemy retir'd with fo much Precipitation and 
Diforder, that in the hurry they broke down the 
narrow Bridge they had laid over the Ditch, and 
puQi'd thofe headlong down that were upon it, 
of whom fome were trod to Death by their own 
Men , and others perim'd by the Macedonians 
Darts from the higher Ground : A great many 
that had elcap'd this Calamity were dertroy'd at 
the very Gate of the Town , for the Inhabitants 
(being in the utmoft Confufion, and apprehend- 
ing that the Macedonians would enter at the fame 
time with their own Men) over-haftily (hut the 
Gate, delivering up their Friends to the fury of 
the Enemy. In the mean time Ephialtes , who 
was no lefs formidable by his Hopes than his 
Defpair, gallantly- maintain'd the Fight againft the 
King's Troops, and had made the Victory doubt- 
ful, if the Veteran Macedonians had not feafon- 
ably come to the Affiftance of their diftrefs'd Com- 
panions. Thefe Veterans , tho* in the Camp , 
were exempt from all Duty, except in cafe of 
Neceffity , notwithstanding they enjoy'd at the 
fame time their Salaries, and other Premiums ; 
and indeed they had deferv'd this Honour by 
their brave Behaviour under former Kings, and 
even under Alexander, as having pafs'd their whole 
Life in military Exercifes. Thefe Men therefore 
obferving their Companions terrify 'd, and decli- 


ning the Engagement, and looking about, as it 
were for a Place to retire to, flew to their Relief 
under the Command of Atharicu, and having, 
renew'd the Fight that began to grow languid 
they forc'd the young Soldiers, by reproaching 
them with their fhameful Behaviour, to refume 
their Courage; then making a furious Attack all 
at once, and out of Emulation ftriving who mould 
do the Enemy molt Mifchief, in a moment For- 
tune turn'd to their lide ; Ethialtes, with the bra- 
veft of his Party was flain, and the reft were 
drove into the Town, a great many Macedonians 
enter'd it at the fame time with 'em , and the 
Tewn was near being taken by Storm when the 
King gave Orders to found a Retreat, either out 
of a defire to fave the Place, or elfe becaufe the 
Day being in a manner fpent, he apprehended 
Danger from the Night, and the Ambufcades that 
-might be laid for him , in the unknown parts of 
the City. This Fight confum'd the chief Strength 
of the Befieged, wherefore Memnon having deli- 
berated with Orontobates (who was Governor of 
the Town ) and the other Generals, on what was 
proper to be done, caus'd the wooden Tower, 
and the Arfenals where their Arms were kept, to 
be fet on Fire in the dead time of the Night, as 
alfo thofe Houfes that were near the Wall, which 
foon taking Fire, and the Flames from the Tower 
andArfenal (being blown by the Wind) increa- 
fing, it made a dreadful Conflagration : The bra- 
veft part of the Inhabitants and Soldiers retir'd 
into a Caftle built within an Illand, others got in- 
to Sabnaciiy another Caftle, fo call'd from a Foun- 
tain that is there, of great Fame ; and the Gene- 
rals fent the reft of the Multitude , and ail their 
raoft valuable Things in the Ifland of Cos. A~ 
lexander being inform'd by Deferters, and his own 
Obfervation of what pafs'd in the Town ; altho*" 
G 5 it 

130 TreinftiemiusV Supplement 

it was Midnight he commanded the Macedonians 
to enter the Place, anil pit all to the Szvord they 
fbould find promoting the Fire, but to* forbear inju- 
ring thofe who kept themfelves within their Houfes. 
The next Morning he took a View of the For- 
trefTes the Perfians and hir'd Troops had poflefs'd 
themfelves of, finding they would require a long 
Siege to reduce 'em, and that having made him- 
felf Mailer of the Capital City of the Country, 
it was not worth his while to trifle away his time 
about 'em ; he raz'd the Town, and commanded 
Ptolemy, to whofe Care he had committed the 
Country of Caria ( leaving with him three thou- 
fand Foreigners, and two hundred Horfe, for that 
Purpofe) to obferve thofe Caftles, which were 
encompafs'd both with a Wall and Ditch. Not 
long after Ptolemy, having joyn'd his Forces with 
thofe of Afander, Governor of Lydia , defeated 
Orontobates ; and the Macedonians being enrag'd, 
and not able to endure fo tedious a delay, apply'd 
themfelves ftrenuoully to the Siege of the Caftles, 
and reduc'd them. 

But the King whofe Thoughts had already laid 
the Scheme of taking into his Conquefts Phrygia, 
and the adjoining Provinces , fent Parmenio with 
the Bands he honour'd with the Title of his Friends, 
the auxiliary Horfe, and the TheJJ'alians command- 
ed by Alexander Lyncefies, to Sardis, with Orders 
from thence, to make an Irruption into Phrygia , 
and get from the Enemy Provifions and Forrage for 
the Army that was coming after, allotting him Wag- 
gons for that ufe. Afterwards underftanding that 
feveral of the Macedonians (who had marry'd a lit- 
tle before the Expedition) impatiently deiir'd the 
Company of their Wives : He gave Ptolomy Se- 
leucuss Son the Command of 'em , and order'd 
him to conduct 'em home, that they might pafs the 
Winter with their Wives. Cmos and Meleager, two 


pf his Captains, went along with them on the fame 
account. This endear'd the King mightily to the 
Soldiers, and made 'em more chearfully undergo 
the remote Service ; for they perceived he had a 
Conlideration for 'em , and reasonably hop'd they 
fhould now and then obtain leave to fee their 
Friends. At the fame time, he commanded the 
Officers to be very diligent in raifing Recruits du- 
ring their Refidence in Macedonia , and at the Be- 
ginning of the Spring, to bring him as many Horfe- 
and Foot as they could , be fides thofe they now con- 
ducted home. Here he obferv'd, that his Army was 
infected with the Manners and Cuftoms of the Afi- 
aticks, and that there was in the Camp a great 
Number of Catamites, he order'd therefore a ftrict 
Search to be made for 'em, and fent 'em into a 
little Ifland in the Ceramick Gulph, The place 
partook of their Infamy , and to perpetuate the 
Memory thereof, the Town was call'd Cin&dopolis- 


THESE Affairs being thus tranfacted, Alexan- 
der continu'd in his firft Refolution of redu- 
cing ah the maritime Coaft, and by that means ren- 
der the Enemy's Fleet ufelefs to 'em : And there- 
fore having made himfelf Mafter of the Hypamians 
by the Treachery of the hir'd Troops (who fur- 
render'd the Caftle to him) he march'd towards 
Lycia. Here taking into his Protection the Tel- 
mijjenfes, and having pais'd the River Xanthus ; the 
Tovyn that bears that Name, with Pinara and Pa~ 
rara confiderable Places in that Country, and about 
thirty more fubmitted to him ; fo that having fet- 
tled things well enough for the prefent , he pro- 
G 6 ceeded 

132, Freinfhemius\r Supplement 

ceeded on to My lias, which is a part of the great- 
er Phrygia , but the Kings of Perfia had thought 
fit tcrjoin it to Lycia. While he was here receiving 
the Fealty of the Inhabitants , Ambafladors came 
to him from the Phafeliu, defiring his Friendmip, 
and prefented him with a Crown of Gold, as a 
Token of their kind Reception of him; a great 
many Towns of the lower Lycia , did the fame. 
The King therefore having fent proper Perfons to 
take Poffemon of the Towns of the Phafelits., and 
the Lyctj , in a few Days march* d himfelf to Pha~ 
felts. This City was then endeavouring to reduce 
a ftrong Fort, that the Pifid& had rais'd within their 
Territories, from whence they did the Inhabitants 
a great deal of Mifchief: But upon Alexanders 
Arrival, this Fort was foon taken. He remain d 
with the PhafelitA fome Days to refrem himfelf 
and his Army, the Seafon of the Year inviting him 
to do fo ; for it being then the middle of Winter, 
the Badnefs of the Roads woujd have made his 
Marches uneafie. Here having indulg'd a Glafs , 
and being in a merry Humour, and beholding the 
Statue that the People had erected to Theodecles , 
he went to it, and dancing about it, flung feveral 
Garlands of Flowers upon it; for he had contra- 
cted a Familiarity with him , and receiv'd him into 
his Favour when they were both at the fame time 
Pupils to Ariflotle. However, this jovial Humour 
was foon interrupted by the mocking MeiTage he re- 
ceiv'd from Parmenio. This General had taken up 
a Perfian call'd Afifnas, whom Darius had indeed 
fent publickly to Aty/ies Governor of Phrygia, but 
with thefe private Inftruclions : That he Jhould 
watch an Opportunity to [peak in private to Alex- 
ander Lynceftes, and promife him the Kingdom of 
Macedon, and a thoufand Talents of Gold, if he per- 
formed what was agreed between 'em ; for Lyncejles 



had formerly gone over to the Rerfeans with Amyn- 
tas, and had took upon him the treasonable Office 
of killing the King. 

He hated Alexander on feveral Accounts , but 
particularly for having put to Death Heromenes and 
Arrab&us his Brothers, for being privy to the Mur^ 
ther of his Father. And notwithstanding he himfelf 
was pardon'd, and loaded with Honours, fo as to 
be doubly indebted to the King; yet his natural 
Cruelty was fuch, and his Ambition of Power fo 
great , that he thought nothing a Crime that was 
inltrumental to his obtaining a Crown. The thing 
being examin'd in Council, the Kings Friends re- 
prefented to him, his exceffive good Nature, which 
had made him not only pardon a Man detecled in 
the foulejl of Crimes, but heap Honours upon him , 
even to the giving him the Command of the choiceji 
Part of the Horfe. Who could he hope would be 
faithful to him hereafter, if Parricides not only went 
unpunijh'd , but were received into the greateft Fa- 
vour, and had the chiefeft Dignities, and mofi confi- 
dsrable Employ?nents confer/ d upon 'em ? That it 
was necejfary to redrefs in time, the Error he had 
been led into by his too great Clemency ; left if Lyn- 
ceftes fhould be fenfeble that he was dif cover d, he 
fhould ftir up the inconftant Temper of the Theffa'- 
lians to a Revolt. That the Danger was not of a 
nature to be contemned , fence there could not be a, 
greater imagind. Befides, that it would be no lej3 
than flighting the Deity s Care it felf 9 zvho was 
pleas d after fo remarkable a manner, to admonifh 
him of the treacherous Defigns againft him. For 
the King , during the late Siege of Halicarnajfus, 
being laid down in the Afternoon, to refrefli him- 
felf after his Fatigues and Labours , a Sivallow, 
which is a Bird remarkable for Omens, flutter'd 
round about his Head as he was alleep, making a 
coTifiderable Noife, and fometimes fettling on this 

134 FreinfhemiusV Supplement 

fide, fometimes on that fide of the Bed, chattering 
louder than is ufual. But as the King was much 
tir'd, it did not altogether waken him ; however, 
as it was rroublefome to him , he brufh'd it away 
with his Hand. • Notwithstanding which, the Bird 
was fo far from being frighten'd , that it even fet- 
tled upon his Head , and did not leave off chirp- 
ing, till having thoroughly waken'd him he fcar'd 
it quite away. 

This Accident was by Arifiander , interpreted 
after this manner : He faid the King ivas in Banger 
from one of his Friends , but the Treafon would not 
remain undifcover d; the Nature of the Bird feem- 
ing to foretel cm much, for it is more familiar with 
Man than any other, and at the fame time is a 
great Chatterer. Having duly confidered thefe 
things , and rinding Afifines's Difcovery to agree 
with the Diviner's Anfwer, and moreover having 
been carefully warn'd by his Mother, to have a par- 
ticular Eye upon this Man, he thought all farther 
Delay might be of ill confequence, and therefore 
fent Inltructions to Parmenio, what he mould do 
upon this Occafion. for as we took notice be- 
fore, Alexander Lyncefies was gone along with 
him into Phrygia. Now left by fome Accident or 
other , the King's Defign mould be unfeafonably 
betray'd, he would not truft it in writing, but fent 
it by Word of Mouth, by a trufty and honourable 
Perfon. Amphoterus Brother to Crater, was pitch'd 
upon, who putting on a Phrygian Habit, inftead of 
the Macedonian , and taking along w r ith him fomc 
of the Pergenfes for his Guides , he came in Dil- 
guife to Parmenio. Hereupon Alexander Lyncefies 
is feiz'd , and notwithstanding his Punilhment was 
for a long time put orT, in consideration of his 
own and his Family's Quality and Intereft, yet 
three Years after, when Philotas's Accomplices 
were executed, he was put to Death likewife, flu- 


ring in their Punifhinent, for having participated 
in their Crime. Befides the Detection of this Plot 
againft his Life, the King moving from Phafelis, had 
foon another Token of the Deity's Favour and Pro- 
tection. He had fent Part of his Army to the 
Town of the Pargenfes , and follow himfelf with 
the reft thereof, along the Coaft, where the Moun- 
tain Climax looks into the Pamphylian Sea , and 
leaves but a narrow Way to Travellers, even when 
the Sea is calm ; but when this is tempeftuous, the 
other is drown'd by the overflowing Waters ; which 
frequently happens in Winter, if not always. But 
Alexander, who dreaded nothing more than De- 
lay , led his Army through the rough, as well as 
fmooth, with equal Ardour and Expedition. The 
South Wind having blown for fome Days, had co- 
ver'd the Ways with Water : There fell at the 
fame time, great and frequent Rains, as is ufual 
when thofe Winds blow. However, upon Alexa?i- 
der's Approach, the North Wind rofe on the fud- 
den, and difpers'd the Clouds, and driving the Wa- 
ters back into the Sea, open'd a Paffage to the 
Macedonians. Notwithstanding which, he was forc'd 
to wade thro' feveral unknown Fords, which took 
his Men fometimes up to the Middle. At the fame 
time that I allow Alexanders great Allurance in 
Dangers, to proceed from the undoubted Great- 
nefs of his Soul, yet I cannot but think it receiv'd 
fome Increafe from the many Prefages and Omens 
in his Favour; lince he thereby conjeclur'd he 
was deftin'd to perform great and noble Exploits. 

While he was yet m Macedonia, there appear'd 
to him a Perfon of a Figure, more venerable than 
one of human Extraction, advinng him to follow 
him into Afia , to overthrow the Perfian Empire. 
When the King came into Ph&nicia, he was put in 
mind of his Dream, by the High-Pridi of the 


136 FreinflicmiusV Supplement 

Jews, whofe Drefs reviv'd in his Memory, that of 
the Object he had beheld in his Vifion. For 
while Alexander was employ'd in the Seige of 
Tyre, he had commanded the neighbouring Kings 
and People to fubmit to him, and raife him Sol- 
diers. But the Jews who were Matters of the fa- 
mous City of Jerufalem , excufing themfelves, as 
being in Alliance with Barim, rejected the Kings 
Friendmip. He therefore being incens'd thereat, 
march'd into Jxdea with a Defign to punifli the 
Contumacy of that People. But the Inhabitants of 
Jemfalem, to appeafe the King's Anger, went out 
of the Town to meet him, with their Wives and 
Children, in a fuppliant manner. The Priefis led 
the Proceffion, being cloth'd with fine Linnen, the 
People follow'd cloth'd alfo in White, and Jaddtts 
the High-Prlefl in his Pontifical Habit, was at the 
Head of the Multitude. The King admiring the 
Beauty of this pompous Proceffion, alighting from 
his Horfe, advancd alone, and having firft ador'd the 
Name of God that was engrav'd on a Gold Plate 
in the High- Priefis Mitre, he afterwards faluted the 
High-Priefi himfelf. The Unexpectednefs of the 
thing, ftruck all the Spectators with Amazement. 
And the Jews, who not only faw themfelves freed 
from their imminent Danger , but alfo taken into 
Favour, contrary to their Expectation , furround- 
ed the King , praifing and congratulating him ,. 
and offering up their Prayers for his Profperity. 
On the contrary , the little Kings of Syria, who 
were bitter Enemies of the Jews, and had follow- 
ed Alexander in hopes to gratifle their Eyes with 
the Punishment of their inveterate Foes, were fo 
aftonifti'd, that they in a manner doubted, whether 
what they beheld, was a Reality, or whether their 
Senfes were ampos'd upon by a Dream ; nay, the 
Macedonians themfelves,. were not lefs fufpriz/d at 
the unufual Spectacle ; infomuch that Parmenio ap- 


proaching the King, took the Liberty to afk him, 
Why he jhew d fo much Refpeci to foreign Ceremo- 
nies, fince to receive it from fo vile a Nation, were 
unworthy fo great a King ? Hereupon Alexander told 
him his Dream. 

After which, he enter'd into the Town, and 
in their moft beautiful Temple offer'd Sacrifices 
to God according to the receiv'd Cuftom of the 
Place, beftowing on it many noble Prefents. Here 
he faw alfo their facred Books which contain'd fe- 
veral ancient Prophefies; among which, there was 
this, that lyre fliould yield to the Macedonians , 
and that the Perfians mould be overcome by a 
Greek. He looking upon himfelf to be the Perfon 
meant therein, granted the Jews the liberty of li- 
ving both at home and abroad, according to their 
own Cufloms and Laws : And becaufe their Land 
lies until d every feventh Tear, he ordain d that they 
fhould be freed from that Proportion of their Taxes. 
He was mightily taken alfo with the Nature of the 
Country, which (befides the other Fruits which it 
produces in as plentiful a manner as any other) 
alone affords the Balm-Tree. Alexander made 
Andromachus Governor of thefe Provinces, whom 
the Samaritans (the Jews mortal Enemies) barba- 
roufly murder'd a little Time after. But thefe 
things were tranfa<fted after the Reduction of Tyre 
and Gaza, tho' we lay hold of this Occafion to re- 
late 'em before-hand. 


ALEXANDER having pafs'd the narrow 
Way that lies along the Pamphylian Sea ; up- 
on his March from Perg& , was met on the Road 
by Ambafladors from the Afpendij, defiring they 


138 FreinfliemiusV Supplement: 

might not be compell'd to receive a Garifon, pro- 
miring in confideration of that Exemption, fifty 
Talents towards the Soldiers Pay , and as many 
Horfes as they us'd, to maintain by the way of 
Tribute for the King of Perfia. From thence the 
King advanc'd to the Sideta, who are feated near the 
River Melm ; they are of the Race of the Cnm&- 
ans of JEolia , but are barbarous in their Speech, 
having loft their Greek; not by length of Time, as 
it often happens , but they fay , that their Ance- 
ftors at their firft coming into thofe Parts, on the 
fudden forgot their native Language, and fpoke one 
till then unknown. 

Having taken PofTefllon of Sida, which is the 
Metropolis of Pamphylia, he was marching towards 
Sy Ilium, a Town ftrong by its Situation, and pro- 
vided with a numerous Garifon of Foreigners and 
neighbouring Barbarians. In confideration where- 
of, and becaufe he was inform'd that the Afpendy 
had revolted, he alter'd his Courfe , and march'd 
to Afpendm. The Inhabitants were fo mightily 
furpnz'd at the fudden Arrival of the Macedonians, 
that forfaking their Houfes, they retir'd into the 
Cittadel. So that Alexander taking Poifaflion of 
the empty Town, encamp' d under the Caftle; and 
as he had with him very able Engineers, he by the 
Sight of his Preparations to attack 'em, oblig'd 'em 
to fue for Peace on their firit Terms. Nothing 
could happen more to Alexander $ Wifti (who had 
greater Deligns in view) than that he was not llopt 
in his Career by a long Siege, for the Place was 
no way contemptible. However, that the Revol- 
ters might not go altogether unpunihYd, he requi- 
red the mofl considerable of the Citrzens to be deli- 
ver d to him as Hofiages, and as the Tax of Money 
that had been fir fiimposd, vjas not yet paid, he now 
imposd upon \m double that Sum. He alfo added, 
That they fhould obey the Cover nour he fet over 'em. 


and pay a yearly Tribute to the Macedonians ; and 
as for the Territory, from whence they had driven 
fome of their Neighbours by Force, they were to 
he determined in that Point by the Law. 

Having perform'd thefe things, he took the Road 
that leads to the Town of the Pergenfefis, and 
from thence march'd into Phrygia. But in his 
March that way, he was obhg'd to pafs thro' a ve- 
ry (trait and narrow Lane, form'd by two Moun- 
tains that almoft jojn to one another, near Tel- 
mijftit a Town belonging to the Pi[id&. The En- 
trances into this Lane are fo llrait, that they may 
be compar'd to Gates: Here the Barbarians had 
polled themfelves, refolving to difpute Alexanders 
Palfage. But he presently caus'd his Army to en- 
camp at the very Entrance, concluding (what af- 
terwards happen'd) that the Telmiffenfes, feeing the 
Tents pitch'd, would imagine the- Danger to be 
delay'd, and fo would not long remain in thofe 
Straits, but leaving a competent Number of Men 
to guard 'em, would retire into the Town. Alexan- 
der therefore laying hold of this Opportunity, or- 
der d the Archers and Slingers to advance, as alio 
thofe of the heavy arm'd Troops that were lead 
encumber'd ; and having beat thofe that guarded 
the Pafs, he went and encamp'd before the Town. 
Here AmbafTadors came to him from the Selgenfes, 
who (out of their inveterate Hatred to the Tel- 
mijfenfes, altho' of the fame Nation) offer'd their 
Friendfliip and AlMance to the King. He having 
receiv'd 'em very graciouily, that he might not 
walle his Time in the Siege of one Place, he went 
and encamp'd before Sagalajjhs, which is a flrong 
Place, and was well provided with the Flower of 
their Forces for its Defence; for tho' all the Pi- 
fids, are warlike and brave , yet the Sagalaffenfis 
are efteem'd the flouteft of 'era all. Thefe being 
reinforc'd with Troops from the Ttlmefenfes, their 


140 FreinlhemiusV Supplement 

Allies, and having more Confidence in their own 
Courage, than in their Walls, had drawn up their 
Army on a neighbouring' Hill , and by reafon of 
the Advantage they had of the Ground, they re* 
puls'd the light-arm'd Forces Alexander had fent 
againft 'em : However, the Agriani made an ob- 
ftinate Refiftance, and feem'd to be encourag'd by 
the Approach of the Macedonian Phalanx, and the 
Kings Prefence, whom they beheld before the Co- 
lours. The Soldiers labour'd under great Difficul - 
ties while they forc'd their Way up the Hill ; but 
as foon as they had got a little firmer Footing, 
they eafily difpers'd the Multitude of Mountaineers 
that were but half arm'd. There fell in this Action 
of the Macedonians , Cleandcr, w r ho was a Captain, 
and about twenty private Men : Of the Barbari- 
ans, five hundred were flain ; the reft fav'd them- 
felves by flight, and the Knowledge of the Coun- 
try. The King purfu'd them as faft as Troops fo 
encumber'd with Arms, poflibly could, and at the 
fame time made himfelf Matter of their Town. 
He carry'd his Arms againft the other ftrong Places 
of Pifidia, of which he reduc'd fome by Force, 
others he receiv'd by Compofition. He raz'd Tel- 
mijj'm, for the Obftinacy of its Inhabitants, whom 
he depriv'd of their Liberty, and a little after, he 
united 'em with fome other Cities of Pifidia , to 
the Government oiCeUn&. Alexander having thus 
quieted thefe bold People, continu'd his March in- 
to Phrygia , by the Lake Afcanius, whofe Waters 
naturally come to a Concretion, and fo fave thofe 
who live within its Neighbourhood the trouble of 
going farther for Salt. 

While thefe Things were doing , Memnon ha- 
ving got together the fcatter'd Remains of his Ar- 
my, refolv'd to carry the War into Greece and Ma- 
cedonia, and by that Diverfion, force Alexander to 
leave Afia. For Darius now put all his Hopes in 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. 141 

him alone, feeing he had by his Bravery and Con- 
dud kept the Conqueror lb long in play at Halt- 
carnajfus'y He therefore made him Generali(fimo of 
all his Forces, and lent him a vaft Sum of Money. 
Memnon by this Help, having hir'd as many Troops 
as he could , fail'd up and down the Seas without 
Qppoiition, his Fleet confuting of three hundred 
Ships. He now took into ferious Conii deration, 
what could either favour or crofs his Deiigns : 
And having made himfelf Matter of thofe Places 
that were lefs carefully guarded, (among which 
was Lampfacus) he attack'd the 1 Hands which the 
Macedonians could not fuccour for want of a 
Fleet, notwithstanding they were Mailers on both 
iides the Continent. 

The great Divilions that reign'd among the 
People was of mighty Advantage to Memnon in 
his Undertaking : For as fome were in Alexanders 
Intercft on account of their Liberty which he had 
reftor'd to 'em ; there were others , who, having 
got together great Riches under the Perfians, pre- 
ferr'd their own private Power , under their old 
Mafters, to a general Equality in a free Republick. 
This made Athenagoras and Apolionides, (who were 
two of the molt coniiderable Men of the Me of 
Chios) having communicated their Defign to Pht- 
finus and Megarens, and others of their Faction, 
invite Memnon thither. Thus Chios was taken by 
Treachery , where having left a fufficient Garrifon, 
the Adminiftration of Affairs was by him put in- 
to the Hands of Apollonites and his AJJ'ociates. 

From thence failing to Lesbos he with fmall Op- 
poiition made himfelf Matter of Antijja, Pyrrha, 
and Erejfks. He eftablifh'd Ariftonicus in the Re- 
gency of Methymna, and reduc'd the whole Mand, 
except the famous City of Mitylene , which held 
out a coniiderable time , and was not taken by 
Memnon himfelf : For when he had rais'd a great 


i^z FreinfhemiusV Supplement, &c. 

many Works about the Town, had fl^ut up the 
Port, and difpos'd his Ships in proper Places, to 
cut off all Succour from the Place ; he was feiz'd 
with the Plague, and lb fmftrated all the Hopes 
of the Perfians, to their irreparable Damage. But 
when he found he was near his End, he refign'd 
his Command to Phamabafus his Siller's Son , 
whom (he had by Artabafus, till Darius being in- 
form'd of his Death, fhould provide otherwife. 
Phamabafus therefore dividing the Duties of the 
Siege with Autophradates , the Admiral fo ftreigh- 
ten'd the befieg'd, that they furrender'd upon the 
following Conditions : That the Garrifon fljould 
be permitted to march off unmolefted : That the Pil- 
lars on which were engravd the Terms of their 
Alliance with Alexander fliould be flung down ; 
and fwearing Allegiance to Darius , they fhould call 
home half of thofe who were banifh d. But the 
Perfians did not oblerve all the Articles of Capi- 
tulation ; for having introduc'd Soldiers to the 
Town, they made Lycomedes the Rhodian y Go- 
vernor ; affigning the Regency of the Country to 
Diogenes on the Account of his Zeal for the Per- 
fian Intereft. After this they extorted Money 
from the richeft Inhabitants, notwithstanding which 
the common Tax of the Mytilemans was not at 
all leffeaed. 





N the mean time Alexander Tent 
Oleander with a confiderable Sum 
of Money to raife Recruits in Pe- 
loponnefus ; and having fettl'd the 
Affairs of Lycia zn&Pamph'riia, ad- 
vanced his Army, before the Town 
Celent, which the River Marjias at that time di- 
vided in two. This River was much celebrated 
by the fabulous Relations of the Greek Poets. Its 
Spring rifes out of the Top of a hill, and falls af- 
terwards upon a Rock beneath it, with a mighty 
Noife, from whence it diffuies it felf, and waters 
the neighbouring Plains, being very clear, as car- 
rying along with it nothing but its own pure 
Streams. Its Colour therefore refembles that of 
tine calm Sea , and thereby gave Birth to the Fi- 

144 FreinfliemiusV Supplement 

(ftion of the Poets, who pretend, that the Nymphs 
being in hve with this River, took up their Refi- 
dince in that Rock. So long as it runs within the 
Walls, it retains its own Name; but when it 
leaves the Town it grows larger and becomes 
more rapid in its Cou.fe, and is then call'd the 
Lycus. Alexander rinding the Town deferted by 
its "Inhabitants , enter'd it ; and was preparing to 
attack the Cittadel into which they had fled : He 
therefore fent a Herald to 'em, to let them know, 
that if they did not furrender the Place, they mufi 
expecl the utmoft Severities. But they taking the 
Herald into a high Tower, ftrong both by Nature 
and Art , bid him take a Vieiv of its Heigh th and 
acquaint Alexander , that the Inhabitants and he 
had different Notions of its Fortifications : They 
knezv they could not be reduc d ; but however: let 
the worfl come that could, they were ready to lay 
down ttoeir Lives for their Loyalty. Yet when 
they faw they were formally beiieg'd , and that 
every thing grew fcarcer with 'em from one day 
to another ; they agreed upon a Truce for two 
Months , in zvhich time if they received no Relief 
from Darius , they promised to furrender ; and ac- 
cordingly (no Succour appearing) they fubmitted 
to the King, on the day preflx'd for that Purpofe. 
About this time AmbafTadors came to him from 
the Athenians, to defire that thofe of their City, 
who had been made Prifoners at the Battle near 
the River Granicus might be reltor'd to 'em. A- 
lexander made Anfwer , that not only their Citi- 
zens, bnt likewife all the other Greeks fhould be re- 
fhord to their refpeclive Cities, as foon as the Per- 
lian War ruas ended. However as he long'd to 
come to an Engagement with Darius, who, as he 
was inform'd, had not yet pafs'd the Euphrates ; 
he from all Parts fummon'd his Troops, that he 
might be able with his whole Strength, to come 



to a deciftve Aftion with him. He was then lead- 
ing his Army through Phrygia ; which abounded 
with Villages , but had not many Towns. Yet 
there was one ftill in Requeft call'd Gordiun , the 
ancient Seat of Midas. The River Sangarius 
runs through it, and it is feated between the Pon- 
tick and the C'dicUn Seas. Thefe Seas almoft 11- 
nite, having but a fin all Neck of Land to part 'em, 
each Sea ftriving to encroach upon the Land, and 
reducing it into a narrow Straight. But yet tho' 
it reaches the Continent, and as it is almoft fur- 
rounded with Water, it feems to reprefent an 
Ifland; infomuch, that were it not for this flen- 
der Partition, thefe Seas would join. Alexander, 
having made himfelf Mailer of the Town , went 
into Jupiter s Temple : where they (hew'd him 
Gordiuss Chariot, who was father to Midas, This 
Chariot in outward Appearance differ'd very lit- 
tle from the common Sort. But there was one 
thing in it very remarkable, which was a Cord fo 
myfterioufly ty'd into Knots , fo artfully interwo- 
ven one within the other , that no Body could 
find out where they began , nor where they end- 
ed : The Inhabitants giving him to underftand , 
That the Oracle had declard, that he that could un- 
tie that Knot fhould conquer Afia , he was mighty 
defirous to fulfil the Prcphecy. The King was then 
furrounded with a great many Phrygians and Ma- 
cedonians : Thofe impatiently waited for the E- 
vent, and thefe were full of Concern for the rafh 
Undertaking of their Prince j For the Series of 
Knots was fo perplex'd , that neither Reafon nor 
Senfe could direft him in the Difcovery either of 
its Beginning or End. Hereupon the King being 
apprehenfive that his failing in this Point might 
be look'd upon as ominous, after a long and fruit* 
lefs Struggle with the Intricacy of the Knots, broke 
out into this Expreffion, That it was not very ma- 
H terial 

I4<5 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

terial how they were unty'd; fo taking his Sword 
he cut them all afunder, and by that means either 
eluded or fulfill'd the Prophecy. 

Alexander being now refolv'd to find out Da- 
rius wherever he was, that he might leave all 
things in Safety behind him, he gave to Amphote- 
ric the Command of his Fleet , on the Coaft of 
the Hellefpont; and declar'd Hegelochm General of 
the Land Forces, giving them Orders to drive out 
the Perfian Garrifons from Lejbos , Chios , and 
Coos , and ordered them fifty Talents for the faid 
Ufes : he fent at the fame time to Antipater, and 
the other Governors of the Greek Cities, fix hun- 
dred Talents. He required alfo of his Confede- 
rates that they mould with their own Ships de- 
fend the Hellefpont. The King was not yet in- 
form'd of Memnons Death, who was then the 
chiefell of his Care, being well aflur'd that he 
mould meet with nothing to flop him , unlefs it 
was through his means. 

Alexander was by this time come to the Town 
Ancyra, where having mufter'd his Army, he en- 
ter'd Pdphlagonia : which border'd upon the Eneti, 
from whence fome are of Opinion the Venetians 
are defcended. All this Country readily fubmit- 
ted to the King; and having giv'n him Pledges for 
their future Loyalty, they obtain'd an Exemption 
from Tribute, it appearing they had not paid any 
even to the Perjians. He gave Cains the Govern- 
ment of this Country, and march'd himfelf into 
Cappadocia, taking with him the new Levies that 
were lately come from Macedonia. 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. 147 


BUT Daruu receiving the News of Memnons 
Death , was no lefs giiev'd thereat than the 
Importance of the thing requir'd ; and hereupon 
laying alide all other Hopes , refolv'd to decide 
the Matter in Perfon : for he blam'd all his Ge- 
rals, concluding that moft of them had been ne- 
gligent, but that they were all unfortunate. Ha- 
ving therefore form'd a Camp near Babylon , that 
they might enter upon the War with the greater 
Courage, he drew all his Forces together in Sight 
of the City : where having intrench'd fuch a Space 
of Ground as would conveniently hold ten thou- 
fand Men after Xerxes's Method , he took a Lift 
of the Number of his Army. From the rifing of 
the Sun till Night, they kept moving into this in- 
trench'd Ground, according to their refpective 
Rolls, and from thence they were diftributed in 
the Plains of Mefopotamia. 

The Multitude of his Horfe and Foot was al- 
moft innumerable , and yet in appearance thev 
feem'd to be Hill more than they really were. Of 
Perjians there were one hundred thoufand, wlr 
of thirty thoufand were Horfe. The Medians 
"-made up ten thoufand Horfe and fifty thoufand 
Foot. The Barcanians confifted of two thoufand 
Horfe, arm'd with two-edg'd Bills and light roun- 
difh Bucklers , and ten thoufand Foot arm'd after 
the fame manner. The Armenians had fent for- 
ty thoufand Foot, and feven thoufand Horfe. The 
Hircanians, who were in great Repute among thofe 
Nations , furniuYd fix thoufand Horfe. The Der- 
bkas had fitted out forty thoufand Foot, moft of 
'em arm'd with Pikes , and the reft with Staves 
harden'd in the Fire ; thefe were alfo accompa- 
H 2. ny'd 

148 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

ny'd with two thoufand Horfe of the fame Na- 
tion. From the Cafpian Sea there came eight 
thoufand Foot , and two hundred Horfe : Thefe 
had with 'em of the iefs confiderable Afiaticks 
two thoufand Foot , and double that Number of 
Horfe. Belides thefe Troops , there were thirty 
thoufand Greeks in their Pay, all chofen young 
Men. As for the Baclrians, Sogdians, and Indi- 
ans, and the other Inhabitants bordering on the 
Red Sea, whofe Names were hardly known to 
him, the Hafte he was in would not permit him 
to wait for their coming. It is plain from hence 
that he wanted nothing lefs than Number of 

The Sight of this vaft Multitude was fo grate- 
ful to him , and his Nobles , according to their 
ufual Flattery, fo fwell'd his Hopes, that turning 
to Charidemus an Athenian, an experienc'd Sol- 
dier, and an Enemy to Alexander on the Account 
of his Banifliment (for he had been expell'd A- 
thens by his Order ) he ailc'd him , Whether he 
thought him well enough provided to overthrow his 
Enemy l But Charidemm , unmindful of his Con- 
dition , or the Kings Pride , made this Anfwer : 
Perhaps , Sir , you may not he fleas 'd with the 
Truth, and yet if 1 do not tell it now, it will he in 
vain for me to tell it hereafter. This Army of 
yours that makes fo great an Appearance, this vafi 
.Multitude compos 'd of fo many different Nations , 
and of all the E aft em Countries , perhaps may be 
terrible to the neighbouring People : The Purple and 
Gold with ivhich it is adorn d, the Splendor and 
Riches of its Arms is fuch , that they who have 
not beheld it with their Eyes , can hardly bring 
their Thoughts to conceive an Appearance of this 
nature. But the Macedonian Army is dreadful to 
behold, and are inurd to protect their immoveable 
Wedges, and the united Strength of their Men with 


Book III, Quintus Curtius. 149 

their Pikes and Bucklers. Their Phalanx is a, firm 
Body of Foot ; the Men ftand in clofe Order, and 
their Arms are in a manner united ; they are fo 
perfectly well exercised, that they knoiv how {upon 
the leafi Signal givn) to follow their Colours and 
obferve their Ranks. The Word of Command is by 
all obeyd at once : Whether it be to repel the Ene- 
my, to zuheel about, or change the Order of Battle, 
the Officers themfelves are not more expert, than the 
common Soldiers. And that you may not think they 
value Gold or Silver, they have learn d this Difci- 
pline in the School of Poverty : When they are tird 
the Ground is their Bed ; they fatisfie their Hunger 
with any thing they can get. Now as for the Thef- 
falian Horfe, the Acarnanians , and the ^Etolians , 
they are an invincible Body of Men , and fiall 1 
believe they are to be repus d with Slings, and Pikes 
harden d in the Fire ? No, Sir, there muji be an 
equal Strength, and you ought to feek for Succour in 
that Country that produc'd thefe Men : fend there- 
fore that Gold and that Silver to hire Troops from 
whence they came. Dariu* was naturally of a 
mild and tradable Difpofition, but his high Station 
now and then tainted it. Being therefore unable 
to bear the Truth, he broke through the Laws of 
Hofpiiality and commanded both his Gadls-ad Sup- 
pliant and heft Adviler, to be hurried azvay to Ex%> " 
cution. However even that did not hinder him 
from fpeaiung his Mind freely ; for he told the 
King , 1 have one at hand that will revenge my 
Death, and he that J advisd againfl will chafiife 
you for flighting my Counfel : And you, that by 
the Regcd Prerogative are fo fuddenly changd, fliall 
be an Example to Poflerity, that when Men aban- 
don themfelves to their Fortune , they even forget 
Nature. While he was making this publick De- 
claration, the Executioners cut his Throat. The 
H'3 King 

15*0 Quintus Curtius. BookllL 

King was afterwards touch'd with too late a Re- 
pentance ; and acknowledging he had [poke the 
Truth, order'd him to be buried. 


^HHymodes , Mentors Sbn , was a briflc young 
1 Man : Darius commanded him to receive 
from Phamabazus all the foreign Forces ; for he 
had great Confidence in 'cm, and defign'd there- 
fore to make ufe of 'em in the War : At the 
lame time he gave to Pharnabazus the fame Com- 
jniiiion ^tMemnon had. Now as Darius' sThoughts 
were wholly taken up with the Views of the pre- 
fent important Affairs , he had alfo in his Sleep 
feveral Dreams, that feem'd to foretel the Event 
of things ; which whether they proceeded from 
Solicitude and Care, or that his Mind had a real 
Foreknowledge of what was to happen is uncer- 
tain. He dream'd that the Macedonians Camp was 
all on Fire ; and a little after that Alexander was 
brought to him in the fame Garb he was in him- 
felf when he was cjiofen King, and that having rid 
through the City, he on the fudden vanim'd, Horfe 
and all. The Judgments of the Soothfayers were 
various, and kept People in fufpence : for fome 
of 'em faid , His Dream portended good Luck , by 
reafon that the Enemies Camp tvas on fire, and A- 
lexander having laid afide his Regal Robes, had 
been brought to him in the private Drefs of the Per- 
fians. Others were of a clear different Opinion, 
and faid, That the Brightnefs of the Macedonian 
Camp was a Token of Alexander'* future Splendour ; 
ivho they conjeclur'd would make himfelf Mafier of 
Afia, becaufe he had d m the fame Drefs Darius 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. i<ri 

had on when he vjcu fainted King. The prefent 
Anxiety had alfo received paft Prefages, as it ufu- 
ally happens. Darius in the Beginning of his Reign 
had order d the Perfian Scabbard to be changd into 
that Form that the Greeks usd ; hereupon the 
Chaldeans prognofticated that the Perfian Empire 
fbould pafs into the Hands of thofe, zuhofe Arms 
they had imitated. However he was wonderfully 
pleas'd with the Interpreters, Expofition , which 
was fpread among the Vulgar , and with the Re- 
prefentation of his Bream ; and therefore gave 
Orders for his Army to move towards the Eu- 

It was an ancient Cufifom among the Perfians 
not to break up their Camp till the Sun was rofe, 
and then the Trumpet gave Notice from the King's 
Tent ; upon which the Image of the Sun was 
plac'd, enclos'd in a Cryftal Cafe. 

The Army march'd in the following Order, 
The Fire, which they hold to be facred and eter- 
nal, was carry'd before on Silver Altars. The 
Magi follow'd next, linging Verfes after their Coun- 
try Manner. Thefe were fucceeded by three 
hundred fixty five Youths, cloath'd in fcarlet, an- 
fwering the Number of the Days of the Year ; 
for the PerfianYexv is divided into fo many Days. 
After thefe came the Chariot confecrated to Ju- 
piter y which was drawn by white Hofes ; thefe 
were follow'd by a Horfe of an uncommon Heighth 
and Bulk, and was call'd the Horfe of the Sun. The 
Drivers were adorn'd with golden Wands, and 
white Habits. At a fmall diftance follow'd ten 
Chariots embellifhed with a great deal of Gold 
and Silver finely engrav'd. Next came the Ca- 
valry of twelve Nations , different in their Man- 
ners , and varioufly arm'd. After thefe march'd 
thofe whom the Perfians call the Immortal, being 
ten thoufand in Number ; among all the Barb a- 
H 4 rians 

151 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

rians none were more richly clad : They had 
gold Chains about their Necks , and their Clothes 
were embroider'd with Gold ; befides which they 
had fleev'd Jackets, finely adorn'd with Pearl. At 
a fmall diftance follow'd thofe who went by the 
Denomination of the King's Relations , confirming 
of fifteen thoufand Men. This Band being drefs'd 
aim oil after the manner of Women, was more 
confpicuous for its Luxury than for its Arms. 
The Doryphori came next, who carry'd the Kings 
Apparel ; thefe preceded the Kings Chariot , 
where his Seat was fo high that he was ealily 
feen. Each Side of the Chariot was curioufly 
fet off with the Images of the Gods , wrought 
in Gold and Silver ; the Beam of it glitter'd 
with precious Stones , and bore two Images of 
Gold about a Cubit high , one whereof reprefent- 
ed N'mm , and the other Bclas : Between thei'e 
was plac'd a facred Eagle of Gold with its Wings 
expanded. But the Magnificence of the King's 
Apparel. exceeded every thing ; his Puiple Veil 
was neatly intet wrought with Silver Stripes , and. 
his upper Garment was moil artfully embroider'd 
with Gold, and was befides beautified with the 
Representation of two Hawks wrought in Gold, 
who feem'd to peck at one another. His Girdle 
was after the Womens Mode alfo of Gold , at 
which hung his Sword , which had a Scabbard of 
Pearl. The Royal Ornament for the Head, is by 
the Perfians call'd a Cidaris> this was encompafs'd 
with a Roll of a Iky Colour , with a Mixture of 
white. The Chariot was follow'd by ten thou- 
fand Pikemen , whofe Pikes were plated with Sil- 
ver, having their Spikes tipp'd with Gold. The 
King had on his right and left about two hundred 
of the nobleit of his Relations. This Body was 
attended by thirty thoufand Foot who were fol- 
io w'd by four hundred of the King's Horfes. Af- 

Book III. Quintos Curtius, 153 • 

ter thefe, within the diftance of one Furlong, was 
Syfigambis, Darim's Mother, in one Chariot, and 
his Queen in another : The Troop of Servants that 
waited on the Queen's, was on Horfe back, next 
came fifteen cover' d Waggons, in which were the 
King's Children with their Tutors nn&Eunuchs, which. 
are not accounted contemptible in thefe Nations. 
Then follow'd three hundred and fixty of- the 
Kings Concubines, all in regal Apparel. The King's 
Money which was carry'd by fix hundred Mules, 
and three hundred Camels, attended by a Guard 
of Archers, went next. After thefe came the 
Wives of the King's Relations and Friends r - who 
were follow'd by Crowds of Servants and Slaves. 
The whole was concluded by the light arm'd Sol- 
diers with their refpedtive Officers who brought 
up the Rear. Such was Darius s Army. 

But he that beheld Alexander's would find it 
altogether different ; for neither the Men nor 
the Ho'rfes glitter'd with Gold nor rich Apparel, 
but with their Iron and Brafs ; yet his Troops 
were always ready either to halt or to march, be- 
ing neither burthen'd with Followers, nor over- 
loaded with Baggage ; ever attentive, not only to 
the General's Signal, but even the leaft nod of his 
Head : He had room enough to encamp in, and 
Provifion enough for his Army : fo that when it 
was drawn up in order of Battle, he could fee a 
fingle Soldier was not wanting. Whereas Darius, 
Who was King of fo vaft a Multitude, by the ftraight- 
nefs of the Place in which he fought, was reduc'd 
to the fmall Number he had defpis'd in his Enemy, 


154 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 


IN the mean time Alexander having appointed 
Abiflamenes, Governor of Cappadocia, march'd 
with his Army towards Cilicia, and was already 
come to the Place they call Cyrus's Camp ; this 
part of the Country was fo call'd from Cyrus's 
having encamp' d there, as he was marching into 
Lydia againft Crosfus. It was about fifty Furlongs 
diftant from the narrow PafTage that leads into 
Cilicia, which by the Inhabitants is call'd PyU % be- 
ing narrow Straits, which Nature feems by Situa- 
tion to have made as ftrong as if they had been for- 
tify'd by the Hand of Man. Upon Advice of 
this, Arfanes, who was Governor of Cilicia, cal- 
ling to mind Memmns Counfel at the beginning 
of the War ( when it would have been of Ufe ) 
executed the fame when it was too late ; ravaging 
Cilicia with Fire and Sword, that the Enemy 
might find it a mere Defart, fpoiling every thing 
that could any way be ufeful, that he might leave 
that Country naked and barren, which he could 
not defend ; but it had been much more advifable 
to have feiz'd the Pafs , and to have guarded it 
with a ftrong Body of Men, and to have made 
himfelf Matter of the Mountain that commands" 
the Road, from whence it had been eafie, with- 
out the leaft danger, either to have kept off, or 
to have opprefs'd the Enemy. However, he ha- 
ving left a few to defend the fame , went back 
himfeif to lay wafte that Country, that he ought 
to have preferv'd from Depredations. This made 
thofe he left there (imagining they were betray'd) 
•not fo much as wait for the light of the Enemy, 
when at the fame time a fmaller Number might 
have defended that Place; for Cilicia is hemm'd 


Book HI. Quintus Curtius. t$? 

in by a Ridge of craggy fteep Hills, which begin- 
ning at the Sea on one iide, and fetching a com- 
pafs about, joins again to the Sea on other fide,. 
The back of the Mountain that lies fartheft from 
the Sea, has three very narrow Paffes, by the one 
of which you enter Cilicia ; that part of it that 
lies towards the Sea is Champain, and has its Plains 
water' d by feveral Rivers, of thefe Py ramus and 
Cydnws are the moft confiderable. The Cydnm is 
not lb remarkable for the largenefs of its Stream,, 
as for the clearnefs of its Water; for falling gent- 
ly from its Fountain-head, it is received in a pure 
Soil, and has no Torrents falling into it to difturb 
its gentle Current. This is the caufe that its Wa- 
ters are very clear, and at the fame time mighty- 
cold ; for being fhaded by the Trees that grow 
on its Banks on each fide, it preferves its Purity 
all the way till it falls into the Sea. Time has im- 
pair'd a great many ancient Monuments in this. 
Country, which have been celebrated by the Poets 
Here are to be feenthe Ruins of the Towns Lyr~ 
neffus and Thebes, as alfo Tryphons Cave, and the 
Corycian Grove, which affords Saffron ;.with the^ 
Fame of many other Curiofities, which fublift 
now only in Report. 

Alexander having enter' d thefe Straits,, and 
confider'd the Nature of the Place, was feiz'd with 
an Admiration of his own Felicity, for he did not 
fcruple to confefs, That he and his Army might 
have been knock' d on the Head with Stones only, if 
there had been but Hands to have rowV d 'em down 
upon 'em as they pafi'd under the Mountain, The 
V/ay was fo narrow that four Men could hardly 
march a breaft ; hefides, the back of the Hill hung 
over it, and it was not only difficult on the.fcore. 
of its ftreightnefs, but alfo for its being in many 
Places broken, by the feveral Rivulets that flow 
from the bottom of the Hills. 

H'6 Alexander 

156 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

Alexander therefore order'd the light arm'd 
Thracians to march before, and examine the nar- 
row tvays, for fear the Enemy jljould lye there in- 
Ambufc/tde to furpr'ife him. He alfo fent a Body 
of Archers to polleis themfelves of the top of the 
Hill, ordering them to march with their Bows 
ready bent, admonifhing 'em that they were not 
entring upon a March, but upon an Engagement. 
In this Order he advanc'd to the City of Tarfus y 
which the Perfians were then fetting on Fire> 
that lb rich a Place might not fall into the Hands 
of the Enemy. But the King having fent Par- 
menio before with a Detachment of light Horfe, 
to put a Hop to the Fire, fav'd the Place ; and un- 
demanding that upon approach of his Men the 
Barbarians were fled, enter'd the Town he had 


TH E River Cydnus ( of which we before made 
mention) runs thro' this City , and it was 
then the fummer Seafon , at which time the Heat 
is no where more violent than in this Country of 
Cilicia, and it was the hotter! time of the Day. 
The clearn efs of the Stream invited the King to 
wafli the Sweat and Duft off his Body, which at 
that time was over heated ; therefore he pull'doff 
his Clothes in fight of the Army , ( thinking it 
would Hill encreafe their Efteern for him, if they 
peiceiv'd he was not over nice in the Care of his 
Perfon, but was contented with that Refrefhment 
that was cheap and always at Hand ) and went in- 
to the River : He was no fooner in it but a fud- 
den horror feiz'd all his Limbs,, and he turn'd pale, 
the vital Heat having almoft forfaken his Body. 


Book HI. Quintus CuRTius. 157 

Hereupon his Servants took him up, and carry'd 
him into his Tent, he being like one expiring, and 
equally infenfible. 

The Camp was now in the greater!; Affliction 
and Concern, nay almoft in Tears; they bewailed 
the hard Fate of their King ( the greatefl and mo ft 
memorable Prince of any Age , that he Jhould) 
be in fuch a manner fnatch'd away , in fo prc- 
mifing a courfe of Succefi ; and that too , not in 
Battle, nor by the Hand of the Enemy, but bathing 
himfelf in a River. That Darius was now almoft 
in the Neighbourhood , *nd would be a Conqueror 
without fo much as feeing hit Enemy. That they 
fiould be forcd to march back as Men vanqui/h'd, 
through thofe Countries they had fp lately fubdud ; 
and as either they themfelves or the Enemy had laid 
every thing wafte in their March, they fiould pe- 
rifh even by Famine and Want, in fuch vaft Witt* 
dernejfes, altho no Enemy purfud 'em. Who would 
prefume to be their Leader in their Flight ? Who would 
dare to fucceed Alexander ? And admitting they 
made a good Retreat to the Hellefpont, tvho would 
prepare a. lleet to tranfport 'em ? Then turning, 
their pity again to the King, they lamented, that 
fuch a Flower of Touth, fuch a Genius and ftrength 
of Mind, their King and their fellow Soldier at the 
fame time, fijculd be as it zvere torn from 'em, af- 
ter fo furprizing a manner. In the mean time 
Aiexander began to breathe a little more freely, 
and to open his Eyes, and by degi v;cs recovering 
his Semes, to know thofe about him ; and the 
height of hisDiftemper feem'd to abate, if it were 
but in this, that he was now fenfible of the great- 
nefsof his Sicknefs. The Indifpofition of his Bo- 
dy now affec'ted his Mind, for he was inform 'd, 
that Darius was but five Bays March off of Cilicia. 
It greiv'd him to think, that he fhould be deliver & 
as it were bound into th§ Hands of his Enemy ; 


ifS Quintus Curtius. Book lit 

that fo glorious a Victory fiould be wrefted from 
him, and that he Jhould die after an obfcure and 
ignoble manner in his Tent. Having therefore cal- 
led together his Friends and Phyficians, he fpoke 
to 'em to this Effect, You fee in -what Juncture of 
my Affairs Fortune has furprizd me \ methinks I 
hear the noife of the Enemy s Arms, and I that 
was the Aggrejfor am now provolzd to Battle ; one 
would think that when Darius writ thofe haugh- 
ty Letters to me, that my Fortune had been of his 
Council, but yet in vain , if I may be permitted to 
he curd my own way. My Occafions do not require 
flow Medicines, nor timorous Phyficians ; nay, I had. 
better dye refolutely than to recover my Health /low- 
ly ; therefore if there be any Help or Art in my 
Phyficians, let them know, that I do not feek fo 
much a Remedy againfi Death, as againfl the im- 
pending War. This violent Temerity fill'd all the 
ftanders by with Concern , every one therefore 
began to entreat him, that he would. not encreafe 
his Danger by too precipitous a hafle, but that he 
would commit himfelf to the Care of his Phyfici- 
ans ; that they did not without Caufe difirufi un-- 
try'd Remedies , fince the Enemy had with Mo- 
ney tempted thofe about him to his Deftruclion 
{for Darius had publickly notify d, that he would 
give a thoufand Talents to ivhoever Jhould kill 
Alexander;) that on this Account they did not be- 
lieve any Body would dare to make tryal of a Re- 
medy , that by its novelty might give jufi caufe for 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. 15-9 


THERE was among the eminent Phyiicians 
that had follow'd the King from Macedonia, 
one nam'd Philip, an Acarnan by Nation, a faith- 
ful Friend of the Kings, to vvhofe Care Alexander 
had been committed from his Childhood ; he there- 
fore lov'd the King with a particular Tendernefs, 
looking upon him not only as his King, but alfo 
as his Pupil. This Man promis'd Alexander that 
he would give him a Dofe of Phyfick that fliould 
work its Effects foon , and yet fhould not fail of 
curing his Diftemper. This Promife pleas'd no 
Body but him at whofe Peril it was. made, for he 
lik'd any thing better than delay : The Armies 
were conftantly before his Eyes, and he thought 
himfelf fure of the Victory if he could but head 
his Men. The only thing he diilik'd was, that he 
was not to take this Medicine ( for fo the Phyfi- 
cian had pre-acquainted him) till three Days were 

While thefe things were doing he receives Ad- 
vice from Parmenio, in whom he chiefly confided, 
not to truft Philip with his Health, for that Da- 
rius had corrupted him -with the promife of a thou- 
fand Talents, and the hopes of hi* Sifier in Marri- 
age. Thefe Letters fill'd him with Anxiety and 
Care, he weigh' d within himfelf whatever either 
Fear or Hope could fuggeft to him. Shall I take 
this Potion ? That in cafe it be Poyfon I ma,y be 
thought to deferve zvhatever happens ? Shall I di- 
flrufi the Fidelity of my Phypcian, or /hall I refolve 
to be opprefi in my own Tent? However, it is better 
I 'fliould dye by another's Crime than my own Fear, 
Thefe things work'd his Mind different ways, yet 
he did not reveal to any Body the Contents of 


i6o Quintus Curtius, Book III 

the Letter, but fealing it with his Ring, he laid 
it under his Pillow. Having pafs'd two Days in 
this Agitation of Mind, the third was now at hand, 
which was the Day prefix'd by his Phylician for 
the taking his Medicine, the which he according- 
ly brought him. Alexander feeing him, rais'd him- 
felf upon his Elbow, and holding Parme.:ios Let- 
ter in his left Hand, took the Potion from him 
and drank it off boldly ; and then gave Philip the 
Letter to read , keeping his Eye nYd upon his 
Countenance all the time, judging that if he were 
Guilty, there would appear fome Symptoms of 
Guilt in his Looks, Philp having read the Letter, 
fhew'd more Indignation than Fear, and flinging 
down his Cloak and the Letters at the Bed fide, 
he faid, Sir, my Life has alzuays depended on your 
Majefty y but I look upon it now to di fo in a par- 
ticular manner, Jince the [acred breath you dravj 
muft determine mine. As for the Treafon and Par- 
ricide I am chargd zuith, your Recovery zvill fuff- 
ciently declare my Innocence ; and I beg that when 
I have favd your Life, you 11 gracioujly grant me 
mine. In the mean time fujfer the Medicine to work 
it felf into your t Veins , and compofe your Mind, 
that your Friends , tho out of Duty , have unfea- 
fcnably diflurb'd. This Speech not only made the 
King eafie, but chearful, and full' of Hopes. Be 
therefore told Philip, That if the Gods had giveii 
him the choice of an Expedient to know how he zuns 
ajfecled tozuards him , to be fure he zvould have 
pitch' d upon fome other : But however, he could not 
have wiflid for any more certain than that zvhich 
Fortune ndvj'ojfefd him ; for you fe$ that notzvith- 
ftnn/Ung \ tie Letter I receivd, I took the Potion yox 
gave me, and I believe you are now no left folicitom 
for your own Fidelity, than for my Recovery. 

Having fpoke thefe Words , he gave him his 
Hand, but when the Medicine began to exert it 


Book III. Quintus Curtius, 161 

felf, the Symptoms that enfu'd feem'd to back 
Parmenio's Advice ; for he was fo far fpent that he 
with much difficulty drew his breath. However,.. 
Philip omitted nothing that was proper, he apply'd 
Fomentations to his Body, and when he fainted 
he reftor'd him by the Odour of Meats andWine k ; 
and as foon as- he perceiv'd him to grow fenlible, 
he put him in mind fometimes of his Sifter and 
Mot her j and then again of the approaching Viclory. 

But when the Phyfick had wrought it felf into 
his Veins, there began to appear manifeft Tokens 
of his Recovery; for his Mind was firft reftor'd to 
its former Vigour, and then his Body regain'd its 
Strength fooner than could have been expected. 
For in three Day's time he fhew'd himfelf to the 
Army, which was overjoy'd to fee him, and aim oft 
with equal Eagernefs beheld Philip , whom they 
carrefs'd, returning him Thanks as to a prefent Di- 
vinity. Befides the natural Veneration this Nation 
has for its Kings , it is not eafy to exprefs , how 
particularly they admir'd and lov'd Alexander, 
For in the firft place, he feem'd to undertake no- 
thing but with the immediate Aiiiftance of the 
Deity; and as Fortune fided with him in every 
thing, his very Rafhnefs always turn'd to his Glory. 
Belides, as his Years did not feem ripe for fuch 
great Performances, yet as he acquitted himfelf 
worthily thereof, they were fo far from leifening 
'em, that they even added to their Luftre. More- 
over, there are many things which, tho' inconft- 
derable in themfelves , yet are very acceptable to 
the Soldiery ; as his exerciling his Body amongft 
'em , his extraordinary Apparel that dirfer'd little 
from that of a private Man, and his military Vi- 
gor, by which Endowments of Nature, or Arts of 
his Mind, he made himfelf both belov'd and re- 

C H A P. 

i6z Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 


AS foon as Darius was inform'd of Alexanders 
Indifpofition, he march'd with all the Expe- 
dition fo great a Multitude would admit of, to the 
Euphrates, and having laid a Bridge over the fame, 
his Army pafs'd it in five Days; for he defir'd to 
prevent his Enemy in the PorTeffion of Cilicia. 
But Alexander having recover'd his Strength, was 
now come to the Town call'd Soli, which he made 
himfelf Matter of, and rais'd by Contribution from 
it, two hundred Talents, putting a Garrifon into 
the Caftle. Here he perform'd the Vows he had 
^made for the Recovery of his Health, and cele- 
brated Sports in Honour of JEfadapim and Mi- 
nerva , (hewing thereby with what Afiurance he 
defpis'd the Barbarians. While he affifted at thefe 
Games, he receiv'd anExprefs from HalicamaJJ'm, 
which brought him the favourable News of the 
Perfians being beat by his Forces, and that the 
Mindians and Caimans, with feveral other People 
in thofe Parts, were brought under his Obedience. 

The Sports being ended, he decamp'd, and ha- 
ving laid a Bridge over the River Pyramid, he 
came to the City of Mallos ; from whence he broke 
up, and came to Cafiabala. Here he was join'd 
by Parmenioi whom he had fent to view the Paf- 
fage of the Foreil through which he was to march 
to the Town IJJ'm. Parmenio having feiz'd thefe 
Paries , and left a fufficient Number of Men to 
guard them , had alfo taken Poffeflion of IJfus , 
which the Inhabitants had abandon'd; from hence 
he advanc'd farther on, and drove the Enemy 
from their Holds in the Mountains, and having fe- 
cur'd the Roads, as we faid before, he retum'd to 
the King, both the Performer and the MefTenger 
■' ' ' of 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 163 

of thefe SuccefTes. Upon this, Alexander march'd 
his Army to iJJ'us, where he held a Council to con- 
fider , Whether he Jhould advance any farther , or 
wait there for the coming up of the new Levies that 
he fuddenly expected from Macedonia. Parmenio 
was of Opinion, that he could not pitch upon a pro- 
perer Place to give a Battle in, fince there the Troops 
cf both Kings, would be reducd to an equal Number, 
ly reafon the Straits zuould not admit of a Multi- 
tude. That they ought to avoid the Plains and open 
Fields where they might be fur rounded, and opprefid 
by the Inequality of Number. For he did not fear 
fo much their being overcome by the Bravery of the 
Enemy, as by their own Wearlnefs. Whereat the 
Perfians in a more fpaclou's Place, would be conjlant- 
ly relievd by frefh Troops. So wholfome a Coun- 
fel was ealily approv'd of, and therefore he re- 
folv'd to wait there for the Enemy. 

There was at this time in the Macedonian Army, 
a Perfian nam'd Sifines, who had formerly been 
fent by the Governor of JEgypt to King Philip , 
This Man being courteoufly entertain'd, and ho- 
nourably promoted in Macedon, chofe rather to re- 
main there, than return to his own Country ; but 
upon Alexanders Expedition into Afia, he accom- 
pany'd him, and was of the Number of thofe the 
King confided in. A Cretan Soldier having one 
Day deliver'd him a Letter feal'd with an unknown 
Seal from Nabarzanes one of JDaritts's Lieute- 
nants, he exhorted' him therein, to do fomethlng 
worthy his Quality and Merit, afj'urlng him, that 
the King would not fail to requite him for it. Sifines 
being altogether innocent, had often endeavour- 
ed to (hew Alexander this Letter, but finding him 
always bufie, and taken up with his Preparations 
for the enfuing Action, he waited for a more fa- 
vourable Opportunity ; but this Delay gave a Suf- 
picion of his being ill inclin'd. For the Letter was 


r6f Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

brought firft to Alexander, who having read it, 
feal'd it with an unknown Seal, and ordej'd it to 
be deliver'd to Sifines, intending thereby to try his 
Fidelity. But he not attending on the King for 
feveral Days, was look'd upon to iupprefs the Let- 
ter out of an evil Defign ; fo that he was^ill'd by 
the Cretans, no doubt by Alexanders Order. 


BY this time the Greek Mercenaries that Thy- 
modes had receiv'd from Phamabazus, and in 
whom Darius plac'd his chief Hopes, were arriv'd 
in his Camp. Thefe would fain have perfuaded 
him to retire, and gain the Plains of Mesopotamia. 
If he did not approve of this , at leaji to divide his 
vaft Anny, and not fujfer the whole Strength of his 
Kingdoms to depend upon- one Jingle Stroke of uncer- 
tain Fortune. This Advice was not fo cUfagree- 
able to the King, as to his Nobles. They urg'd, 
That there zuas no relying upon the Fidelity of thefe 
Men-, that they zvere brib'd to betray the Army, 
which they would have divided for no other Reafon 
but that they might deliver up to Alexander vj hat- 
ewer jhould be committed to their Trujl. Therefore 
the fafefi zvay were to furround'em zvith the whole 
Army, and cut 'em to pieces at once, for an Ex- 
ample to all Traytors. But as Darius was a reli- 
gious Prince, and of a mild Difpofition, he ab- 
horr'd fo barbarous a Counfel, as that of butcher- 
ing thofe who had put themfelves under his Prote- 
ction, and zvere actually in his Service. Which of 
all the foreign Nations, /aid he, zvould truft their 
Lives with him hereafter, if he ftjould ftain ht<s Hands 
with the Blood of fo many Svldiers ? Befides, no 
Bfdy ought to fujfer Death for giving zveak Advice, 

Book HI. Quintus Curtius. 16$ 

fmce there would be no fuch thing as Counfellors, if 
their Lives muft be in Danger for fpeaking their O- 
* pinion. That they themfelves were every Day con- 
futed by him , and he heard their different Senti- 
ments) yet he did not ejieem them that ga ve him the 
wo ft prident Counfel, to be more faithful than the 
reft. Wherefore he made this Anfwer to the 
Greeks, That he thank' d 'em for the good Difpofitmi 
they exprefs'd, but as for his going back, he did not 
think it convenient, fmce he floould thereby deliver 
up his Kingdom as a Prey to his Enemy : That the 
Reputation of War depended on Tame, and he that 
retires, is look'd upon to fly. As to the prolonging 
the War, it was impojfible, by reafon the Winter was 
coming on, and there would be no Means to fubfift 
fo vaft an Army, in a Country already wafted both 
by himfelf and the Enemy. That he could not di- 
vide his Forces zvithout acling contrary to the Pra- 
tlice of his Predecejfors, who always brought their 
whole Strength when they hazarded a Battle. And 
in Truth, that terrible King, who while he was at 
a diftance, was puff d up with fuch a vain AfJ'u- 
ranee, when he underftood that he was near at hand, 
of raft) was become cautious, and lay lurking in the 
Straits of the Toreft , like the cowardly Beafts, zvho 
at- the leaft Noife of the Pajfengers, hid* themfelves 
in the Woods. That even noiv he counterfeited be- 
ing fick, to dif appoint his Soldiers. But however, 
it fhould novj be no longer in his Power to refufe 
fighting, for if he did, he would feize him in the 
very Den his faint Heart had made him repair to 
for Safety. 

This Speech had more of Orientation in it, than 
of Truth. However Darius having fent all his 
Money, and his moft precious Moveables, under a 
moderate Guard to Damafcus in Syria, march'd with 
the reft of his Army into Cilicia ; his Royal Confort 
and Mother following in the Rear of the Army, 
3 according 

1 66 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

according to the Cuftom of the Country. His 
Daughters alio and little Son, accompany 'd their 
Father. Alexander, as it happen'd, came the fame 
Night to the Straits that lead to Syria, and Darius 
to a Place call'd the AmanicA PyU. The Perftans 
made no doubt but the Macedonians had aban- 
don'd IJfus which they had taken, and were fled : 
Fcr they had intercepted fome of the wounded 
and fick, that could not keep up with the Army ; 
and Darius at the Inftigation of his Nobles, who 

' were urg'd on by a barbarous Inhumanity, having 
caus'd their Hands to be cut off and fear'd, or- 
der'd them to be led about his Camp, that they 
might take a View of his Army, and having fa- 
tisfy'd their Curiolity, report to their King what 
they had feen. After this, Darius decamp'd, and 
pafs'd the River Pinarus, with a Defign to purfue 
the routed, as he thought 'em. In the mean time, 
thofe whofe Hands had been cut off, arrive in A- 

.lexanders Camp, and inform him, that Darius was 
following 'em with the utmofi Diligence. The King 
hardly beliey'd 'em ; and therefore fent Scouts to 
the Maritime Regions, to know for certain, whe- 
ther Darius was there in Per [on, or whether fome 
of his Grandees did not counterfeit coming with the 
whole Strength of the Kingdom. But by that time 
the Scouts return'd, the vaft Multitude appear'd at 
a diftance, and in a little time, Fires were kindled 
all over the Camp, which had the Appearance of 
a general Conflagration, the disorderly Multitude 
difperfing themfelves more loofely for the Conve- 
niency of their Cattle. Hereupon Alexander or- 
dered his Army to pitch their Tents, being over- 
joy'd that he was to come to a decifive Acl:ion in 
thofe Straits, a thing he had long wift'd for. Ne- 
verthelefs (as it uiually happens, when the Time 
of Danger draws nigh) his great Aflurance began 
to tUro into Solicitude and Care. And he now 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. \6y 

feem'd to diltruft that Fortune, by whofe Affiitance 
he had been fo iuccefsful, and did not without 
fome Reafon conclude her to be very fickle, from 
the many Advantages me had beftow'd on himfelf. 
He reflected, That there zvas now but the [pace o£ 
a fingle Night letzueen him and the Event of fo great 
a Hazard: Then again he confider'd, That the 
Reivard would be f ill much greater than the Dan- 
ger ; and alt ho' it was as yet doubtful, whether he 
Jhould gain, the Viclory or not, hozvever, this was 
undeniably certain, that if he perifl)ed, he floould die 
honourably and with univerfal Applaufe. He there- 
fore order'd the Soldiers to go and refrefi) them- 
felves, and to be in readinefs zviih their Arms at 
the third Watch : In the mean time, he went him- 
felf to the Top of a high Hill , having with him 
feveral Torches and Lights, and there after the 
manner of his Country, orTer'd Sacrifices to the 
Gods of the Place. The Trumpet had now given 
the third Warning, according to Order, and the 
Soldiers were ready either to march or to fight ; 
and being commanded to march zvith the utmofl 
Diligence, they came by break of D ay to the Straits 
they deiign'd to poifefs themfelves of. By this 
time, they that were fent to get Intelligence, came 
and acquainted him, that Darius was but thirty 
Furlongs off: He therefore commanded the Army 
to halt, and having put on his Armour, he drew 
up his Army in Order of Battle. The affright- 
ed Peafants came now to Darius, giving him 
to underftand , that the Enemy was at hand , 
who could hardly be perfuaded that thofe he 
thought to purfue as Fugitives , mould dare to 
give him the meeting: Hereupon his People 
were all feiz'd with a fudden Fear ; for they 
were better prepar'd for a March than for Battle ; 
they therefore take to their Arms in hafte , and 
the very Hurry they were in on that Occafion, 


i68 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

increas'd their Terror. Some got up to the Top 
of the Hill, that from thence they might take a 
View of the Enemy ; others were bridling their 
Horfes : So that the Difcord that reigned in this 
Army, which was not guided by the Direction of 
any fingle Perfon , fill'd all things with a tumul- 
tuary Confufion. At firft Darius had refolv'd 
with part of his Troops to take Poffeffion of the 
Top of the Hill , in order to attack the Enemy 
both in Front and Rear, appointing others to do 
the fame on the fide of the Sea which cover'd his 
Right, that fo ho might prefs upon 'em from all 
Parts. Moreover he had fent before twenty thou- 
fand Foot with a Band of Archers, with Orders to 
pafs the River Pyramus ( that runs between the 
two Armies) and charge the Macedonians : and if 
they found that impracticable, to retire to the 
Mountains, and fecretly furround their Rear. But 
Fortune, that is fuperior to all Reafon, disappoint- 
ed his prudent Meafures ; for fome out of" fear 
did not dare to execute their Orders , and others 
executed them to no Purpofe : for where the Parts 
fail, the whole is confounded. 

S for the main Body of his Army it was 

was in the Right Wing with his Horfe, and about 
twenty thoufand Slingers and Archers ; here were 
alfo the thirty thoufand mercenary Greeks com- 
manded by Thymodes. Thefe were beyond alT 
doubt the main Strength of the Army, a Body 
equal to the Macedonian Phalanx. In the Left 
was Anfiomedes the Thejfalian, with twenty thou- 
fand of the Barbarian Foot, behind 'em were 



Book III. Quintus Curtius. 169 

plac'd the moft warlike Nations as a Body of Re- 
serve. The King being here in Perfon , was 
attended by three thoufand chofen Horfe, the 
ufual Guard of his Body, and forty thoufand Foot, 
which were follow'd by the Hyrcanian and Me- 
dian Cavalry : That of the other Nations was 
difpos'd on the Right and Left as Occafion re- 

The Army thus drawn up, was preceded by fix 
thoufand Slingers and Darters. There was not 
the leaft Space in the Straights but was flll'd with 
Troops ; in fo much that one of the Wings ex- 
tended it felf to the Mountains , and the other 
to the Sea. The Queen Confort , with Darius's 
Mother, and the reft of the Women, were re- 
ceiv'd in the Center of the Army. 

Now Alexander drew up his Army fo that the 
Phalanx , which is the chief Strength of the Macedo- 
nians,v?as in the Front : The Right was commanded 
by Nicanor, the Son of Parmenio ; next to him 
were C&nos, Perdiccas, Mdeager, Ptolemy, and A- 
myntas with their refpe&ive Corps : On the Left 
(that extended it felf to the Sea) were Craterus and 
Parmenio ; but Craterus had Orders to obey Par- 
menio. The Horfe were plac'd as Wings on each 
Side ; the Macedonians with the TheJJalians on the 
Right, and the Pclopr ■ -< : ans on the Left. In 
the Front of all was a Body of Slingers. intermixt 
with Archers. The Thracians likewife and the 
Cretans , who were alio lightly arm'd , advanc'd 
before the main Army. The Agrianians who 
were lately arriv'd from Greece were commanded 
I to make Head againft thofe whom Darius had 
fent before to take Poffeffion of the Top of the 
Mountain. The King had order'd Parmenio, to 
extend his Forces as far as he could tovjards the 
Sea, that they might lie at a greater ~Dijiance from 
the Hills , that the Barbarians had taken Pojjeflim 
I ' of 

ijo Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 

of But Darin's Men neither oppos'd the Troops 
that march'd againft 'em , nor dar'd to furround 
thofe who had pafs'd 'em , but fled at the very 
firft Sight of the Slingers ; which fecur'd Alexan- 
ders Army from being flank'd from the higher 
Ground, which was what he was afraid of. They 
march'd thirty two in a Rank ; for the Straight- 
nefs of the Place would not admit of a greater 
Number : But as the PalTage between the Moun- 
tains , by Degrees grew wider and wider , and 
ftretch'd it fell out into a larger Space , the Foot 
had not only Room to extend their Ranks , but 
the Horfe had a!fo Liberty to form their Wings 
on each Side of 'em. 

chap. x. 

TH E two Armies were now in Sight of each 
other, but out of the reach of their Darts ; 
when the Perfans firit gave a confus'd but terri- 
ble Shout , which the Macedonians return'd with 
Advantage, altho' fewer in Number, by reafon of 
the RepercufTion from the neighbouring Hills and 
Woods, which multipiy'd every Sound that reach'd 
'em. Alexander rid at the head of his Army, ma- 
king Signs with his Hand to his Men , not to 
march -too faft, that .they might not be out of 
Breath , and fo might be able to charge the Ene- 
my with the greater Fury. Then riding along the 
Line, he made a different Speech to the feveral 
Troops , luitable to their different Difpofitions, 
He reminded the Macedonians of their experienced 
and harden d Courage, and of their numberlefi Vi- 
ctories in Europe, and that they vjere come thither 
•voluntarily under his Conducl, to fubdue all Afla, 
and to extend their Con^uejls even to the utmoji 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. 171 

Bounds of the EalT. That they were the Deliverers 
of the opprefl, throughout the whole World, and that 
having carry 'd their Victories as far as Hercules 
and Bacchus had formerly done, they were to give 
the Law, not only to the Perfians , but alfo to all 
the Nations of the Univerfe. That Bactra and the 
Indies were to be theirs. That what they had in 
Vtew at frefent- was but inconfider able in compari- 
fon of zvhat the Victory promisd 'em. That the 
broken Rocks of \ IEyria , or the barren Country of 
Thrace, fhould no longer be , the Reward of their 
Labour; for now the Spoils of all the Eail were . 
laid before 'em. That there would hardly be Occa- 
fion for their Swords ; their very Reputation ha- 
ving already made fuch an Impreffton upon the fear- 
ful Diffidence of the Enemies Army , that they 
might drive 'em with only their Bucklers. He re- 
frefiYd their Memory, with the Victory his Father 
Philip had gaind over the Athenians, with the late 
Conojuefl of Beotia, and the racing its principal Ci- 
ty. He put them alio in mind of the Granick Ri- 
ver : of the many Towns they had either reducd by 
Force, or receivd by Submiffion. In fine, He re- 
minded 'em of all their pafl Co?iquefts. When he 
came to the Greeks, He told 'em , that thefe were 
the People , that had made War upon Greece , 
through the Infolence of Darius firfl, and then of 
Xerxes ; who requir'd no lefs than all the Water as 
well as Land ; even to the drinking their very 
Fountains dry, and confuming all their Provifions. 
That thefe were they who had defiroyd and burnt 
the Temples of their Gods, taken and plunder d their 
' Towns : in a word had broke through all the Lavjs 
divine and human. As for the lilyrians zndThra- 
cians who were accuftom'd to live by Rapine, He 
bid 'em behold the Army of their Enemy, how h 
glitter d with Gold and Purple, infomuch that they 
might not be faid to carry Arms , fo properly as a 
1 1 Booty 

172, QiJiNTXis Curtius. Booklll. 

Booty. That as Men , tbey had nothing to do but 
to rifle thofe zueak Women of their Gold ; and to 
make an Exchange of their Craggy Mountains, and 
naked Tracls , which were perpetually cover d with 
Ice and Snow, for the fruitful Plains and Fields of 


BOTH Armies were now within the Caft of 
their Darts , when the Perfian Horfe gave a 
furious Charge on the left Wing of the Enemy : 
For Darius was defirous to decide the Matter by 
the Horfe , being fenftble that the Phalanx was 
the chief Strength of the Macedonians , and Ale- 
xanders right Wing was near being furrounded ; 
which he perceiving, order'd two Squadrons to 
keep PofTeffion of the Top of the Hill, and com- 
manded the reft to affift their Fellows who were 
engag'd. Then having drawn off the ihejj'alian 
Horfe , he commanded their Officer fecretly to 
fall behind the Army and join Parmenio, and vi- 
goioufly to execute his Orders. 

By this time the Phalanx was in a manner en- 
clos'd by the Enemy, but yet bravely maintain'd 
its Ground. However as they flood too dofe to 
one another, they could not caft their Darts with 
freedom ; for thofe that were flung at the fame 
time, meeting in the Air, fo intermingl'd that they 
fell with little or no Force, very few of 'em reach* 
ing the Enemy, and the greateft part falling on 
the Ground without doing any Execution. Where* I 
fore they gallantly drew their Swords, and engag'd 
the Per fans in a clofe Fight. Here it was that a great I 
deal of Blood was fpilt; for the two Armies were I 
fo near each other that they parry xl their mutual I 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 173 

Thrufts with their Swords , directing their Points 
in one anothers Faces. Here the cowardly or the 
timorous were not fuffer'd to be idle : for join- 
ing Foot to Foot, they fought after the manner 
of fingle Duellifts , and kept the fame Spot of 
Ground, till having llain their Adverfary they 
made themfelves Way : And even then a frefa 
Enemy engag'd him that was already fatigu'd, 
Befides, the Wounded could not, as is cuftomary, 
withdraw from the Fight, the Enemy preffing 
upon 'em in Front, and their own Men in the Rear, 
Alexander not only difcharg'd the Duty of a Ge- 
neral, but alfo of a private Soldier, and was am- 
bitious of killing Danus with his own Hand. For 
as he was fo loftily feated in his Chariot, that he 
was eafily feen by all, it was a mighty Encourage- 
ment to his own Men to defend him, and at the 
fame time no lefs a Provocation to the Enemy to 
attack him. This made Oxathres the King's Bro- 
ther, as foon as he perceiv'd Alexanders Defign, . 
bring the Horfe that he commanded before Da- 
nuts Chariot. He was remarkable for the Splen- 
dor of his Arms, as well as for his perfonal Strength, 
and had a tender Affection for the King, and di- 
ftinguifli'd himfelf very much in his Defence, kil- 
ling thofe who prefs'd on too rafhly, and putting 
others to flight. But the Macedonians, who were 
alio near the King, fo encourag'd each other, that 
with him, they broke into the Enemies Horfe. 
Here the Slaughter was like a meer Butchery. 
The nobleft Commanders lay wallowing in their 
Blood round Darin's Chariot, having had the Satis- 
faction of his being a Witnefs to their dying gallant- 
ly for his Defence : They all fell upon their Faces,, 
in the Places where they fought, having all their 
Wounds in the fore Part of their Body. Among, 
the reft, were to be feen Arizyes, Rheomithres and 
Sahaces the Governor of Egypt, who had all com- 
3 I 3 " mandeci 

174 Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 

manded great Armies, and round them lay Heaps 
of Foot and Horfe of an inferior Rank. Of the 
Macedonians there did not fall many, but the bra- 
veft and forwarder! among 'em; Alexander himself 
being flightly wounded in the Thigh. The Hories 
that drew Darius 's Chariot being ftuck in many 
Places, and enrag'd with the Pain, began to kick 
and fling, and were like to caft him out of his Seat, 
When fearing left he fhould fall alive into the Hands 
of his Enemies, he leap'd down and mounted a 
Horfe that was ready for that purpofe, inglorioully 
flinging away the Tokens of his Dignity, left they 
fhould betray him in his Flight. Darius being fled, 
the remaining Part of the Army was foon difpers'd 
through Fear, every one flinging down thofe Arms 
he had taken for his Defence, and making the heft 
of his Way : Such being the Nature of Fear, as to 
dread even that which (hould protect it. 

Varmenio order'd a Body of Horfe to pur- 
fue them that fled , and it happen'd that all that 
Wing had taken to their Heels. But in the right 
Wing the Perfians prefs'd hard upon the Tbeffah- 
nian Horfe, and had already broke down one of 
their Squadrons ; but the TheJJ'alians wheeling about 
and rallying, charg'd the Perfians afrefli with fo 
much Bravery, that they ealily routed their dif- 
order'd Troops, who had broken their Ranks, 
thinking themfelves fecure of the Viclory. The 
Perfian Horfes as well the Riders, being loaded 
with Armour, could not wheel about but with 
great Difficulty, and as that is an Ad that depends 
on Celerity, the nimbler TheJJalians kill'd a great 
many of 'em before they could perform their 
Wheel. When Alexander was inform'd of his Ad- 
vantage alfo on this fide, tho' he did not dare to 
purfue the Barbarians before, yet as foon as he 
found he had gain'd a compleat Victory, he refol- 
Ved to purfue the Enemy. The King had not 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. %ff 

above a thoufand Horfe with him, and yet he 
made a prodigious Slaughter of the Enemy. But 
who examins into the Number of Troops either in 
a Victory or Flight ? They were drove therefore 
by this handful of Men, like fo many Sheep ; and 
the fame Fear that made 'em fly, retarded their 
Flight. But the Greeks that were hir'd by Darim, 
and commanded by Amyntas (formerly one of 
Alexanders Lieutenants, tho' now a Malecontent 
and a Deferter) feparating themfelves from the reft, 
retreated in good Order. 

The Barbartans in their Confufion, took feve- 
ral Roads ; fome took the direct Road to Perfia, 
fome fetching a Compafs, repair' d to the Rocks 
and the clofe Woods of the Mountains, a fmall 
Body of 'em betook themfelves to Dariws Camp ; 
but the Enemy had already enter'd the fame, where 
they found all manner of Riches. There was an 
immenfe Treafure of Gold and Silver (which feem'd 
rather to be intended for Pomp and Luxury, than 
for the Ufe of the War) which fell a Prey to the 
Soldiers. And as they increas'd their Plunder, they 
lighten'd themfelves by flinging away what their 
Avarice made 'em think of lefs Value in compa- 
rifon of a richer Booty. They were now come 
among the Women, who the richer they were clad, 
were by the Soldiery more outrageoufly ftrip'd of 
their Ornaments : Nay, their very Bodies were 
not exempt from what Power and Luft could in- 
fpire. The whole Camp was fiU'd with Cries and 
Lamentations, according to every one's Fortune, 
there being no fort of Evil that they did not ex- 
> perience, fince the Cruelty and Licentioufnefs of 
the vidlor rag'd through all Ranks and Ages, 

Here was at the fame time, a particular Speci- 
men of the Impotency of Fortune, for thole very 
Perfons who had drefs'd up Darix/s Tent with all 
the Opulency and Luxury imaginable, took Care 
I 4 o£ 

ij6 Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 

of the fame for Alexander, as if lie had been their 
firft Matter. For this was the only thing the Sol- 
diers had left untouched, in compliance with an 
ancient Cuftom that preferv'd always the Tent of 
the conquer'd Prince, for the Reception of the Vi- 
ctorious. But of all. the Captives, the Mother and 
Wife of Darius drew the Eyes and Reflections of 
all Beholders upon 'em. The firft was venerable, 
not only by her Majefty, but alfo by her Age ; 
the latter, by her confummate Beauty, which even 
her prelent Calamities did not impair. She held 
in her Lap her young Son, who did not yet ex- 
ceed fix Years of Age, and who was intitul'd by 
his Birth, to that vait Fortune his Father had juit 
loft. Darius 's two Daughters that were then mar- 
riagable , lean'd on their Grandmother s Bofom, 
not more afflicted at their own Misfortune, than 
at hers. Round about her flood a Crowd of noble 
Ladies, with their Hair and Garments torn, un- 
mindful of their former Splendor, calling upon 
the Queens with the diftinguifliing Titles of Maje- 
fty and Sovereign, which once beiong'd to them, 
tho' they now depended upon another's Fleafure. 
But the Queens themfelves forgetting their own 
Difafter, were inquifitive in ivhich Wing Darius 
fought, and what -was h'ts Succefs ? For they ftill 
deny'd they were Prifoners, if the King were fafe. 
At the fame time, as he often chang'd Horfes, he 
was got a great way off. There fell of the Per- 
fians in this Action, one hundred thoufand Foot, 
and ten thoufand Horfe. On Alexander s fide, 
there were of the Foot, live hundred and four 
wounded, and thirty two kill'd ; and of the Horfe, 
one hundred and fifty were llain. So inconfide- 
rable was the Lofs that procur'd him fo glorious 
a Victory. 


Book III. Quintus Curtius. 177 


THE King being very much fatigu'd in his Pur- 
fuit after Darius, finding that Night approach- 
ed, and that there were no hopes of overtaking 
him, retnrn'd to the Camp which his Men had a 
little before taken FolTefiion of. Here he invited 
thofe of his Friends he was mod familiar with, to 
an Entertainment; for the Hurt he had receiv'd 
in his Thigh, being but Skin deep, it did not hin- 
der him from being prefent at the Banquet. But 
a fudden mournful Clamour, intermixt with a bar- 
barous Outcry from a neighbouring Tent, diftur- 
bed their Merriment. Hereupon the Band that 
kept Guard at the King's Tent, thinking it was the 
Beginning of a greater Mifchief, immediately took 
to their Arms. The Caufe of this unexpected 
Alarm, was owing to the Cries and Lamentations 
of Darius' s Mother, his Wife, and the reft of the- 
noble Ladies, who believing the King was flain, 
bewail'd him after their Country manner. For 
one of the captive Eunuchs, who chanc'd to ftand 
before their Tent, faw one of the Soldiers carry- 
ing Darius 's Cloak, which he had caft away left it 
fhould betray ^him in his Flight ; and judging there- 
by that the King was kill'd, had acquainted the 
Queens with the falfe Supposition. It is faid, A- 
lexander being inform'd of the Ladies Miftake, wept 
in Compaflion of Darius Fortune, and the pious 
Difpofition of the Women. He therefore flrft 
fent Mithrenes (who had furrender'd Sardis) to 'em 
(he being well vers'd in the Perfian Language) to 
comfort 'em in their Affliction ; then reflecting 
that the Sight of this Traitor might aggravate their 
Grief, he order'd Leonatus, one of his NoUes, to 
aiTure 'em, That they were in the wrong to lament 

I 5 Darius 

1 78 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

DarillS as dead, fence he was actually living. Lee- 
natus taking a few arm'd Soldiers with him, went 
accordingly to the Tent where the Royal Captives 
were, and notify'd that he was come thither with 
a MefTage from the King. But they that waited at 
the Entry of the Tent, as loon as they perceiv d 
the Men in Arms, concluding the Fate of their 
MiftrerTes was now at hand, run into the Tent, 
crying out, That their lafi Hour was come, and that 
the King had fent Soldiers to kill em. However, 
the Queens not being able to make any Opposition, 
and not daring to give Orders for their coming in, 
made no Anfwer at all, but filently expecled the 
Pleafure of the Conqueror. Leonatus therefore ha- 
ving waited a considerable time for fome Perfon 
to introduce him, when he found no Body dar'd to 
come to him, leaving his Men without, he enter'd 
into the Tent alone ; that of it felf was mmcient 
to frighten the Ladies, hecaufe he rulh'd in with- 
out having obtain'd Admittance. Hereupon Da- 
rius'?, Mother and Wife, flinging themfelves at his 
Feet, implor'd him to grant them leave to bury 
Darius^ Corps after the manner of their Country , 
before he put them to Death, telling him, that after 
they had perform d the lafi Rites to their King, they 
were ready to fubmit to their Fate. But Leonatus, 
to their great Surprize, aflur' d 'em, that Darius was 
living, and that for their own Parts, they Ihould 
not only be in Safety, but be us'd as Queens, with 
all the Splendor of their former Grandeur. Up- 
on this Dariuss Mother iuffer'd her felf to be 
help'd up. The next Day Alexander took Care to 
bury his Dead, and order'd the fame Honour to be 
jhewn to the moft confiderable among the Perlians 
that were flain. And gave leave to Sizygambis to 
bury as many as fie pleased, after the manner of the 
Country. But (he was contented to (hew that Ho- 
nour only to fome few of her nearer! Relations, 
a and 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 179, 

and even in reference to tliem, had a Regard to 
her prefent Circumflances ; imagining that the Pomp 
that the Perfians ufe on that Occafion, might be ta- 
ken ill by the Conquerors, who are contented to burn 
their oivn dead with little or no Ceremony. Alex- 
ander having difcharg'd this Office to the Dead,., 
notify'd to the Captive Queens, that he was coming 
to pay them a Vifit ; and leaving his Attendants 
without , enter'd the Tent with Heph&ftion only > 
who of all his Friends was moft in his Favour, as 
having been educated with him : He was privy to 
all his Secrets, and alone had the Privilege of fpeak- 
ing freely to him, even to admonim him upon Oc- 
casion ; which Liberty he was fo far from abufing, 
that whenever he us'd it, he feem'd to do it ra- 
ther by the King's Pernnflion than of his own Au- 
thority ; and as he was of like Age with the King,, 
fo he had the Advantage of him in the Beauty: 
of his Perfon. The Queen therefore miftaking 
him for the King , paid him Homage after their- 
manner ; but fome of the Eunuchs reminding her 
of her Error, and (hewing her which was the King 9 , 
{he flung her felf at his Feet, excujmg her Igno- 
rance, as never having fern him before. But the 
King lifting her up, raid to her, Mother, you were 
not miftaken, for he too is Alexander. Now if he- 
had preferv'd the fame Moderation to the End of" 
his Life, I mould have efteem'd him happier than, 
he feem'd to be when he imitated the Triumph, of 
Bacchus, after his Conqueft of the feveral Nations 
from the Hellefpont to the Ocean, He would then? 
have fupprefs'd his Pride and his -Anger, which he 
afterwards found invincible Evils. He had not. 
then embru'd his Hands in the Blood of his Friends , 
at Table : He would then have been aiham'd to 
put to Death thofe renowned Warriors (who had: 
help'd him to conquer fo many Nations) without 
fo much, as giving them a Hearing. But at that 

180 Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 

time, the Greatnefs of his Fortune had not got 
Pofleffion of his Mind, fo that he bore its firft Be- 
ginning with Moderation and Prudence, tho* at laft 
fhe grew too vaft for his Capacity. At firft he 
behav'd himfelf fo as to excel all the Kings before 
him , in Clemency and Continence ; for his De- 
portment towards the Royal Virgins, was fo reli- 
gioufly virtuous, tho' they were perfect Beauties, 
that he could not have a&ed with more Referve, 
had they been his own Sifters : And as for Darius s 
Wife, notwithftanding her Beauty was fuch as to 
be exceeded by none of her time, he was fo far 
from offering Violence to her, that he took due Care 
that no Body elfe mould offer at that Ufage of his 
Captive. He commanded all manner of Refpecl to 
be paid to the Royal Ladies, infomuch that there 
was nothing wanting to their primitive Magnifi- 
cence tho' in Captivity, except Confidence in the 
Conqueror. Sizygambis therefore addrefs'd herfelf 
to him in this manner : 

Topi deferve, Sir y that we Jhould offer up the fame 
Vozvs for you that we formerly made for Darius ; for 
as far as I can fee, you are zvorthy to furpafs him, 
not only in Felicity, but alfo in Juftice. Tou are 
pleas' d to call me Mother and Queen, but I acknow- 
ledge my felf to be your Servant ; for notwithftand- 
ing I am able to bear my former Dignity, yet I find 
J can conform my felf to my prefent Servitude. But 
it is for .your Glory and Honour, that you exprefs 
the Power you have over us,, -rather by your Cle- 
mency and Goodnefs, than by your Anger and Se- 
verity. The King hereupon bid 'em not be dejetfed, 
and then took Darims Son in his Arms, who was 
fo far from being frighten'd, tho' it was the firft 
time he had feenhim, that he put his Hands about 
his Neck : The King was fo mov'd at the Child's 
Conftancy, that turning to Heph&ftion he faid, how 
glad Jhould I be, if Darius had had fometh 'mg of 

Book III. Quintus Curtius; 1 81 

this Child's Difpofition. Then taking his leave of 
the Queens, he went away, and having caus'd three 
Altars to be erected on the Bank of the River Pi- 
narus, in Honour of Jupiter, Hercules, and Minerva,, 
he march'd into Syria, fending Parmenio before to 
Damafcus, where the King's Trcafure was kept. 


PArmenio underllanding that one of "Darius $ 
Lieutenants was gone before him, and appre- 
hending that the fmall Number he had with him 
might appear contemptible to the Enemy, had re- 
folv'd to fend for a Reinforcement, but it happen- 
ed that a certain Mardian fell into the Hands of 
his Scouts, who bringing him to Parmenio, deli- 
ver' d to him Letters from the Governor of Da- 
mafcus to Alexander, telling him withal, that he 
did not doubt but the [aid Governor intended to de- 
liver up to him all the Kings Furniture and Money. 
Parmenio having fet a Guard upon him, opens the 
Letter, in which was writ, That Alexander fiould 
fend with Expedition one of his Generals with a fmall 
Body of Men. Upon this Information , Parmenio 
fent back the Mardian, with a fmall Guard to the 
Traitor. But he making his Efcape, arriv'd at 
Damafcus before Day. This made Parmenio fome- 
what uneafle, for he began to fufpecl fome Am- 
bufcade might be laid for him, and therefore was 
afraid to march without a Guide ; however, con- 
fiding in the good Fortune of his Prince, he or- 
der'd fome Peafants to be intercepted to ferve him 
as Guides, and his Men having quickly found fome, 
he reach'd the Town on the fourth Day, when the 
Governor began to think his Letter had not been 
credited. Wherefore pretending to diitruft the 


i8i Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

Strength of the Place, before the Sun was up, he. 
order'd the King's Money and the moil valuable 
Moveables, to be brought forth, pretending to fly, 
but in reality to deliver the Booty to the Enemy. 
He was accompany'd out of Town by a great 
many thoufand Men and Women , a deplorable 
Spectacle to all the Spectators, except him to 
whofe Care they were committed. For that he 
might be the better rewarded for his Treachery, 
he intended to deliver to the Enemy a more ac- 
ceptable Booty than that of Money ; viz. feveral 
Noblemen, with the Wives and Children of Dar- 
riuss Governors. Befides theie, there were the 
AmbalTadors of the Greek Towns, all which Da- 
nm had put into his treacherous Tuition , as into 
a Place of Safety. The Perfians call thofe who 
carry Burthens on their Shoulders, Gangaha. Thefe 
Men not being able to endure the Cold (for there 
had fallen a great deal of Snow , and befides it 
was a hard Froft) put on the rich Garments of 
Gold and Purple, with which they were loaded as 
well as with Money ; no body daring to oppofe 
their fo doing, the King's hard Fate having ren- 
der'dhim contemptible even to the vileft Wretches, 
This Multitude feem'd at firit to Parmenio to be 
no defpicable Army y he therefore having made a 
fiiort Speech to his Men to animate and encou- 
rage 'em, commanded 'em to clap Spurs to their 
Horfes, and to charge the Enemy vigoroufly : But 
thofe that carry'd the Burthens, perceiving what 
was doing, flung down their Loads,, and took to 
their Heels out of Fear. The Soldiers that fol- 
low'd 'em, being alfo intimidated, call: away their 
Arms and fled through the Bye-ways they were 
well acquainted with ; the Governor himlelf coun- 
terfeiting Fear likevvife, had caus'd a general Con- 
funon. The King's Riches lay fcatter'd up and down 
the Fields ; viz.. That Money that was to pay fo 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 183 

vail an Army, with the rich Apparel of lb many 
Noblemen and Women; Golden Veflels, Gold 
Bridles, Tents adorn'd with Regal Magnificence , 
Chariots foriaken by their Drivers, loaded with in- 
finite Riches ; infomuch that it was a difmal Sight 
even to the Plunderers themfelves, if it was pof- 
fible for any thing to- Hop the greedy Defire of 
Wealth. Here was to be feen all that immenfe 
Treafure and rich Furniture (that had been heap- 
ing up in lb long a Courfe of Profperity, that al- 
moil exceeded all Belief) expos'd to be pillag'd, 
fome things being torn from the Buihes where 
they hung, others dug out of the Mire where they 
lay. There were not Hands enough for this in- 
glorious Work. By this time thofe that firfc fled, 
were overtaken, there were a great many Women 
among 'em, whereof fome led their little Children 
by the Hand. Here were alfo three Maiden La- 
dies, the Daughters of Ochus, who had reign'd laft 
before Darius, they had fallen from their Paternal 
Rank and Dignity by the former Change of Af- 
fairs; but now Fortune feem'd cruelly to aggra- 
vate their Calamity. In this Crowd there was, 
befide the Wife of Ochus , and the Daughter of 
Oxatres, Dariuss Brother, with the Wife of Ar- 
t abacus (who was the firft Nobleman of Perjia) 
and his Son nam'd llioneus. With thefe were alfo 
taken the Wife and Son of Pharnabazus, to whom 
Darius had given the chief Command of the Ma 
ritime Coaft ; Mentor's three Daughters, and the 
Wife and Son of that noble Captain, Memnon. In 
fine, there was hardly any noble Family that did 
not fhare in the Misfortune. Here were taken, 
alfo, feveral Lacedemonians and Athenians, who 
contrary to the League with Alexander, had fided 
with the Perfians : Arijiogiton, Dropides, and Iphi- 
erates were conliderable People among the Athe- 
nians both for their Birth and Renown : Paufippus r 


i&4 Quintus Curtius. Bookm; 

Onomaflcrides, with Monimus and Callicratides, who 
were likewife considerable Men. among the Lace- 
demonians. The Sum of coin'd Money that was 
taken, amounted to two thoufand and fixty Ta- 
lents; the wrought Silver was equal to five hun- 
dred Talents in Weight ; befides all which, there 
were thirty thoufand Men, and feven thoufand 
Bean- of Burthen taken. But the Gods quickly pu- 
niuYd the Betrayer of fo much Wealth; for one 
he had imparted the Matter to, retaining {till a 
Veneration for Darius* even in his Calamity, cut 
off the Traitor s Head, and carry'd it to the King, 
as a feafonable Comfort to a Prince fo foully be- 
tray'd; for he not only was reveng'd of his Ene- 
my, but had moreover the Satisfaction to find that 
all his Subjeds had not loft the Refpecl: and Fide- 
lity that was due to the Dignity of Majefty. 





Arms, who but a little while fmce 
was at the Head of fo powerful an 
Army, riding in his Chariot more 
after the manner of a Triumph, 
than of one that was going to give 
Battle to his Enemy, was now for- 
ced to a (hameful Flight through thofe Places he had 
lately fill'd with his numerous Troops, but were 
now, by his Misfortune, become defolate and waftc, 
Some few follow'd their King, for the broken 
Army did not all take one Road ; and as the King 
chang'd Horfes frequently, his Followers not ha- 
ving the fame Advantages, could not keep pace 
with him. He firffc came to Concha, where he 
was receiv'd by four thoufand Greeks, who guar- 
ded: him to the Euphrates ; for he look'd upon 
that only to be his now, that he could by his Ex-, 
pedition prevent the Enemy's feizing. In the 
mean time Alexander gave Orders to ?armenio % 
who had taken the Booty at T>ama[cus, to place 
good Guard over it, as alfo upon the Prifoners, 
and made him Governor of Syria, which they 
call Ccek. But the Syrians could not at M brook 


1 86 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

the new Government, becaufe they had nor yet 
Sufficiently felt the Scourge of the War ; however, 
being fupprefs'd as fail as they revolted, they were 
glad at lad to conform to its Orders. 

Aradus, which is an Ifland, was about this time 
furrender'd to Alexander. Strato , who was King 
of that Ifland, had alfo the Sovereignty of theMa- 
ratim Coaft, and a confiderable Inland Territory. 

Alexander having receiv'd his Submiffion, and 
taken him into his Protection, march* d his Army 
to Marathon. Here Letters were brought him 
from Darius, at which he was very much incens'd, 
they being writ in a very haughty Style : But what 
vext him molt was, -that Darius therein writ him- 
felf King, without giving Alexander that Title, 
and requir'd rather than defir'd, That he -would 
rejlore to him his Mother, Wife and Children, pro- 
mifmg for their Ranfom as much Money as all 
Macedonia was zvorth ; and as for the Empire , 
he would try for it again, if he pleased, in a frefh 
Action. At the fame time he advised him, if 
he was ftill capable of wholefom Advice- to be 
contented with his »wn Dominions, and to retire 
from that Empire he had no right to ; and from 
being an Enemy, to become a Friend and Ally, he 
being ready both to give and receive any Engage- 
ments on that Account. To this Letter Alexander 
made anfwer much after this manner : Alexander 
King, to Darius ; That Pince whofe Name you, have 
taken, having committed great Hoftilities on thofe 
Greeks, who inhabit the Coaft of the Hellefpont, 
and alfo on the Ionian Colonies , who are alfo 
Greeks, put to Sea with a powerful Fleet and Army, 
and invaded Macedonia and Greece. Afer him 
Xerxes, who was a Prince of the fame Family, at- 
tacked us with an infinite Number of Barbarians ; 
and notwithftanding he was beaten at Sea, yet he 
left Mardomus m Greece, to pillage, the dues in hi* 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 187 

abfence, and burn the Country : Befides all which, 
who does not know that my lather Philip was in- 
humanely murder d by thofe you had bafely corrup- 
ted with your Money ? You make no fcruple to enter 
upon unjuji Wars, and alt ho you do not want Arms, 
you unworthily fet a price upon the Heads of your 
Enemies, your felf having given a late Inflame of 
that, in offering a thoufand Talents to him that 
would murder me, tho you had fo mighty an Army 
at command. It is plain therefore, that I am not 
the Aggreffor, but repel Forte by Force ; and the Gods, 
who always fide ivith the jufi Caufe, have already 
made me Mafter of great part of Alia, ytnd given 
me a fignal Viflory over you your felf. Hoivever, 
■tho you have no reafon to expect any Favour at 
my Hands (fince you have not fo much as obfervd 
the Laws of War towards me,) yet if you come to 
me in a fuppliant manner, I promife you, you jhall 
receive your Mother, Wife and Children without any 
Ranfom at all. I know how to conquer, and how 
to ufe tbe conquer d. If you are afraid to venture 
your Per fun with me, I am ready to give ye* Stiri- 
ties, for your doing it with Safety : Bat I would 
have you remember for the future, when yeu write 
to me, that you do not only write to a King, but 
alfo to your own King. Therfippus was charg'd 
with this Letter. After this he defcended into 
Phoenicia , where the City of Biblos was furren- 
dred to him, from whence he march'd to Sydon, 
a City famous for its Antiquity, and the Splen- 
dour of its Founders. Strato was King there, and 
had receiv'd Succours from Darius ; but becaufe 
the Town had been furrendred to him, more by 
the Agreement of the Inhabitants than by Strau s 
own Confent, Alexander judging him unworthy 
of the Crown, gave leave to Heph&Jtion to beftow 
the Crown on him, that the Sydonians 'fhould .think 
mofl worthy of that Honour. Hefh&Jlion was lodg'd 


1 88 Quintus Curtius. Book III. 

with two young Noblemen of confiderable Note, 
among the Sydonians, he therefore offer d them 
the Kingdom, but they refus'd it, telling him that 
it was contrary to the Laws of the Country, to 
admit of any one to that Dignity, that wot not of 
the Royal Family. Hereupon Heph&ftion, admi- 
ring their Greatnefs of Soul, which made 'em flight 
what others covet at any price of Danger , en- 
couraged 'em to perfift in that vertuous Difpofttion, 
fince they were the fir ft that under ft ood how much 
greater it ivas to defpife a Kingdom than to accept 
of it. However , he defir'd 'em to Name one of 
the Royal Race, zvho might remember he receivd 
that Dignity at their Hands. 

They feeing a great many made Intereft for the 
obtaining that diitinguifhing Rank , courting the 
Favour of Alexanders Friends, in hopes to ob- 
tain it, declar'd, That none defervd it better than 
Abdolominus , who , tho remotely of kin to the 
"Royal Family , was redncd thro' Poverty , to cul- 
tivate a Garden for a [mall Stipend in the Suburbs 
of the City. His Virtue and Probity were the caufe 
of his Poverty, as it happens to many; and as he 
kept clofe to his daily Labour, he was out of the 
noife of Arms, which at that time fhook all Aft a : 
But on the fudden the two Gentlemen before- 
mentioned enter'd the Garden, with the royal Ap- 
parel, where they found Abdolominus pulling up the 
Weeds and ufelefs Plants. When they had faluted 
him King, one of 'em told him, he muft make an 
exchange of his mean Apparel, for thofe royal Robes 
he beheld in his Hands ; and therefore bid him wafh 
his Body that was cover d zvith Dirt and Filth, and 
take up a Kingly Spirit, and advance, his Continency 
and Moderation, to that high Fortune he was wor- 
thy of ; and when he ftjould be feated in the Royal 
Throne, and had in his Poiver the Life and Death 
of his Citizens,, not to forget the Condition he wa* 

Book III. Quintus Curtius. 189 

in when the Crown was confer/ d upon him ; nay, 
in Truth, for which he was chofen King. This 
Difcourfe appear'd to Abdolominus like a Dream, 
and he would now and then afk 'em, If they were 
in. their Senfes to ridicule him after fo odd a manner? 
But as he was flow in complying, they caus'd him 
to be wauYd, and having cloth'd him with a purple 
Garment, interwoven with Gold, and by their 
Oaths fatisfy'd him they wereferious, and that he 
was really pitch'd upon to be King, he accompa- 
nied them to the Palace. The Rumour of what 
was done ( as it ufually happens ) foon fpread it 
felf over the Town, and fome werepleas'd with it, 
while others were incens'd. The Rich reprefented 
to Alexander s Friends his mean Condition and Po- 
verty. Wherefore theKing order'd him to be brought 
before him : And having view'd him well, he faid his 
Perfondid not difagree with the account of his Ex- 
traction, but he defir'd him to inform him how he 
had born his Poverty ? To which he reply'd, Would 
to God I may be able to bear the weight of the Crown 
with the fame Tranquillity of Mind ; for thefe 
Hands of mine have fuffciently fupplyd my Wants, 
and as I had nothing, fo I zvanted nothing. The 
King taking this Anfwer as a Token of a noble 
Difpofltion, not only commanded Strato's royal 
Furniture to be deliver d to him, but alio prefented 
him with a confiderable part of the Perflan J3ooty, 
adding the adjacent Territory to his Jurifdiction. 
In the mean time Amyntas (who we faid before 
had left Alexander, and was fled to the Per fans, ) 
was come to Tripolis with four thoufand Greeks 
who had follow'd him, after the laft Battle, there 
•having fhipp'd off his Soldiers, hefail'd to Cyprus-, 
and as every one thought at that Juncture of time 
that whatever he could get Pofleflion of, would 
be his own of Right, he refolv'd to go to Egypt : 
At this time an Enemy to both Kings, refolving 


I90 QxTNTUS CURTIUS. Booklll. 

to conform himfeif to the mutability of the Times, 
making therefore a Speech to his Soldiers , he . 
gave 'em mighty hopes of fucceeding in fo great 
an Attempt, and reminded 'em that Sabaces, who 
was Governor of Egypt, was kill 'd in the Battle, 
that the Perftan forces were zuithout a Leader, and 
zvere but few in Number ; and that the Egyptians, 
who were always dijjatisfy'd ivith their Governors, 
would look upon- 'em rather to- be their Friends than.' 
their Enemies. 

Neceffity put him upon trying all things, for as 
he had been diiappointed of his firil Hopes, he 
look'd upon the future to be preferable to the 
prefent : Hereupon the Soldiers 'unamioufly agree 
to follow him wherever he (hould lead 'em ; and 
he thinking it prudence not to give 'em time to 
alter their Minds, brought 'em into the Haven of Pe~ 
lufium, pretending he was fent thither before by Da- 
rius. Having got Poflellion of Pelufium, he ad- 
vanc'd to Memphis : The Rumour of his Arrival be- 
ing fpread up and down, the Egyptians, out of 
their natural Levity, which makes them titter for 
Innovations, than for any considerable Perform 
mances, came out of their Towns and Villages 
with a defign to affift him to deftroy the Perfian 
Garnfons ; who notwithftanding they were alarm'd 
at the fuddennefs of the Enterprife, did not caft 
away all hopes of maintaining their Ground : 
But Amyntas having got the better of 'em in a 
fet Battle, drove them into the Town , and ha- 
ving pitch'd his Camp, he led his victorious Ar- 
my out to pillage and deftroy the Country ; and 
as if every thing now lay at his Mercy, he ravag'd 
whatever belong'd to the Enemy. Wherefore 
' Maaaces, notwithftanding he knew his Men were 
difhearten'd by their late Overthrow, reprefented 
to 'em, that the Enemy was difpers d up and down, 
being altogether careleji on the Account of their late 


Book III. Qvintus Curtius. 191 

Victory, and that they might with eafe recover what 
they had lofl. 

This Counfel was no lefs prudent in its Reafon, 
than happy in the Event, for they kill'd 'em every 
Man, their Leader perifliing among the reft: Thus 
Amyntas was punifh'd for his Treachery to both 
Kings, for he prov'd as falfe to him he went over 
to, as to him he had deferted. Darims Lieute- 
nants that had furviv'd the Action at JfJ'm, having 
got together the fcatter'd Forces that had fled with 
'em, and rais'd what Men they could in Cappado- 
cia and Paphlagonia, refolv'd to try to recover the 
Country of Lydia. Antigonus was Governor there 
for Alexander, who notwithstanding he had fent 
the greateft part of his Garrifons to ftrengthen the 
King's Army, yet defpifmg the Barbarians, he drew 
out his Men, and gave 'em Battle. 

Here fortune fhew'd herfelf conftant to Alexan- 
ders Side, for the Perfians were routed in three 
.Engagements fought in three feveral Provinces. 
About this time the Macedonian Fleet failing from 
Greece overcame Ariftomenes, whom Darius had 
fent to recover the Coaft of the Hellefpont, and 
either took or funk all his Ships on the other 
fide. Pbarnabazus, Admiral of the Perfian Fleet, 
having fore'd the Milefians to pay a confiderable 
Sum of Money, and put a Garrifon into Chita, 
fail'd with a hundred Ships to Andros, and from 
thence to Syphmu, leaving a Garrifon alfo in thofe 
Hands, and exacting a Sum of Money from 'em 
by way of Punimment. The great War between 
the two moft powerful Princes of Europe and Afia, 
in hopes of an univerfal Empire, had likewife put 
Greece and Crete in Arms ; for Agis, King of the 
Lacedemonians, having got together eight thou- 
fand Greeks, who were return'd Home, having 
made their efcape from Cilicia, march' d againft 
Antipater , Governor of Macedonia. The Cre- 

Quintus Curtius. Booklll. 

tarn, according as they chang'd their Sides, were 
fometimes garrifon'd by Spartans, and fometimes 
by Macedonians : Butthefe were but trifling Quar- 
rels, and hardly worth Fortune's Concern, who 
feem'd wholly taken up with that War on which 
all the reft depended. 


TH E Macedonians had already made themfelves 
Matters of all Syria, and of all Phoenicia, ex- 
cepting Tyre, and the King was encamp'd upon 
the Continent, from which the Town is feparated 
by a narrow Sea. Tyre is the mod considerable 
City of either Syria or Phoenicia , both for its 
largenefs as well as Fame, and therefore expected 
rather to be admitted into Alexanders Friendfhip 
as an Ally, than to become fubject to his Empire. 
On this Account they fent him a Prefent of a" 
Gold Crown, and a large quantity of Provifions 
for his Army ; all which the King gracioufly ac- 
cepted of as from Friends : Then turning to the 
AmbaJJ'adors, he told 'em he intended to Sacrifice to 
Hercules, who is in great Veneration with the Ty- ■ 
rians ; that the Kings of Macedon look'd upon them- 
felves to be defended from that God ; and that he 
was moreover advis'd by the Oracle to acquit him- 
felf of that Devotion. To this the Ambaffadors 
anfwer'd, That there was a Temple dedicated to Her- 
cules without the Town, in a Place calTd the Pa- 
letyron, where the King, if he picas ' d, might dif- 
charge that Duty. This anfwer fo inflam'd Alexan- 
der, who could not command his Paffion, that 
he fpoke to 'em in this manner, I perceive that 
becaufe you live in an If and, you trufi fo much to 
the Situation of ycur City, that you defpife my 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 193 

Land Army, but In a little time Til make you know 
you are on the Continent ; and therefore know, that 
I'll either be admitted into the Town, or tU take 
it by force. 

As they were returning with this Anfwer, fome 
of the Kings Friends endeavour'd to perfuade 'em 
not to deny the King entrance into their City, fence 
the whole Province of Syria and Phoenicia had fub- 
mitted to him. ' But they relying on the ftrength 
of the Place, refolv'd to endure the Siege ; for 
the Town was divided from the Continent by a 
narrow Sea of about four Furlongs in breadth, 
which is much expos'd to the South-weft Wind, 
which when it rag'd, beat the Waves fo violently 
againft. the Shore , that the Macedonians could 
not carry on their Work of Communication be- 
tween the Continent and the IJland. Nay, they 
had much ado to work when the Sea was calm ; 
but when it is difturb'd by this Wind, whatever is 
call into it is carry'd away by the violent Motion 
of the Waves : Nor could any Founda- 
tion laid fo ftrong but the Waters would eat their 
Way through the Joints of the Work, and when 
the Wind was high it would carry the Waters a- 
bove the higheft part. Befides this Difficulty, 
there was another of no lefs Confequence, viz.. 
the Walls and Towers of the Town were fur- 
rounded with a very deep Sea, fc that they could 
not plant any battering Engines againft 'em, but 
upon Ships at a great diftance, and it was impof- 
fible to apply Ladders to the Walls. Now Alexan- 
der had no Shipping, and if he had had any, they 
might ealily have been kept off by Darts from 
the Town ; befides, the Waters keeping them in 
a continual Motion, would have made their Ma- 
chines ineffectual. Befides all which, there was 
an Accident, which, tho' but inconfiderable in 
its felf, yet ferv'd to encourage the Tyrians. 

K Ambaf- 

194 Quintus Curtius. BooklV- 

AmbafTadors were come from the Carthagi- 
nians to offer their annual Sacrifice to Hercules, 
according to the Cuftom of the Country; for the 
Tyrians having founded Carthage were in great 
Kiteem with the Carthaginians , who refpedfed 
'em as their Parents. Thefe Ambafjadors exhor- 
ted 'em to undergo the Siege with Courage, and 
■they Jbould in a little time receive Succour from 
Carthage ; for at that time the Carthaginians were 
very powerful at Sea. Having therefore refolv'd 
upon a War, they difpofe their Engines on their 
Walls and Towers, diftribute Arms to their Youth, 
and fill their Work-houfes with Artificers, with 
which the City abounded. In fine, the whole 
Town was taken up with the Preparations for the 
War: They provided themfelves with grappling 
Irons, Crows, and other Inventions for the de- 
fence of Towns; but when the Iron was put in- 
to the Forge, as they were blowing the Fire they 
perceiv'd little Streams of Blood under the Flames, 
which the Tynans interpreted as an ill Omen to 
the Macedonians ; and it happen'd that one of 
Alexanders Soldiers, in the breaking of his Bread, 
obferv'd drops of Blood to rife out of it. The 
King being fomewhat alarm'd at this Accident, 
confulted Arifiander (who was the moft fkilful of 
all the Soothiayers) about the meaning of it, who 
told Aim, That if the Blood had flown from with- 
out, it w'otild have portended Evil to the Macedo- 
nians, but as it proceeded from the inward Parts, 
it prognofticated Mifchief to the City he was going 
to befege. As Alexander's Fleet was at a great 
diitance, and that the long Siege would be detri- 
mental to las-other Defigns, he fent Heralds to 
them to invite 'em to peaceful Terms ; but the 
Tyrians, contrary to the Law of Nations, caft 'em 
headlong into the Sea. This foul Ufage fo exa- 
sperated the King thai he refolv'd upon the Siege, 


BooklV. Quintus Curtius. 19^ 

but he was firft of all oblig'd to make a Peer, to 
join the Continent and the Town. Hereupon the 
Soldiers were feizd with the utmoft Defpair, fee- 
ing the Sea tvas fo 'very deep that they look'd upon 
it to be impojjible for 'cm, even with the Divine Af- 
fi fiance to fill it up ; where fhould they find Stones 
large enough, or Trees tall enough for fo prodigious 
a Work? Since whole Countries would hardly af- 
ford enough for the Purpole ; the narrownefs of 
the Strait making the Sea always rough , and the 
clofer it was confm d the more it rag'd. How- 
ever, the King, who was not now to learn how 
to manage the Soldiers Minds, ailur'd them, That 
Hercules had appear d to him in a Bream, and 
taking him by the Hand feemd to condutl him in- 
to the City. At the fame time he reminded 'em 
of the barbarous Ufage to his Heralds, of the Vio- 
lation of the Law of Nations, and that it was a 
fi.'ame the courfe of their Victories fiiould be flopped 
by a fingle Town. There was great Plenty of 
Stones at hand, in the Ruins of the old Town , 
and Mount Libantts fupply'd 'em with Materials 
for their Boats and Towers. The Work was al- 
ready fwell'd to the bulk of a Mountain from the 
bottom of the Sea, but yet it did not reach the 
Surface of the Water, and the farther it advane'd 
from the Shore into the Sea, the eaiier whatever 
was call: therein, was fwallow'd up by the deep 
Abyfs. While the Macedonians were thus em- 
ploy'd, the Tyrians came out in their Boats, and 
in a fcofnng manner upbraided 'em zvith carrying 
Burdens on their Backs like Beafis, they who were 
fuch mighty Warriors : They alfo aik'd 'em, Whe- 
ther Alexander zvas greater than Neptune ? Thefe 
Infults ferv'd very much to animate the Soldiers. 
By this time the Work began to (hew it felf a- 
bove the Water, and to increafe in breadth, draw- 
ing nearer to the Town. 

K i When 

Quintus Curtius. BooklV. 

When the Tyrians beheld the Bulk of the Peer, 
(which the Sea (had hinder'd 'em before from ob- 
ferving how it encreas'd) they came out in little 
Boats, and row'd round the Work (which was 
not join'd to the Ifland) attacking with their Darts 
thofe that guarded it. And as they wounded fe- 
veral without a Return, (they being able to ad- 
vance or retire as they pleas'd) the Macedonians 
were fore'd to interrupt the Work for fome time 
to defend themfelves. The King therefore caus'd 
Skins and Sails to be ftretch'd out before the 
Workmen to protect 'em from the Darts, and 
rais'd two Towers at the Head of the Peer , 
from whence the Macedonians might with eafe 
annoy with their Darts, thofe of the Enemy that 
pafs'd under in Boats. On the other fide the Ty- 
rians having landed fome of their Soldiers at a 
confiderable diftance, fo as not to be perceiv'd by 
the Macedonians, fell upon thofe that were fetch- 
ing Stones, and cut 'em to Pieces. And on Mount 
Lib anus the Arabian Peafants attack'd the difpers'd 
Macedonians and kill'd about thirty of 'em, taking 
alfo fome of 'em Prifoners. 


THIS made Alexander divide his Army, and 
that he might not be thought to lie idle be- 
fore a fingle City, he committed the Siege to 
Perdiccas and Craterus , and march'd himfelf with 
a flying Camp into Arabia. In the mean time the 
Tyrians fitted out a very large Ship , and loaded 
it to the Sternward with Stones and Gravel, and 
thereby rais'd the Stem of it very high, and ha- 
ving befmear'd it with a great Quantity of Pitch 
and Brimftone , they row'd it along, and its large 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 197 

Sails gathering a great deal of Wind, they foon 
work'd it up to the Peer. They that were ore 
Board , having fet Fire to the Forecaftle , leap'd 
into little Boats that follow'd for that Purpofe. 
The Ship thus on Fire, quickly communicated its 
Flames, which before any Help could be brought* 
had took hold of the Towers and other Works at 
the Head of the Bank ; and they who were in the 
little Boats , ply'd the Works with burning Tor- 
ches, and other combuftible Materials, proper to 
feed the Conflagration : the Fire had already gain'd 
the very Top of the Towers , where fome of 
the Macedonians permYd in the Flames, while 
others flinging away their Arms , caft themfelves 
into the Sea : But the Tyrians, who chofe rather to 
take 'em alive than to kill them, having lam'd their 
Hands with Sticks and Stones fo as altogether to 
difable'em, took them into their Boats with Safe- 
ty. The Works were not only confum'd by the 
Fire, but the Wind happening to be high that day, 
put the Sea into fo great a Ferment, that the 
Waves beating furioufly upon the Peer> and ha- 
ving loofTened the Joynts of the Work, the Wa- 
ter forc'd its way through the middle of the Peer, 
When the Stones on which the Earth was call ,. 
were wauYd away, the whole Structure funk into 
the Deep , fo that Alexander at his Return from 
Arabia hardly found any Footfteps left of fo vaft 
a Pile. Here, as it is ufual in Difappointments, 
one caft the Fault upon the other ; when they might 
all with more reafon have fiVd it on the Tempe- 
ftuoufnefs of the Sea. The King therefore giving 
Directions for a new Peer, order'd that the Front 
of it mould be carry'd on againft the Wind, where- 
as the fide of the old one lay expos'd to it : this 
was done, that the other Works, lying as it were 
under the Shelter of the Forepart , might be fe- 
cufd thereby. He alfo augmented the Breadth" 
K 3 of 

i^S Quintus Curtius. Book IV- 

of it that the Towers being built in the middle 
might be lefs fubjc<ft to the Enemies Darts. Whole 
Trees , with their Arms and Branches were call 
into the Sea, upon which they flung great Heaps 
of Stones, thefe were cover'd with a hew Courie 
of Trees, which they cover'd again with Earth* 
till by fucceflive Lays of Trees, Stones and Earth,* 
the whole Work became one folid Body. The 
Tyrians at the fame time omitted nothing that In- 
genuity could invent to render the Macedonians 
Labour ineffectual. The greater! Help they re- 
ceiv'd was from their Divers, who entring the 
Waters out of the Enemies Sight, fwam down un- 
perceiv'd to the very Peer, and with hooks dragg'd 
after them the Branches that ftuck out of the 
•Stones which drew along with 'em the other Ma* 
terials into the Deep, The Trunk of their Trees 
being thus difcharg'd of their Load, were eafily 
remov'd ; fo that the Foundation falling, the 
whole Superftrucl:ure follow'd. While Alexander 
was thus perplex'd in Mind, and deliberating with 
himfelf whether he mould continue the Siege , or 
be gone, his Fleet opportunely arriv'd from £y+ 
prws ; and at the fame time Cleander with freflv 
Recruits from Greece. The King divided his Fleet, 
which confided of one hundred and eighty Ships, 
into two Squadrons ; the one was commanded by 
Pyntagorns King of Cyprus, and Craterus ; the 
other he commanded himfelf in the Royal Galley. 
But altho' the Tyrians had a Fleet, yet they did 
not dare to venture a Sea Fight with Alexander ; 
and therefore they plac'd all their Galleys under 
their Walls. However the King attack' d 'em 
there , and funk 'em. The next Day Alexander 
brought his whole Fleet up to the Walls, which 
he battcr'd on all Sides with his Engines , but 
chiefly with thofe they call Rams. The Tyrians 
on their part were very diligent in repairing the 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 199 

Damage, and began to build a new Wall within 
the old one , that in cafe this fell they might frill 
have that for their Defence. But they were now 
prefs'd on all Sides ; for the Peer was advanc'd 
within the Call of a Dart, and the Fleet furround- 
ed the Walls ; fo that they were annoy'd both 
from the Sea and Land at the fame time. More- 
over the Macedonians had fatten' d their Galleys two 
and two, Stern to Stern; fo that their Sterns were 
as far diftant from each other as the Interval would 
permit. This Interval between Stern and Stenv 
was made good with Sail-yards and Planks laid 
acrofs and faften'd together, and over thefe, Brid- 
ges were laid for the Soldiers to fband upon. In 
this Order they were tow'd to the City ; and the 
Soldiers, from thefe Bridges , ply'd the Befieged 
with their Darts , they themfelves being out of 
Danger, by reafon the Stems cover'd them. It 
was Midnight when the King commanded the Fleet 
to furround the Town in the order we before de- 
fcrib'd ; and when the Tyrians faw the Ship " 
draw near the City on all Sides, their Hearts be- 
gan to fail 'em : But on the fudden the Sky was 
overcaft with thick Clouds which prefently inter- 
cepted the little Light that appear'd about that 
time : Then the Sea by degrees became more 
horrible and began to work high, and the Wind 
ftill encreaiing , the Waves fwell'd prodigioufly, 
darning the Ships one againfl: another. The Vio- 
lence of the Tempeft was fitch , that the Bands 
that faften'd the Galleys were broke, the Scaffolds 
and Bridges fejl with a dreadful Noife and drew 
the Soldiers along with 'em into the Deep : and 
the Ships that were ty'd together were not to be 
govern d in fo high a Sea. The Soldiers were a 
Hindrance to the Seamen, and the Seamen di- 
fturb'd the Soldiers in their Duty : and as it fre- 
quently happens in fuch Cafes, the fldlful were 
K 4 fore'd 

2oo Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

forc'd to obey the ignorant. For the Pilots, who 
at other Times were us'd to command, being 
threaten'd with Death, obey'd the Orders of 
others. At length the Sea, as if overcome by 
the Obftinacy of the Rowers, reflgn'd the Ships, 
as to fome parting Signal ; and they reach'd the 
Shore altho' molt of 'em much uSatter'd. About 
this time there came thirty Ambafiadors from Car- 
thage, being rather a Comfort than a Help to the 
befieged ; for they gave 'em to underftand, that 
the Carthaginians were themfelves fo engagd in War, 
that they did not now fight for Empire, but for 
Safety. The Syracufans were at this time deftroy- 
ing Africa with Fire and Sword ; and were en- 
camp'd not far from the Walls of Carthage. The 
Tyrians however were not difcouraged , tho' dif- 
appointed, of fo conliderable an Expectation ; but 
delivering their Wives and Children to thefe Am- 
baffadors to be tranfported to Carthage , refolv'd 
to bear whatever happen'd with the greater Forti- 
tude, fince they had the Satisfaction to have fe- 
cur'd what was moft dear to 'em, from (baring in 
the common Danger. At this very Juncture one 
of the Citizens declar'd to the AlTembly , That 
Apollo , whom the Tyrians had a great Venera- 
tion for, had appear d to him in his Sleep, as if he 
was going to leave the Town, and that the Peer the 
Macedonians had made, feemd to him to be changd 
into a Wood. Hereupon tho' the Author was not 
in great Credit amongft 'em, yet as they were in- 
clin'd to beljeve the worft, out of fear, they 
bound the Image with a Golden Chain and faften'd 
it to the Altar of Hercules, to whom their Town 
was dedicated; as if they thought by his fuperi- 
our Power, to retain Apollo againft his Will. 
The Carthaginians had brought this Image from 
Syracufe , and had plac'd it here as being their 
Original Country ; for they were us'd to adorn 



Tyre as well as Carthage with the Spoils they 
took from othes Towns.; And at this time would 
fain have permaded them to renew a Sacrifice, 
that I can not believe to be at all acceptable to- 
the Gods ; and that the Tyrians had laid afide 
for feveral Ages, viz. to offer up to Saturn a free- 
bom Child : which Sacrilege rather than Sacrifice 
the Carthaginians had receiv'd from their Foun- 
ders, and are faid to have obferv'd it till their Ci- 
ty was deftroy'd. Now had not the Elders (by 
whofe Directions all things were manag'd) oppofed 
this barbarous Superftition , it would in all Likely- 
hood have got the better of Humanity. Howe- 
ver their preffing Neceflity, which is more efrlca- 
cioufty ingenious than Art, made them not only 
put in practice the ufual Methods of Defence, but 
infpir'd 'em alfo with new ones : For , to annoy 
the Ships that approach'd the Walls , they con- 
triv'd long Rafters, to which they falten'd Crows, 
Grappling Irons, Hooks and Scythes, which they 
difcharg'd from their Engines, letting gotheRope3 
to which they were falten'd, that they might re- 
cover 'em again. Thefe Hooks and Scythes tore 
to Pieces the Men , and very much damag'd the 
Ships. They had, befides, another Contrivance ;• 
they heated Brafs Bucklers as hot as Fire could 
make 'em, and then fill'd 'em with burning Sandj 
and boiling Mud , which they pour'd down from 
the Walls upon the Macedonians. None of their 
Machines were more terrible than this ; for if the 
burning Sand got between the Armour and the 
Body, as it was impoffible to (hake it off, it fail'd 
not to burn whatever it rouch'd ; fo that flinging 
down their Arms, and tearing every thing off that 
was to protect their Bodies , they lay expos'd to- 
all manner of Mifchief without being able to da 


%o% Quintus CuRTius. Book IV. 


BY this time the King was To tir'd with the te- 
dioufhefs of the Siege, that he refolv'd to 
vaiie it, and carry his Arms into JEgypt. For 
tho' he had, with incredible Celerity, run over 
Afia, the Walls of one {ingle Town now flop'd 
his Progrefs , and hinder'd him from making ulja 
of the Opportunity he had , of executing his 
great Defigns on the other fide : He was no lefs 
afham'd of going away without carrying his Point 
than of being fo long about it. Moreover he 
conilder'd his Reputation would fuffer (by which 
he had done more , than by his Arms) if he left 
Tyre as a Witnefs that he was to be overcome : 
Therefore, that he might leave no means untry'd, 
he refolv'd to make h'ts laft Effort vAth a greater 
Number of Ships, and the choicsfi of his Troops on 
Board. At this time it happen'd that a Whale of 
of an unulual Size, (for its Back appear'd above 
the Water) came and laid it felf by the Peer fide; 
where having beat the W T aves for fome time, it 
rais'd it felf fo as to be confpicuous to both Par- 
ties. After tins it plung'd again into the Sea near 
the Head of the Peer, and fometimes mewing it 
felf above the Waves , fometimes hiding itieif in 
the Deep, it fiiew'd itfelf for the laft time not far 
from the Walls of the City. Both Sides interpre- 
ted the Sight of this Monfter in favour of their 
refpective lntereit. The Macedonians conjeclur'd, 
that the Whale pointed to 'em , which way they 
ought to carry on their Work : And the Tynans 
concluded, that Neptune had pitched upon it, at 
an Injlance of his Right over the uftirfd Sea, and 
that the neiv erecled Fabrick would in a little time 
fall to Ruin. PofTefled with this Opinion they fell 
1 to 

Book IV. Quintus Curtis 203 

to feafting, and loaded, themfelves with Wine. 
And at Sun-rife they mann'd out their Ships which 
they had adorned with Garlands and Flowers , 
not only prefuming the Victory to be certain, but 
alfo rejoicing beforehand for it. It happen'd that 
the King had order d his Fleet to a contrary Part 
of the Town , and left but thirty of the fmalleft 
Rate upon the Shore, two whereof were prefent- 
ly taken by the Tynans, and the reft were in great 
Danger ; till Alexander being alarm'd at the Out- 
cry of his Men, came with the Fleet to their Af- 
firmance : The ftrft of the Macedonian Galleys that 
came up , was a Cinquereme , which was the 
fwifteft Sailer in the Fleet. As foon as the Tyrians 
perceiv'd it, they came againft it with two others 
one on each fide. The Cinquereme , plying all 
its Oars to encounter one of 'em,, receiv'd a rude 
Shock from the Beak of its Adverfary, yet grap- 
pled with her fo as to hold her fall. The other 
being at liberty,, was juft ready to attack her on 
the contrary fide , when one of Alexa?ider's Gal- 
leys came very feafonably to her Relief,, and was 
drove fo violently againft her Enemy that flic 
ftruck the Pilot of the Tyrian Galley from his 
Poll at Stern into the Sea. By this time feveral 
others of the Macedonian Ships were come up, as 
alfo the King in Perfon , which made the Tyrians 
ufe their utmoft Effort to fet their entangled Gal- 
ley at liberty ; which having, tho' with Difficulty, 
compafs'd , they made to their Haven with ali 
their Fleet. Alexander immediately pnnu'd them, 
but could not get into the Haven , by reafon of 
the Darts with which they ply'd him from the 
Walls of the City. However he either funk or 
took moll of their Ships. Then he granted two- 
Days reft to his Soldiers, after which he advanc'd 
with all his Ships and Machines, that he Blight 
from both attack the Enemy that was aheady 
K-6 in. 

i04 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

in a great Contkrnation. The King on this O cr- 
eation, plac'd himfelf on the Top of a high Tower, 
with a great deal of Bravery, but yet greater Dan- 
ger : For as he was remarkable by his Royal Ap- 
parel, and the Brightnefs of his Arms, they chief- 
ly aim'd at him. Here he behav'd himfelf with 
all the Gallantry imaginable ; for he kill'd feveral 
upon the Wall, with his Pike, others in a clofer 
Engagement, with his Sword and Buckler, he caft 
headlong into the Sea: For the Tower from 
which he fought, almoft join'd to the Enemies 
Walls. The battering Rams had now by their re- 
peated Strokes, beat down great Part of the For- 
tifications of the Place, the Fleet had enter'd the 
Port, and fome of the Macedonians had taken Pof- 
feflion of fome of the Towers that the Enemy 
had deferted ; when the Tyrians, finking under the: 
W T eight of fo many ill Accidents at once, betake 
themfelves fome to the Sanctuary of the Temples,, 
others making fall their Doors, chufe their own 
way of dying: Some again fell furioufly upon the 
Macedonians, revolving not to die unreveng'd. But 
the greateft Part got up to the Tops of the Houfes, 
and from thence flung Stones, or whatever came 
next to their Hands, upon the Enemy in the 
Streets. Alexander gave Orders to (pare none but 
thofe who had taken Refuge in the T.emples y and to 
fet Fire to the Town. And notwithftanding Pro-- 
clamation was made accordingly; yet none that 
could bear Arms, thought fit to feek for Succour 
from the Gods. The Children of both Sexes,, 
with the young Maidens, fill'd the Churches, and 
the Men flood at the Entry of their own Houfes, 
ready to fall a Sacrifice to the Soldiers Fury. How- 
ever, a great many were fav'd by the Sidonians 
that ferv'd in Alexanders Army. Thefe having 
enter'd the Town with the reft of the Macedonian 
Forces, and remeuibring their Relation with the 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius; 2,05* 

Tyrians (for Agenor, as they believ'd, founded both 
Cities) protected a great many of the Town's 
People, carrying them on board their Ships, and 
tranfported 'em to Sydon. There were fav'd by 
this means, about fifteen Thoufand. How much 
Blood was fpilt may be guefs'd at from this , that 
fix thoufand were found Sain within the City Walls, 
Notwithstanding all this, the Kings Anger was not 
fatisfy'd, fo that he commanded two thoufand of 
the Enemy that had furviv'd the Soldier's Rage 
(they being weary with killing) to be crucify 'd 
along the. Sea Coait: A fad Spectacle even to the 
Conquerors themfelves ! He fpar'd the Ambajj'a- 
dors of the Carthaginians r but declar'd War 
gainft 'cm, tho' he could not profecute it immedir* 
ately, by reafon of his other more prefling Af- 
fairs. Tyre was taken the feventh Month, after it 
was beiieg'd, a Town famous to Pofterity both 
for the Antiquity of its Origine, and for its fte? 
quent Variety of Fortune. It was built by Age* 
nor, and held a considerable Time the Sovereignty* 
not only of the neighbouring Sea, but alfo of all 
the Seas wherever its Fleets came. And if we 
may believe Report, this People was the firft that 
either taught or learn'd Letters. It had planted 
Colonies almoft all over the World ; Carthage in 
Africky Thebes in Boeotia, and Gades upon the Ocean* 
For my part, I am apt to believe, that as the Tjy- 
rians were Mailers at Sea, and often vifited Coun- 
tries unknown to other People, they made choice 
of fuch and fuch Seats for their'Youth with which 
they abounded; or elfe (for this is alfo faid) that 
.the Ifland being mightily fubjecT: to Earthquakes, 
the Inhabitants (tir'd therewith) were fore'd to fet- 
tle themfelves in other Habitations by dint of Arms. 
Be it as it will, having undergone many Cafualties, 
and as it were, reviving after being raz'd, by the 
Help of a long Peace , which makes every thing 


%o6 Quintus Curtius. Book IV, 

fiourim, it now enjoys a profound Eafe under the 
Protection of the Roman Clemency. 

chap. v. 

ABOUT this time, Alexander receiv'd Let- 
ters from Darius, wherein he gives him at 
hit, the Title of King, and defir'd he would ac- 
cept of his Daughter Statyra for Wife, offering him 
with her, all that Tra6i of Ground that lies between, 
the Hellefpont and the River Halys ; and that he 
himfelf would be contented with thofe Countries 
that lie Eajlward from thence. That if he found 
any Difficulty to accept of this his Offer, he wifl/d 
him to reflect, That Fortune feldom made any long 
Stay any where ; and that the greater Felicity Mm 
tnjoyd, the more were they alfo envy 'd. That it 
"was to be fear d, lefl by his juvenile Difpofition of 
Mind, he fliould be elated with Vanity, on the Ac- 
count of his Succefs ; after the manner of Birds t 
whofe natural Lightnefs carry d \m up to the Skies, . 
That nothing was more difficult, than at his Age to 
be capable of fo great a Fortune. That as for his 
ozvn part, he fiill had a great deal left, and fhould 
not always be furprizld in Streights : That Alexan- 
der would find himfelf oblig'd to pafs ^Euphrates, 
the Tygre, the Araxes, and the Hydafpes, which 
were like fo many Bulwarks to his Dominions : That 
in the large Plains he mufl come into, he would be 
Sjhamd of his fmall Number. When would he be 
able to reach Media, Hycarnia, Bactra, and the In-, 
dians that border upon the Ocean ? Or the Sogdians 
and Arafchofians, who are hardly fomuch as knoivn 
but by their Name, with the other Nations that 
dwell along Mount Caucafus, or the River Tanais ? 
That were he but barely to travel, over thefe va(l. 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 207 

Countries without flny Oppofition at all, he would 
find blmfelf become old before he could perform the 
Journey. That it was his befi way not to ftand 
upon his coming to him, fince whenever he came, it 
fhould be to his Ruine. To which Letter Alexan- 
der made the following Anfwer by thofe that 
brought it : That Darius promts d him what was 
now none of his own : That he offer d to divide that 
which he had already entirely loft. That Lydia, 
Ionia, iEolia, and the Coaft of the Hellefpont, 
were actually in his Pojfeffion by the Law of Arms ; 
That it belong d to the Victorious to prefcribe' Condi- 
tions, and to the Vanqui/h'd to receive 'em. If he 
was alone ignorant which of thefe States he was 
in at prefent, he might at foon as he pleas" d, be made 
fenfible thereof by another Battle. That when he 
pafs'd the Sea, he did not propofe to himfelfCilicin, 
or Lydia (which he look'd upon as an inconfiderable 
Reward great a War) but that Perfepolis, the 
Capital of his Empire, with Bactra, and Ecbatana, 
and the utmofb Bounds of the Eaft, were what he 
defignd to fubmit to his Power. That whitherfo- 
ever he could fly, he could alfo follow ; and that ha- 
ving pafs'd the Sea, he was not to be frighten d with 
Rivers. Thus the Kings writ to one another. In. 
the mean time the Rhodians furrender'd their City 
and Port to Alexander. The King con ferr'd the 
Government of Cilicia on Socrates, and that of die 
Country about Tyre to Philotas. As for Syria , 
that tney call Csle, Parmenio hadrefign'd it to An- 
dromachus, that he might' attend the King in the 
remaining part of the War. Alexander having or- 
der'd Heph&flion to coaft along Phoenicia with the 
Fleet, came with his whole Army to the City of 
Gaza. Now was the Time of celebrating the 
J/lhmian Games, which are us'd to be perfor.m'd 
by the Concourfe of all Greece. As the Greeks are 
naturally,. it was agreed in this AiTem- 


2o8 Quintus Curtius. BookrW 

bly, to depute twelve Perfons to the King, to pre- 
fent him with a Gold Crown-, as an Acknowledge- 
ment of his glorious Victories, and of the great 
Things he had done for the Liberty and Safety of 
Greece. Yet a little before, they were very inqui- 
fitive about the Succefs of the War, their waver- 
ing Minds being ready to ftrike in with which fo- 
ever fide Fortune (hould favour. However, not 
only the King was employ'd in reducing thofe 
Towns that refus'd to fubmit to his Authority, 
but his Deputies alfo (who were great Captains) 
made feveral Conquefts. Calas fubdu'd Paphlago- 
nia ; Antigonus, Lycaonia ; and Balacrus having de- 
feated Idarnesy Darius' $ Lieutenant, took Miletum 
Amphoterics and Hegelochus, with a Fleet of a hun- 
dred and fixty Ships, brought all the Iflands be* 
tween Achaia and Afia, under Alexanders Obe- 
dience. They took PofTeffion alfo of Tenedos, 
by the voluntary Submiflion of the Inhabitants. 
They had a Delign to poifefs themfelves of Chios, 
in the fame manner : But Pharnahazus Darius's 
Admiral, having feiz'd thofe who favour'd the Ma- 
cedonian Faction, put the Government of the Town 
into the Hands of Apollonides and Athanagoras 
(who were in the Perfian Intereft) leaving them a 
fmall Garrifon for the Defence of it. Notwith- 
ftanding this Difappointment, Alexanders Lieute- 
nants continu'd the Siege of the Place, not rely- 
ing fo much on their own Strength, as on the Dif- 
pofition of the befieged. Neither were they de- 
ceiv'd in their Opinion; for a Difpute arifing be- 
tween Apollcnides, and the chief Officers that com- 
manded the Garrifon, gave the Enemy an Oppor- 
tunity of breaking into the Town. A Company 
of Macedonians having therefore forc'd one of the 
Gates, the Inhabitants purfuant to the Meafures be- 
fore concerted for the Surrender of the Place, 
join'd themfelves to Amphoterus and Hegelochus-, 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 2,09 

and having put the Perfian Garrifon to the Sword, 
deliver'd up Pharnabazus with Apoilonides, and A- 
thanagoras bound, to the Macedonians. There 
were twelve Gallies taken with all their Crew and 
Marines, befides thirty Ships and Barks belonging 
to Pyrates , with three thoufand Greeks that were 
in the Perfian Pay. The Greeks ferv'd to recruit 
the Macedonian Forces, the Pyrates were put to 
Death, and the captive Powers were difiributed 
among the Fleet. It happen'd that Ariftonicus (who 
had a tyrannical Power in Methymna) being igno- 
rant of what had pafs'd at Chios, came with fome 
Pyrates to the Mouth of the Haven, which was 
fecur'd with a Boom, it being then about the firft 
Watch, and being afc'd by the Guard, Who he 
was .? He faid, he -was Ariftonicus , and came to- 
the Affiftance of Pharnabazus. The Guard made 
Anfwer; That Pharnabazus -was taking his Reft, 
and could not then be /poke with ; however, as he- 
was a Friend and Ally, he (hould have Admittance 
into the Port, and the next Day be introduced 
Pharnabazus. Ariftonicus hereupon without He- 
fitation, enter'd the Haven, follow'd by about ten 
Pyrates, but as they were making to the Key, the 
Guard fliut up the Haven as before, and having 
call'd to their ArMance the whole Corps , they 
took Ariftonicus and all that were with him Pri- 
foners, without their making the leaft Refiftance. 
And having put Chains upon them, deliver'd 'em 
up to Amphoterus and Hegehchus. From hence 
the Macedonians pafs'd to Mitylene, which Chares 
the Athenian had lately pofTefs'd himfelf of, ha- 
ving with him a Garrifon of about two thoufand 
Perfians; but finding himfelf too weak to hold 
out a Siege, he furrender'd the Place, upon Con- 
dition to retire whither he pleas'd : So he went to 
Imbrus; and the Macedonians gave Quarter to the 


xro Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 


DARIUS defpairing of Peace/which he thought 
he fhould have obtain'd by his Letters and 
Ambaffadors , was now wholly intent on re- 
cruiting his Forces, in order to renew the War 
with Vigor. He therefore fummon'd all his Ge- 
nerals to meet at Babylon \ but he in particular 
commanded Bejfus, Governor of the Baclrians, to 
get together as powerful an Army as he could, 
and to come and join him. Thefe Battrians are 
the moll warlike People of all thofe Nations, be- 
ing of a barbarous Difpofition, and not at all in- 
ciin'd to the Perfian Luxury. And as they border 
upon the Scythians, who are alio a martial People, 
and accuftomed to live by Plunder, they were 
conftantly in Arms. But Beffus was fufpe&ed to 
be perfidioufly inclin'd, and by his Haughtineis 
(which made him diflatisfy'd with the fecond Rank) 
gave Partus great Uneaftnefs; for as he affected 
Sovereignty, it was very much fear'd he would 
play the Traitor, as being the readier! way to at- 
tain his End. In the mean time, Alexander us'd 
all his Endeavours to get Intelligence what Coun- 
try Darius was in, but to no purpofe ; the Perfiant 
being very religious Concealers of their Kings Se- 
crets : Neither Fear nor Hope can force a Difco- 
7ery from 'em : The ancient Difcipline of their 
Princes enjoining 'em to Secrecy on Pain of Death. 
The Intemperance of the Tongue, is with them 
more feverely punim'd than any other Crime: Nor 
can they imagine him to be capable of great Mat- 
ters, that finds a Difficulty in being filent, a thing 
that Nature has made fo eafie in it felf. This was 
the Caufe why Alexander (being altogether igno- 
rant of what the Enemy was doing) laid Siege to i 

Book IV .. QUINTUS CuRTIUS. 2 1 1; 

Gaza. Bet is was its Governor, and was a Man of 
noted Fidelity to his King, and tho' his Carriibn 
was hut fmall, yet he defended the Walls which 
were of a large Cornpafs. Alexander having view- 
ed the Situation of the Place, ordcr'dfeveral Mines 
to be made , which Work was favour'd by the 
Lightnefs of the Ground , for the neighbouring 
Sea difcharg'd great Quantities of Sand upon it, and 
there were neither Rocks nor Stones to obftriufl 
the Work. The Mines were begun on that fide 
where they could not be perceiv'd by the Befieged,, 
and that they might have no Sufpicion of what 
was doing, the King gave Orders to approach the 
Towers to the Walls.. But the Nature of the 
Ground was no way proper for this Work, for the 
Sand linking under the Weight of the Wheels, re- 
tarded their Motion, and difconcerted the whole 
Frame of the Towers, fo that the Scaffolds broke* 
and many of the Soldiers were wounded thereby; 
befides, there was as much Difficulty to bring the 
Towers back, as there had been to carry 'em for- 
ward. Hereupon Alexander gave the Signal for 
a Retreat, and the next Day he order'd the Town 
to be furrbunded ; and as foon as the Sun was- up, be- 
fore his Army advane'd to the Charge , he offer'd 
Sacrifice to the Gods, after his Country manner, to 
implore their Affiftance. While the King was thus 
employ'd, a Crow happen'd to fly over him, and 
fuddenly let go a Lump of Earth that it held in its 
Claws, which falling on the Kings Head, broke 
in pieces; and the Crow went and fettled on a 
Tower hard by: The Tower was befmear'd with 
Bitumen and Sulphur, which catching hold of the 
Crow's Wings , fo entangl'd its Feathers, that it 
ftruggl'd in vain to fly away , and was taken by 
the Standcrs-by. The Accident was look'd upon to* 
be important enough to have the Soothfayers con- 
flicted about it, for Alexander was fomething in- 


aix Qutntus Curtius. BooklV- 

chn'd himfelf to that kind of Superftition. Ari- 
fiander who was chiefly credited in this Art, told 
the King thut this Omen portended the Ruin of the 
City, but that he would be in danger of being 
wounded, and therefore advis'd him, not to at- 
tempt any thing againjl it that Day. 

Altho* the King was very much concerned that 
a fingle City fhould, by its Obftinacy, hinder him 
from pafling into Egypt with fecurity, yet he 
thought it advifable to comply with the Sooth- 
sayer's Requeft, and accordingly gave the Signal 
for the Retreat. This fo encourag'd the Befieged, 
that rallying out they attack'd the Macedonians in 
the Rear, thinking that the Enemy's delay ought 
to be their Opportunity ; but their Conftancy did 
not fecond their Fury in the Engagement; for, 
when they faw the Macedonians rally, they pre- 
fently ftopp'd again. By this time the Shouts of 
thofe that were righting reach'd the King , who 
prefently flew to the Affiitance of his Men, un- 
mindful of the Danger he had been warn'd of ; 
however, at the intreaty of his Friends, he put on 
his Armour, which he otherwife rarely wore. 

Here a certain Arabian, one of Darius $ Sol- 
diers, ventur'd upon an Action above his For- 
tune, and covering his. Sword with his Buckler, 
fell upon his Knees before the King, as if he had 
deferted to him ; whereupon the King bid him 
rife, and order d him to be receivd into his Service, 
but the Barbarian taking his Sword couragioufly 
into his right Hand, made at the King's Head; 
who having declin'd the BJow at the lame time 
cut off the difappointed Hand of the Barbarian, 
and flatter'd himfelf that he was now clear'd of 
the Danger of the Day. However Fate, as I take 
it, is unavoidable, for as he was fighting gallantly 
among the foremoit he was wounded with an Ar- 
row, which pafs'd through his Armour, and (luck 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 213 

in his Shoulder, from whence Philip, his Phyfl- 
cian, drew it. Now the Blood began to run in 
a great quantity, and all that flood by were frigh- 
ten'd, never having known an Arrow penetrate 
fo deep through Armour before. As for Alexan- 
der, he did not fo much as change his Counte- 
nance, but bid 'em flop the bleeding, and tie up the 
Wound. Thus he remain'd fome time at the Head 
of the Army, either dirTembling or overcoming 
the Pain ; but when the Blood that had been 
ftopp'd by an Application, began to run a frefti in 
a larger Quantity, and the Wound (which by 
reafon of its newnefs did not at firft pain him^ 
upon the cooling of the Blood, began to fwelf, 
then he fainted and fell on his Knees. They that 
were next to him took him up, and carry'd him 
into his Tent, and Beti* concluding him dead, re- 
turned into the Town in a triumphing manner; 
but the King> impatient of delay, (before his 
Wounds were curd) gave Orders for a Terrafs 
to be rais'd as high as the City Walls, whidi he 
commanded to be undermin'd. The Befieged on 
their part were not idle, for they had erected a 
new Fortification of equal height with the old 
Wall, but that however did not come upon the 
level with the Towers which were planted on the 
Terrafi , fo that the inward parts of the Town 
were expos'd to the Enemies Darts ; and to com- 
pleat their hard Fate, the Walls were now over- 
thrown by the Mines, and gave the Macedonians an 
opportunity of entering the City at the Breaches. 
The King was at the Head of the foremoft , and 
while he carelefly enter'd the Place, his Leg was 
hurt with a Stone, notwithstanding which, lean- 
ing on his Dart, he fought among the firft, tho* 
his old Wound was not yet heal'd ; his Refent- 
ment was the greater on the account of his having 
receiv'd two Wounds in this Siege. Letts having 


H4 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

behav'd himfelf gallantly, and receiv'd feveiil 
Wounds, was at lait forfaken by his Men, yet this 
4id not hinder him from fighting on, tho' his Arms 
were grown flippery with his own and the Ene- 
mies Blood ; but being attack'd on all Sides , he 
was taken alive, and being brought before the 
King, who was overjoy'd that he had him in his 
."Power, infomuch that he that us'd to admire Ver- 
tue, even in an Enemy, giving way this time to 
Revenge, told him, Thou Jhalt not 9 Betas, dye m 
thou would' ft, but expect to undergo whatever Tor- 
mcn-ts Ingenuity can Invent. At which Threats, 
jBetis, without making any Reply, gave the K'mg 
not only an undaunted, but an infolent Look ; 
whereupon Alexander faid, Do you take notice of 
his obftinate Silence ? Bus he either offer d to kneel 
down, or made the leaft Submijfion ? However, I'll 
overcome his Taciturnity, if by no other Means, at 
Uaft by Groans. This laid, his Anger turn'd to 
Rage, his Fortune having already corrupted his 
Manners, fo that-^e order'd Cords to be run thro* 
Beta's Heels, and ty'd to the hinder part of a 
Cart, and in that manner to be dragg'd alive round 
the City , valuing himfelf for having imitated 
Achilles {from whom he defended) in punifhing 
his Enemy. 

In this Action there periuYd about ten thou- 
fand Perfans and Arabians, neither was it a blood- 
lefs Victory to the Macedonians. However, the 
Siege was not fo considerable on the fcore of the 
Character of the Town, as for the two Wounds 
the King receiv'd therein. After this the King 
(making the beft of his way to Egypt) difpatch'd 
Amyntas with ten. Galleys to Macedonia to raife 
Recruits; for even his fuccefsful Battles diminihYd 
his Army, and he had not the fame Confidence 
in foreign Soldiers as in thofe of his own Country. 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. %1$ 


THE Egyptians had for a great while envy'd 
the Psrfian Grandure, and look'd upon their 
Government to be both Avaritious and Iniblent, 
fo that at the Rumour of Alexander s coming thi- 
ther they began to take Courage ; for they were 
fo difpos'd to Revolt that they had before joyfully 
receiv'd Amyntas the Deferter, tho' his Power 
was altogether precarious. They therefore flock'd 
in great Numbers to Pelufwm, thinking the King 
would enter that Way, and he arriv'd in Egypt at 
a Place call'd ftill Alexander's Camp, on the feventh 
Day after "he left Gaza. Here he gave Orders to 
the Foot to repair to Pclufium by Land , while 
he with fome chofen Troops was carry'd along 
the River Kilus. The Per pans being terrify'd at 
the Revolution, did not dare to wait his coming? 
lle was by this time come within a little way of 
Memphis, where Mazaces commanded for Darius • 
but not daring to oppofe Alexander, he made haitc 
to pafs the River, and brought the King eight hun- 
dred Talents, and all the royal Furniture. From 
Memphis he continu'd his Courfe along the fame 
River, and penetrated into the more inward Parts 
of Egypt* and having fettled the Affairs of the Na- 
tion fo as to change none of their ancient Cu- 
ftoms, he refolv'd to vifit the famous Oracle of 
Jupiter Hammon. The Way thither was hardly 
practicable, even to a fmall Number, without any 
Incumbrance. There is a fcarcity of Water from 
Heaven as well as Earth, and nothing to be feen but 
barren Sands, Which when thoroughly heated by 
the Sun, burn the Soles of the Feet : In fine, the 
Heat is intolerable ; but here is not only the ex- 
ceffive heat of the Sun, and the drought of the 


xi6 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

Country to be ftruggled with, but alfo with a te- 
nacious kind of Gravel, which lies very deep, and 
linking under the Feet makes it very difficult to 
move. All thefe Inconveniencies were magni- 
fy'd by the Egyptians : However, Alexander was re- 
folv'd to gratiiie the ardent defire he* had to vi- 
fit Jupiter , whom he either really believ'd to 
be his Father (not being fatisfy'd with his mortal 
Grandure ) or had a mind the World mould think 
fo : He embark'd therefore with thofe he defign'd 
fliould accompany him, and fail'd down the River 
to the Meer call'd Mareofis. While he was here, 
Ambaflfadors came to him from the Cyrenenfes 
with Prefents, defiring Peace, and that he would 
vifit their Towns ; but the King having accepted 
their Prefents, and alTur'd 'em of his Friendship, 
purfu'd his intended Journey. The firft and fe« 
cond Days Fatigue feem'd tolerable, for they were 
not yet come to the vaft, naked Solitudes, tho* 
the Ground here was barren, and as it were dead ; 
but when thofe unbounded Plains appear'd that are 
cover'd over with deep Sands, they were at as 
great a Lofs to difcover Land as if they had been 
failing on the deep. There was not fo much as 
a Tree to be feen, nor the leaft token of a culti- 
vated Soil ; and they now wanted Water, that 
which they carry'd with 'em upon Camels being 
fpent, and there was none to be had in thofe dry 
Grounds and burning Sands. Betides, the Sun had 
parch'd up every thing, all was fcorch'd and burnt. 
They were in this diftrefs'd Condition, when, on 
the fudden, the Sky was overcaft with thick 
Clouds which intercepted the Sun, whether it were 
by Accident, or ordain'd as a Prefent from the 
Gods to relieve their preffing Calamity ; this is cer- 
tain, it was a feafonable Comfort to them ( who 
were periftiing with Heat) even tho' they ftill 
wanted Water : But when the Storm broke out 
3 into 

BooklV. Quintus Curtius. 117 

into a large and copious Rain, every one laid in 
his Proviiion thereof; fome of 'em unable any 
longer to bear their Thirft , receiv'd it with open 
Mouth as it fell. They had already fpent four 
Days in this vaft Solitude, and were not now far 
off of the Seat «of the Oracle, when a great flock 
of Crows came towards 'em, and flew gently before 
their Van, and fometimes fettled to give 'em time 
to come up; and then taking Wing again preceded 
'em, (hewing them the Way, and as it were dif- 
charging the Office of a Guide ; at laft they reach'd 
the Place which was confe crated to the God. It 
feems to furpafs belief, that being fituate in fo wild 
a Solitude, it fhould be encompafs'd with Trees 
that grew fo thick as to (kreen it on all Sides from 
the piercing Rays of the Sun ; being at the fame 
time water'd with fo many gentle Streams as were 
abundantly fufflcient for the Nourimment of thefe 
Groves; and, to encreafe the Miracle, the Air is 
here fo temperate that it refembles the Spring, and 
is equally falubrious throughout all the Seafons of 
the Year. The People that inhabit the Neigh- 
bourhood of this Place are, on the Eaft, thofe 
that border on .the Ethiopians ; and on the South 
thofe that Face the Arabians, call'd Troglodytes, 
whofe Territory extends it feif as far as the Red 
Sea ; to the Weftward it has other Ethiopians, cal- 
led ScenitA ; to the Northward are the Nafamones, 
who are a People fituate near the Flats, and en- 
rich themfelves by Piracy, lying in wait upon the 
Coaft, ever ready to make a Prey of thofe Ships 
that are Stranded, being well acquainted with all 
the Fords. The Inhabitant of the Wood, who 
are call'd Hammonuins, live in Cottages fcatter'd 
up and down ; the middle Of the Wood ferves 'em 
for a Citadel, being furrourided with a triple Wall : 
Within the firft ihnds the ancient Palace of their 
Kings ; in the fecynd they keep their Wives and 
• Vol.I. L Children, 

ai8 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

Children, as alfo their Concubines ; here likewife 
is the Deity's Oracle, which in the laft were the 
Prince's Guards and the Men at Arms. There is 
another Wood alio belonging to Hammon, in the 
middle of which is a Fountain that they call the 
Water of the Sun : About break oj; Day this Wa- 
ter is lukewarm, in the middle of the Day, when 
the heat of the Sun is greateft, the fame Water 
is very cold ; towards the Evening it grows warm 
again, and in the middle of the Night it is fcal- 
ding hot ; and the nearer the Night draws on to 
Day, its nocturnal Heat decreafes, till about break 
of Day it is lukewarm , as before. That which 
is ador'd for a God has not the fame Form, under, 
which Artificers ufe to reprefent the Gods ; it very 
much refembles a Navel, being compos'd of an 
Emerald and other precious Stones. When it is 
confulted, the Priefts carry it in a golden Ship, 
which is fet off with a great many lilver Cups 
hanging on each fide, and is follow'd by the Ma- 
trons and Virgins tinging an uncouth fort of a 
Hymn, after their Country manner, by which 
they imagine Jupiter is prevail d upon to render a, 
certain Oracle. 

As the King advanc'd towards the Oracle the 
fenior Prieft faluted him with the Title of Son, 
alluring him, That Jupiter his lather beflowd it 
on him. To which he reply'd, That he both ac- 
cepted it and acknowledg d it, for he had now for- 
got his human Condition. Then &*aik'd whether 
his Father did defign him the Empire of the whole 
World ? And the Prieft, who was equally difpos'd 
to flatter him , told him, he Jhould be univerfal 
Monarch of the whole Earth. Then he put ano- 
ther Square, viz. Whether all thofe who were con- 
cern d in his leather s Murther were puniftid ? To 
rhis the Prieft made anfwer, That it was not in 
the Pow4r of any mortal to injure his Father, bjtt 
\ that 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. XI^ 

that all that had a hand in Philip'* Death had fuf- 
fer'd condign Punifiment. He moreover added, 
That he fliould continue Invincible till he took his 
Place among the Gods. After this, he offer'd Sa- 
crifice, and made Prefents to the Priefls and to the 
God ; after which his Friends were likewife per- 
mitted to confult the Oracle, but they only defir'd 
to know, Whether Jupiter approvd of their paying 
divine Honours to their King ? The Prieft reply'd, 
That Jupiter was very -well pleas d they Jhould 
pay divine Worfhip to their victorious King. Now 
whoever would judge fagely of the Sincerity and 
Credit of the Oracle, might eafily have perceiv'd 
it was all Impofture by its Anfwers; but when 
once Fortune has prevail'd with Men to commit 
themfelves intirely to her, Jhe generally makes 
'em more greedy of Power than capable of it. 

Alexander therefore not only fufter'd himfelf 
to be call'd Jupiter's Son, but alio commanded it ; 
and while he thought by this Means to call: a 
greater Splendour on his great Actions, he lef- 
fen'd 'em. And notwithstanding the Macedonians 
were accuftom'd to Kingly Government, yet as 
they retain'd ftill the madow of a greater Liberty 
than other Nations , they more obftinately op- 
pos'd his affected Immortality than was expedi- 
ent either to themfelves or the King. But of thefe 
Things we mall fpeak in their proper Places ; and 
at prefent purfue the reft of his Actions. 


Alexander, in his return from Hammon, when' 
he came to Palus Mareotis, which is not far 
diltant from the Ifland Pharos, having confider'd 
the Nature of the Place ; he defign'd at firft to 
L z build 

2-io Quintus Curtius. BooklW 

build a City in the fdf, but upon Reflexion, 
that the Ifiand was too fmall for fuch a Purpofe ; 
he pitch' d upon that Place where Alexandria now 
ftands, contracting its Name from its Founder : 
He took in all that fpace of Ground that lies be- 
tween the Meer and the Sea, allotting fourfcore 
Furlongs for the Compafs of the Walls ; and ha- 
ving appointed proper Perfons to fupervife the 
building of the City, he went to Memphis. 

He was feiz'd with a Defire (no wile to he blam'd 
indeed had it been but well tim'd) to viflt not 
■only the inward parts of Egypt, but alfo JEthiopia. 
The celebrated Palace of Memnon and Tithonm 
was like to draw him ( who was naturally greedy 
of the Knowledge of Antiquity ) even beyond the 
Bounds of the Sun ; but the War he had upon 
his . Hands, of which the moft difficult part Hill 
remain'd, would not allow him time for thofe. idle 
Journeys; he therefore appointed Afchylus the 
Rhodian, and Peucefies the Macedonian, Governors 
erf t ■ m 9 leaving with them four thoufand Men 
for the guard of the Country , and allotted thirty 
•Galleys to Polemon to defend the Mouths of the 
Nile ; then he conftituted Apollon'ws Governor of 
that part of Afrkk that joins to Egypt, and made 
Cleomenes Receiver of all the Tributes arifing from 
Africa and Egypt ; and having commanded the 
Inhabitants of the Neighbouring Towns to trans- 
plant themlelves to Alexandria, he.prcicnxly fuTdit 
with a great multitude #f People. It is faid, That 
Vjhrn the King u*j?j marking out the JValh-vf the 
Town with a fort of Pajie made of Barley Flower, 
according to tM .Maceduni'aji iOtifLom , the Birds 
came in Flocks to devour it ; and as that was by 
fevcral. interpixted as portending Evd to-tfe City 
m hand ; the Soothfayers on the contrary faifHt 
was a lucky Omen, and that it indicated, that the 
XUiy wo;Hd be very much reforted to by Strangers, 

Book IV. Quintvs Curtius. tea 

' and that {he would afford Subfiftence to feveral 

The King, after this, was going down the River 
Nile, and Hettor, Parmenio's Son (who was in the 
flower of his Age, and in great favour with Alexan- 
der) being eager to follow him, enter'd into a 
little Boat which had more People in it than it 

"could carry, infomuch that it funk with all thofe 
that were on board it. However, Heclor ftruggled 
a long time with the Water, tho' his Clothes be- 
ing thoroughly wet , and his Shoes being clofely 
ty'd to his Feet, hinder'd him from fwimming, 
and made a fhift at laft to gain the Shore half 

-dead ; but as foon as he endeavour'd to recover 

-his Breath, which Fear and the Danger had for 
fome time fupprefs'd, there being no Body at. 

"hand to afiift him (for the reft had fav'd them- 
felves on the other fide^ he expir'd. The King 
was mightily afrli&ed at this Accident,, and there- 
fore bury'd ^his Corps after a very magnificent 

This Misfortune was aggravated by the Ac- 
count the King receiv'd of the Death of Andro-- 
'machtii, his Governor of Syria', whom "the Sama- 
ritans had burntaJive.^ . The i:jng therefore march- 
ed with the 'urmoft Expedition "to revenge his 
Death, but at his Arrival they deliver'd him up 
the Authors of fo barbarous a Crime, all whom 
he put to Death, and then fubftituted Memnon in 
his Place. He alfo put the Tyrants into the Hands 
of the People they had opprefs'd r and among 
thofe of the Methymnians, Ariftonicus and Chry- 
folatts , whom they ftm tortur'd in revenge of 
their Infolence, and then executed, flinging them 
in contempt over the Walls of the City. Then 
he gave Audience to the AmbalTadors of the A- 
thenians, the Khodians and the Chiotes ; the Athe- 
nians congratulated him on his Victories, and de- 

L 3. fired 

ziz Quintus Curtius. Book IV' 

iired that the Greek Captives might be reftor'd to 
their refpedtive Cities : The Rhodians and the 
-Chiotes complain'd of the Garrifons, and as all 
their Requefts feem'd too juft, he gratify'd them. 
To thofe of Mitylene he reftor'd their Securities, 
m Confideration of their Fidelity, and the Mo- 
ney they had advanc'd for the Service of the War, 
adding a large Trad: of Ground to their Territo- 
ries. He alfo honourd the King of Cyprus, ac- 
cording to the Merit of his Services, who had re- 
volted from Darius to him, and had fupply'd him 
with a Fleet when he befieg'd Tyre. He after- 
wards fent Amphoterus, his Admiral, to deliver 
Greet from the Gppreffion of ihe Perfians and 
Py rates, but he enjoin'd him above all things to 
clear the Sea from the Pyrates ; for the two Kings 
being intent upon the War, the Seas were over- 
run with thefe Plunderers. Having fettled thefe 
Matters, he dedicated to Hercules of Tyre, a large 
Bowl and thirty Cups of Gold ; then bending his 
Thoughts altogether on Darin*, he gave Orders 
for the Army to march towards the Euphrates. 


BU T when Darius knew for certain that his 
Enemy was march'd into Africa, he was un- 
reiolv'd whether he fliould ftay in the Neighbour- 
hood of Mefopotamia, or mould retire farther in- 
to his Dominions ; for he concluded he mould 
be better able upon the Place to influence ihofe 
remote Nations to engage heartily in the War, 
which his Deputies found great Difficulties to do; 
but then again being inform'd from good Hands, 
that Alexander zvas determined to folloiu him with 
his whole Army into whatfoever Country he went, 



as he was not ignorant of the indefatigable Bra- 
very of his Adverfary, he fent Orders to thofe re-> 
mote Nations, to fend him all the Succour they could 
to Babylon. The Baclrians, Scythians and Indians 
accordingly repair'd thither with the Troops of the 
other Nations ; his Army being now as numerous 
again as it was in Cilicia, a great many of thofe 
that compos'd it wanted Arms , which were get- 
ting ready for 'em with the utmoft diligence. The 
Horfes as well as the Riders were provided with 
Armour of Iron. They who before h%d only 
Darts had now Swords and Bucklers given them. 
And that his prefent Army might be much Wron- 
ger in Horfe than his former was, he diftributed 
a great many Horfes to the Foot to be broke. 

There were belides two hundred Chariots arm'd 
with Sithes, which thefe Nations look upon to be 
their chief Strength, and very terrible to the Ene- 
my ; at the end of the Pole were fix'd two Pikes 
arm'd with Iron Spikes, the Spokes of the Wheels 
were compafs'd round with feveral Darts which 
pointed forward; and the Fellies were arm'd with 
Scythes fo difpos'd that they cut to pieces what- 
ever flood in their way. 

Having thus provided and fitted out his Army 
he fet forwards from Babylon; on his Right he had 
XhzTigre, a noble River, and his Left was covefd 
with the Euphrates. His Army was fo numerous 
that it fill'd all the Plains of Mefopotamia ; having 
therefore pafs'd the River Tigris, and underftand- 
ing the Enemy was not far off, he lent before 
Satropates with athoufand chofen Horfe, and then 
detach'd Maz.&us with fix thoufand more to hin- 
der Alexander from palling the Euphrates ; he was 
alfo commanded to deftroy and burn all the Coun- 
try that would be fir ft expos 'd to the Enemy ; for 
he imagin'd that not having any other Provisions 
for his Army than what he got by Pillage, he might 
L 4 be 

zi4 Quintus Curtius. BooklV. 

be overcome by mere want., whilft his own was 
plentifully fupply'd with all NecelTaries both by 
Land and by the Tigre. Darius was by this time 
come to Arbela, which he was deftin'd to make 
glorious by his own memorable Defeat ; leaving 
here the greateft part of his Baggage and Provi- 
sions, he laid a Bridge over the lycm, and pafs'd 
his Army over it in five Days, as he had done 
before over the Euphrates; then advancing about 
fourfcore Furlongs farther, he came to another 
River calTd Bumado, where he encamp'd. This 
Country was very convenient for his numerous 
Army, being a plain open Ground, and very com- 
modious for the Horle, as being cover'd neither 
with Bufhes nor Shrubs, fo that the Eye had an 
uninterrupted Profpect to difcover Things at the 
remoteft diftance ; and where it feem'd to fwell 
into any thing of an Eminence, he order' d it to 
he laid level with the refi. They that were fent 
by Alexander to take a View of the Enemy's Ar- 
my, and who made anEftimateof it by the great 
Tract of Ground it cover'd , could hardly con- 
vince him of the Truth of their Report; for he 
thought it impoffible that after fo great a Lois he 
fhculd now be ftronger than he was atfirft. How- 
ever, as he defpis'd all Danger in general, and par- 
ticularly that from a fuperiority of Number, he 
came in eleven Days to the Euphrates, and ha- 
ving laid a Bridge over it, he -firft pafs'd his Horfe 
and after them the Phalanx ; Mamem who had 
been fent to oppofehis Paffage, not daring to make 
trial of his Fortune againft him. Here having 
granted' the Soldiers a few Days, not fo much to 
reft their Bodies as to confirm their Minds, he 
eagerly purfu'd Darius, for he was afraid he might 
retire to the remoteft Parts of his Dominions, and 
that then he fhould be oblig'd to follow him thro' 
vaft Wilds and Defarts that were deftitute of all 


WookW. Quintus Curtius. bAJf? 

NecefTaries. On the fourth Day there-fore he 
pafs'd by Arbela and came to the Tigre. All the 
Country beyond the River was yet fmoaking ; 
for Maz&us fet every thing on Fire , as if he had 
•been himfelf the Enemy : And as the Smoak had 
ca-us'd a great Darknefs, the King fufpecling fome 
Ambufcade , halted for fome time , till being iri- 
form'd by his Scouts that there was no Danger, 
he order'd fome Horfemen to try the Depth of 
the Ford of the River : at firft it took the Horfes 
up to the Belly, and in the middle it reach'd their 

In all the Eaftern Parts there is not any River 
that runs with fo great a Rapidity, many Torrents 
falling into it, fo that it carries even great Stones 
along with its Stream : From the Swiftnefs of its 
Current it bore the Name of Tigre ; becaufe an 
Arrow in the Perjian Language is call'd Tigris, 
The Foot being divided into two Bodies, and en- 
compafs'd with the Horfe , carry'd their Arms 
over their Head, and in that order pafs'd without 
much Difficulty till they came where the River 
was deepeft. The King pafs'd over among the 
Foot, and was the firft that gain'd the other Side ; 
from whence he made Signs to the Soldiers with 
his Hand, becaufe his Voice' could not be heard, 
where the Ford was fhalloweft. But they had 
much to. do to keep their Legs ; fometimes the 
Slippery Stones deceiving their Steps, and fome- 
times the Violence of the Water tripping up their 
Heels. But they that were loaded were hardeft 
put to it, for as they were hinder'd from govern- 
ing themfelves , they were . carry'd away by the 
Rapidity of the Whirlpools: And as every one 
endeavour'd to recover what he had loft, they 
firuggl'd more among themfelves than with the 
Stream : Befides the Bundles that floated on trre 
Water bore down a great many of them. Here— 
L 5 UDon,i 

n6 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

upon the King cry'd out to 'em, only to take Care 
of their Arms, and that he would make good their 
other Lofles. But they neither harken'd to his 
Counfel , nor obey'd his. Commands, for Fear ; 
befides, their own mutual Clamour made 'em n> 
capable of doing either. At laft they got where 
the Current flows after a gentler manner, and fo 
gain'd the Shoar, without any other Damage than 
the Lois of a little Lumber. 

Here the Army might have been totally de- 
ftroy'd had any Body but dar'd to conquer ; but 
the King's conftant good Fortune kept the Enemy 
at a diftance. Thus he pafs'd the Granicus in the 
Sight of fo many thoufand Horfe and Foot that 
were drawn up on the other lide of the River : 
Thus the Straits of Cilicia ferv'd him to vanquifli 
fo vaft a Multitude of his Enemies. And not- 
withstanding he might feem bold to excefs , yet 
he cannot well be cenfur'd for it, becaufe his con- 
tinual Succefs never afforded an Opportunity to 
conclude him rafh. 

MazjtM (who, if he had come upon 'em while they 
were palling, the River, might without doubt have 
deftroy'd 'em in that Diforder) never appear'd till 
they had gain'd the Shoar, and flood to their Arms. 
Be had fent only a thoufand Horfe before him, which 
Alexander perceiving, he defpis'd the infignificant 
Number, and prefefttly commanded Arijlon, who 
was Captain of the P&oriian Horfe, to charge 'em 
trijUy. In this Aclion the P&onians behav'd 
themfelves gallantly, but particularly Arifton y who 
with his Spear run Satropates , the Perfian Com- 
mander , into the Throat , and purfuing him 
through the midft of the Enemies, threw him off 
his Horfe, and notwithstanding his ReMance, cut 
off his Head, which he brought, and laid down 
at the King's Feet, who applauded his Refolution 
and Bravery. 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius- 

C H A P. X. 

TH E King encamp'd here two Days, and or- 
der'd the Army to be ready to march the 
next ; but about the firrt Watch the Moon fuffer'd an 
Eclipfe, and firit loft its Planetary Brightnefs, after 
which it was overcaft with a fanguine Colour, that 
fully'd all its Light. And as the Soldiers were al- 
ready folicitous on the Account of the approach- 
ing Battle , this Accident ftruck 'em firit with a 
fuperftitious Awe , which was fucceeded by Fear ; 
infomuch that they complain'd , That they were 
draggd into the remoteji Countries againft the Will 
of the Gods; that the 'Rivers deny'd them PaJJ'age, 
and the Planets refused 'em their ufual Light. That 
nothing but vafl Wilds and De 'farts were to be feen; 
that the Blood of fo many thoufand Men mufi be 
fpilt to gratify the Vanity of one Man , who not 
only difoivrid his Father Philip, but let his vain- 
Thoughts climb to Heaven for his Original. The 
Matter was almoft come to a Sedition, . when A- 
lexander, who was always undaunted , gave-Or- 
dexsfor all the Officers to repair to his Tent ; where 
he commanded the ./Egyptian Aflronomers (whom 
he look'd upon to be belt acquainted with the 
Courfe of the Heavens and the Planets) to declare- 
their Opinion concerning the prefent Phenomenon, 
But as they were not ignorant that Time has its 
conftant Revolutions , and that the Moon fuffers 
an Eclipfe whenever it gets beneath the Earth, 
they did not trouble themfelves to divulge their 
Knowledge to the Publick, but only affinnd, That, 
the S%n was the Greeks Planet-, and the. Moon the 
Perfians : and. that whenever this was eclips'd, it 
portended Deftruttion and Ruin to thefe Nations. 
And for Proof hereof, they relate feYeral Inftan- 

L.6 qcs 

ax8 Quintus Curtius. Book IV- 

ces of the Perfian Kings, who were warn'd by the 
Eclipfe of the Moon that they fought againfi the 
Will of the Gods. 

There is nothing has fo great an Influence over 
the Minds of the Vulgar, as Superftition ; tho J it 
be otherwife violent, furious, and unconftant, Jet 
it but be feiz'd with a vain Religion , and it (hali 
more readily obey the Priefts than the Gover- 

The Anfvver of the JEgyptians therefore being 
communicated to the Multitude , reviv'd their 
drooping Hopes, and animated 'em with frefli 
Aliurance. The King -thinking it beft to make 
rife of their prefent Difpofition, decamp'd at the 
fecond Watch ; he had the Tigre on his Right, and 
on his Left, "the Gord&an Hills. As he was march- 
ing this 'way, his Scouts came to him about Break 
of Day, to let him know that Darius was advan- 
cing towards him. Hereupon he drew up his Ar- 
my in order of Battel, being himfelf at tie Head,, 
and fo contmu'd his March : But it prov'd to be 
only the Perfian Scouts confuting of about a thou- 
fand Men, who made a great Appearance. Thm 
when the Truth cannot be difcoverd, Fear fwells 
the Account into Falfities. The King underftand- 
mg the Truth of the Matter, took with him a 
imall number of Men and purfu'd the Enemy,, 
wlio prefently fled back to their main Body ; how- 
ever he kill'd fome, and took others Prisoners ; 
and then difpatch'd a Detachment of Horfe to 
get Intelligence of the Enemy, and to put out 
the Fires the Barbarians had kindl'd up and down 
ih order to deftroy the Villages : For before they 
took to their Heels they fet fire to the Roofs of 
the Houfes and to the Stacks of Corn, lb that the 
Flames being diverted in the upper Parts had not- 
yet forc'd its way to the lower. The Fires being' 
thus put out, they found great Quantities of Corn,- 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 22-9 

and began alio to have Plenty of other Necefla- 
ries. This encourag'd the Soldiers to purfue the 
Enemy wfco burnt and laid the Country waftc.; it 
being neceflary for the Macedonians to make whrat 
Hafte they could after them to prevent every thing 
being conmm'd. Thus Neceffity fupply'd the 
Place of Reafon ; for Max.&m , who before de- 
ftroy'd every thing at leifure, was at prefent con- 
tented to fly, and left a great deal behind him en- 
tire and untouch' d. 

Alexander was now inform'd that Darius was 
come within a hundred and fifty Furlongs of him : 
Hereupon, having with him Plenty of Provisions,, 
he ftaid in this Camp four Days. While he re- 
main'd here fome Letters were intercepted that 
came from Darius , whereby the Greeks were So- 
licited to kill or betray the King i Alexander was 
for fome time doubtful whether he fiotdd-read 'em 
to -the whole Army or not, becaufe he was pretty well 
a (Turd of the Good-will and. Fidelity of the Greeks : 
But Parmenio put him off of it, by telling him, thai- 
it was not convenient to communicate fuch things 
to Soldiers , fince the King lay expos' d thereby to 
any one of 'em that vjould be a Traitor i Befides 
Avarice thought nothing a Crime. The King fol- 
lowing this Advice, decamp'd. Upon the March 
one of the captive ^ffunmUsi that attended Darius' s 
Queen, broiight him word, that the GUtcen hail 
fainted and drew her Breath with Difficulty. The 
great Fatigue of the Journey, and Grief of Mind, 
had fo wrought upon her, that me fwounded a* 
way between her Mother-in-Law and her two 
Daughters, and fo died ; which w r as immediately 
notify'd to him by another Meffenger. This fur ■ 
prizing Accident fo touch'd the King, that he could 
not have (hewn more Concern had he receiv'd 
Advice of the Death of his ozvn Mother. He 
figh'd, and even wept as Darin* himfelf would 


zyo QuintUs Curtius. Book IV. 

have done, and immediately repair'd to the Tent, 
where Darims Mother was fitting by the Corps 
of the deceafed. Here the King's Grjef renew'd 
when he beheld her extended on the Ground. 
Darims Mother alfo, being by this frefh Evil put 
in Mind of pari: Misfortunes, had took the two young 
Virgins in her Lap, by the way of mutual Comfort ; 
tho' at the fame time (he ought to have been a 
real Comfort to them. The young Prince Hood 
likewife before her, and was by fo much the more 
to be pity'd, that he was not yet fenfible of the 
Calamity, though his was the greater!: Share. Any 
Body would have thought Alexander had been la- 
menting fome of his own Relations ; and inftead 
of giving Comfort, flood in need of it himfelf. 
He abftain'd from eating, and order'd the Funeral 
to be perform'd after the Perfian Manner ; and 
feem'd then to deferve the Reward he has fmce 
had for his good Nature and Continency. He 
had never feen her but once, which was the Day 
fhe was taken Prifoner, and even then it was Da^ 
riuss Mother he went to vifit. He was fo far 
from receiving any Impremon of Luft from her 
excellent Beauty, that it only ferv'd to excite him to 
Glory and Honour. While Grief fill'd all the 
Tlace, one of the Eunuchs, nam'd Tyriotes, got 
out at a Back-door, which was lefs minded than 
the reft, and fled to the Perfian Camp ; and be- 
ing taken up by the Guard, was brought before 
Darius, lamenting and tearing his Clothes. As 
foon as Darius faw him in this Condition he was 
difturb'd with Variety of Thoughts , and hardly 
knew what chiefly to fear : Thy Looks, faid he, 
befpeak fome great Misfortune but whatever it be t 
be fure to conceal nothing from me, for by my re-r 
feated Calamities , I have learn d to be unhappy ; 
and fometimes even to .know ones Mifery is a Com- 
fort ; Say then, dofl thou bring me (which is what 

J moji 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 23* 

1 moft fufpetl and dread to utter) an Account of 
the Violation of my Family's Honour, which to me, 
and I [uppofe to them, would be more ajfiicling than 
the great eft Torments ? To which Tyriotes reply'd, 
Sir, there is nothing , I ajfure you , of what you 
fear : for whatever Honours are paid by Subjects to 
Queens, are duly paid to yours by the Conqueror ; 
but your Royal Confort is dead. At thefe Words 
the whole Camp was fill'd with Cries and Lamen- 
tations : and Darius no longer doubted, but (he 
had been kill'd for refufing to yield up her Ho- 
nour ; and diftraded with Grief, he broke out ia 
thefe Exclamations, What Crime have I commit- 
ted , Alexander ? which of your Relations have I 
put to Death, that you Jhould punift) my Cruelty af- 
ter this manner ! Tou hate me zvithout Provocation ; 
but admitting your War to be juft, ought you for 
that to wreak your Revenge on Women l Hereupon 
Tyriotes fwore by the Tutelar Gods of the Coun- 
try, That no ill Ufage had been ojferd her, but on the 
contrary that Alexander exprefsd no lefs Grief for 
her Death, than he himfelf could do, zv£o was her 
Hujband. Thefe Words encreas'd his Anxiety , 
and gave him greater Sufpicion that this Tender- 
nefs proceeded from the. familiar Converfation he 
had with her ; difmiffing therefore all that were 
prefent , except Tyriotes only-, he now no longer 
wept, but figliing faid, Look thee, Tyriotes, thou 
mu ft not think to put me off ivith Lies ; for Tor- 
ments prefently jball exprefs the Truth from thee : 
But I conjure thee by the Gods not to keep me fo 
long in fufpence ; if thou haft any Veneration for 
thy King, tell me what I deftre to know, and am 
afhamd to utter, did not the youthful Conqueror 
offer Violence to her ? Then Tyriotes offer'd to fuf- 
fer the Rack, and calld the Gods to zvitnefs, that 
the Queen had been usd with all the Refpecl the 
(Iricleft Virtue could require. At laft Darius being 


232; Quietus Curtius. BooklV, 

convinc'd of the Truth of what the Eunuch ,faid, 
he caver'd his Head, and wept a long time j and 
the Tears Hill flowing From his Eyes, he une$* 
ver'-d his Face, and holding up his Hands to 2kk- 
ven, he faid, Ye Tutelar Gods of my Dominions, my 
firfi Requeft is, that you zvouid vouch fafe to con- 
firm my Kingdom to my felf; but if my Rum be 
determind, I beg no other may be admitted King of 
Afta, than this jujl Enemy , this merciful Cvn- 
tpierxnr. * ' ; ' '• :, }f '■ lifttlSA 

i " — i . ... 


NOtwithftanding Darius had twice afk'd for 
Peace without obtaining it, and thereupon 
had bent his whole Mind to War ; yet, overcome 
by the Virtue of his Enemy, he made choice of 
ten of the chiefeft of his Relations to make frefh 
Overtures ; ' whom Alexander admitted, "having 
fummon'd his Council to attend on that Occafi- 
on. Then the eldeft of the Ambaffadors XoX&him, 
That Darius did now a third time deftre Peace of 
him, not that he was compell'd to it by any Force 
or Neceffity , but movd thereto by his Jujlice and 
Continency. ' That fuch xvas his generous Behavi- 
our to his Mother, his Wife, and his Children, that 
he fhould. hardly think 'em' to be Capites, but bc~ 
caufe they were not ivith h'mfelf You flew a fa- 
therly Care of thofe that are yet living, and honour 
'cm with the Title of Queens ; leaving to 'em all the- 
Splendour of their former Fortunes. I can read a? 
much Concern in. your Looks as there zvas. in Darf- 
uss when we left him, and yet he bewails the Loft 
of a Wife, and you only that of an Enemy : And 
'were it not for your pious Care of her Funeral, yoH 
would now^have been at the Hind of your Army, 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. ^33 

drazvn up in Order of Battel. Nozv -where is th e 
great Wonder, if being overcome by fo much Bounty 
and friendly Ufage, he defires Peace of you ? What 
occafion is there for Arms where there is no Ha- 
tred ? Heretofore he offer d you the River Halys, 
that terminates Lydia, for the Bounds of your Em- 
pre. Now he proffers you all the Countries that 
lie between the Hellefpont and the Euphrates, as a 
Portion with his Daughter, which he freely gives 
you in Marriage. He moreover offers to leave with 
you his Son Ochus as a Pledge of the Peace, and 
his Integrity. He only Squires you will reftore to 
him his Mother and Virgin Daughters , for which 
you fliall receive thirty thoufand Talents of Gold. 
Were I not already convincd of your Moderation, I 
would remind you, that at this Juncture, it were 
your Interefi not only to grant Peace, but readily to 
accept of it. Do but look back on the vaft Countries 
you leave behind you, and takeaviezv in thought, of 
what ft ill remains to conquer. An overgrozvn unwe-il- 
dy Empire is alzvays in Danger, and it is a difficult 
thing to hold faff what you cannot grafp. We fee 
thofe Ships that are of an unweildy Bulk, are not 
eajily governed. And I cannot tell but Darius thereto- 
fore lofi fo much, bccaufe too much Wealth furnifles 
Opportunities for great Loffes. There are fome things 
much eafier to acquire than to keep : With how much 
more Eafe do our Hands fnatch things azvay, than 
hold' em afterwards? even the Death of Darius Y 
Queen, may make you fenfible that you ha ve not nozv 
fo much room left you to fiew your merciful Temper 
as before. 

The Ambajfador having finiflid his Speech, A-. 
texander order'd 'em to withdraw, and requix'd 
thofe of his Council to fpeak their Opinions. They 
all remain'd filent for fome time, not daring to 
declare their Sentiments, by Reafon they were un- 
certain how the King himfelf was difpofed : At Ialt 

Parmenio .-, 

^34 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

Parmeniofpoke to this effeft. I was of Opinion here- 
tofore, Sir, that the Prifcners fly ould have been reflord 
to thofe that would have redeem d 'em ^Damafcus, 
by which means a confiderable Sum of Money might 
have been rais'd; whereas, vjhile you detain 'em, 
they only deprive you of the Service of a great many 
brave Hands; and I cannot but think it now ad- 
vifeable to make an Exchange of an old Woman and 
two young Girls [which like a troublefome Luggage, 
only retard your Marches) for thirty thoufand Ta- 
lents of Gold] Be/ides, here is a noble Kingdom to 
be had by Agreement, without fo much as runn'mg 
the Kifk of an uncertain War; none before you ever 
having pcfefsd all that vafl TraSl of Land that 
lies between the Ifter and the Euphrates. Turn 
therefore your Thoughts, Sir, upon Macedonia, ra- 
ther than on Bactra or the Indies. The King was 
very much difpleas'd with this Speech; and there- 
fore as foon as he had concluded it, he faid, and I 
alfo would prefer Money to Glory, if I were Par- 
menio: But as I am Alexander, I am fecure from' 
Poverty, and I confider that I am no Merchant, 
but a King. I don't pretend to fell any thing, nei- 
ther will I fell my Reputation : If it be advifeable 
to reftore the Captives, it is more honourable to 
deliver 'em up gratis, than for a Sum of Money. 
Then calling in the AmbafTadors, he made 'em 
this Anfwer: Tell Darius (for the Ceremony of 
Thanks is fuperfluous between Enemies) That the 
Acts of Clemency and Generofity that I have done, 
were not intended to procure his Friendjhip, but were 
the real EffeSls of. my own good Nature : For I don't 
pretend to floew Hoftilities to thofe in Affiiclion ; my 
Arms are defigned for an armed Enemy. If he fin* 
cerely fud for Peace, perhaps I might deliberate whe- 
ther I fiould give it or not. But fince he has not 
only follicited my Soldiers to revolt, but alfo endea- 
voured to corrupt my Friends with Money to de- 

Book IV. Quintus Curttus. 235- 

ftroy me, I think my felf obligd to purfue him to 
Deftruclion, not as a jufi Enemy, but as a Ruffian 
and a Murtherer. As for the Conditions he offers 
me,. they are fuch, that to receive 'em, were fore- 
knowledge him Conqueror. He proffers me all behind 
the Euphrates ; Does he /hew his Liberality in that ? 
Where am I at this Injlant you addrefs to me ? Am 
I not got beyond the Euphrates ? It is plain then, 
that I am already encamp' d beyond the Bounds he 
offers me with his Daughter. 

Drive me then from hence, that I may be fen- 
fible that ivhat you yield to me is your own. He 
fhews his Liberality much after the fame rate, when 
he offers me his Daughter : Would he not otherwise 
marry her to fome of his Servants ? lis a mighty 
Favour he does me, to prefer me to Mazaeus. Go 
therefore and tell your King, that what he has al- 
ready loft, and iv hat he has ftill to lofe, is all to he 
the Reward of War and Viclory. That this muft 
determine the Rounds if both Empires, and each /hall 
be content with what Fortune fliall allot him to 
Morrow. If he would be contented with the fecond 
Rank, and not infift on being upon an Equality ivith 
me, may be I might grant what he afks ; for I did 
not come into Aria to receive, but to give. Tell him 
then, that as the Celeftial World cannot be govern d 
by two Suns, fo it is inconfiftent with the Welfare 
of the Terreftrial one, to be rul'd by two powerful 
Kingdoms. Let him therefore refolve to furrender 
him felf to Day, or prepare for Battel to Morrow : 
Let him not flatter him felf with the Hopes of better 
Fortune than what he has already experience. To 
this the AmbalTadors anfwer'd ; That fince he was 
bent upon War 9 it zuas candidly done of him not ta 
amufe 'em with the Hopes of a Peace. They there- 
fore defir'd, they might forthwith repair to their 
Prince, fince it was neceffary he fljould likewife pre- 
pare himfelf for Battel. And being accordingly 


%l 6 QpiNTus Curtius. Book IV- 

difmifs'd, they acquainted Darius, That he was on 
the Point of an Engagement. 


HEreupon he immediately difpatch'd Maz&us 
with three thoufand Horfe, to take PoiTelTion 
of the Partes; and Alexander having perform'd the 
Funeral of £><zr/Ws.Queen, left the heavy Baggage, 
and whatever could retard his March-, within the 
Camp, appointing a fmall -Guard for its Security, 
and then advanc'd towards the Enemy. He di- 
vided his Foot into two Bodies, and ported the 
Cavalry on the Right and Left of it. The Car- 
riages follow'd in the Rear. Then he fent Mini- 
das with a Party of Horfe to difcover where Da- 
rius was. But he not daring to advance very far, 
hecaufe Maz^um lay in his way, return'd and told 
Alexander that there was nothing to be heard but 
the Noife of Men, and the Neighing -of Horfes. 
•On the other fide, Maz.vis perceiving- the Mace- 
donians Scouts at a diftance, return'd to the Camp, 
and acquainted Darius with the Approach of the 
Enemy; and as he was delirous of deciding the 
Matter in the open Plains, he commanded his Sol- 
diers to take to their Arms, and drew them up in 
order of Battel. In the left Wing were the fi i- 
tfnan Horfe r to the Number of a thoufand; there 
were as many Dahz, with four thoufand Aracha- 
fians and Sufians. Thefe were follow'd by fifty 
Chariots arm'd with Scythes : Next unto thiun 
was BeJJks, with eight thoufand taclrian Horfe, 
and two thoufand Maffageta ; Then came the Foot 
of feveral Nations, not mjx'd, but in a diftincft Or- 
der, each in their refpecfHve Corps Then fol- 
low'd Ariobar : fanes and Or oh ate: , who led up the 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 2,37 

perfians, and had alfo with 'em "the Mar dims 
and Sogdians. Thefe two Generals had their par-' 
ticular Commands, but Orfines commanded this 
Part of the Army in chief. He was defcended 
from fome of the feven Perfians, and even deriv'd 
himfelf from Cyrus. Thefe were lucceeded by 
other Nations hardly known to their Aflbciates. Af- 
ter thefe czmtPhradates, with the Cafpian Forces, 
and fifty Chariots of War : Behind thefe were the f 
Indians, and the other Nations that inhabit along* 
the Coaft of the Red-Sea, rather mere Names 
than Auxiliaries. This Body was follow'd by fifty 
other arm'd Chariots, which were join'd by the 
Foreigners; After thefe came the Armenians, di- 
ftinguifh'd by the Title of Lejfer. The Babyloni- 
ans follow'd thefe, and both were clos'd by the. 
Beliu, and thofe who inhabit the Cojf&an Hills. 
After thefe march' d the Gortuans, JEub&ans origi- 
nally, and had formerly follow'd thQ. Medians-, but 
were now degenerated, and wholly ignorant of the 
Cuftoms of their Country. The Phrygians and 
Cathonians, and then the Parthians who formerly 
came out of Scythia, brought up the Rear. This, 
was the • Order . of the Left Wing. The Right 
was form'd by the Troops of the greater, Arme- 
nia, the Cadufians,Cappadocians, Syrians, and Me- 
dians ; thefe had likewife with 'em fifty arm'd 
Chariots. The Total of the Army axnounted to 
forty five thoufand Horfe, and two hundred thou- 
fand Foot. Being drawn up after this manner, 
they advanc'd ten Furlongs, and then were com- 
manded to halt, and expeftthe Enemy under their 

At this very Juncture a fudden Fear, of. which 
no Caufe could be giv'n, feiz'd Alexander's Army, 
every one was amaz'd, anda fecret Dread .fpread 
it felf over all their- Hearts. The Brightnefs from 
the Clouds (it being Summer-time) at a diftance 
• appear'd 

238 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

appear' d to them like fo many flaming Fires round 
about 'em, which they took for thofe of Darius' s 
Camp ; fo that they were afraid they had inconfi- 
derately advanced amongft the Enemies Guards. 
Had but Maz&m fallen upon 'em, while they were 
ftill pofTefs'd with this Fear, he might have given 
r em a great Blow. But he remain'd idle on the 
Eminence he had taken PolTeffibn of, very well 
pleas'd that he was not attack'dhimfelf. 

Alexander being inform'd of the Fright his Ar- 
my was in, order d the Signal to be given for a 
Halt, and then commanded 'em to lay down their 
Arms, and reft their Bodies', giving them to un- 
derhand, That there was no Caufe at all for their 
Tear, the Enemy being yet at a good diftance. At hit 
they recover'd their Spirits and refum'd their Arms : 
However Alexander thought it the belt way to 
remain m that very Place where he then was, and 
fortify his Camp. 

The next Day Maz&us, who had polled himfelf 
(as we faid) on an Eminence from whence he could 
aifcover the Macedonians Camp ; whether it were 
becaufe he had no other Orders than barely to take 
a View of the Enemy, repair'd to Darius. Here- 
upon the Macedonians presently took Poflfeflion of 
his Poll, for it was fafer than the Plain, and they 
could from thence take a'Prcrfpeft of the Perfian 
Army. For notwithstanding the moiit Hills fent 
up fuch a Mill as hinder'd 'em from taking a di- 
ftincft View of their feveral Divifions and their Or- 
der of Battel , yet it did not hinder them from a 
general Survey. The Multitude overfpread the 
Plains like an Inundation, and the Noife of fo 
many thoufands, even at that diftance, fill'd their 

The King began now to waver in his Mind, 
and tho* it was too late, would fometimes weigh 
Jbis own Refolution, and fometimes Parmenios 

Advice ; 


Advice ; for he was advanced fo far, that he could 
not retire with any manner of Safety, without he 
were victorious. He was alarm'd at the vaft Mul- 
titude of his Enemies, in comparifon of his own 
fmall Number : But then again he recall'd to mind 
the many great Actions he had atchiev'd with that 
little Army, and the many Nations he had con- 
quer'd with it. So that Hope having got the bet- 
ter of Fear, and concluding that Delays were dan- 
gerous, fmce thereby Defpair might gain Ground 
on the Minds' of his Men, he diflfembl'd his 
Thoughts, and commanded the mercenary P 'seonian 
Horfe to advance. And having divided his Phalanx, 
as we faid before, into two Bodies, he plac'd his 
Cavalry on each Wing. By this time the Milt 
was clear'd up, fo that Ttariuss Army was plain- 
ly to be feen : And the Macedonians, whether out 
of Alacrity 3 or being tir'd with the Tedioufnefs ' 
of any longer Delay, gave a great Shout, after 
the manner of Armies before they engage ; and 
the Perfians return'd the fame, filling the neigh- 
bouring Woods and Vallies with a dreadful Sound. 
And notwithftanding the Macedonians could hard- 
ly be hinder'd from rufhing furioufly on the Ene- 
my, yet Alexander thought it Hill more advifeable 
to fortify his Camp on the Hill, and accordingly 
order'd a Trench to be cart up round it; and the 
Work being fpeedily perform'd, he repair'd to his 
Tent, from whence he could behold the Enemies 
whole Army. 


HERE a perfect Image of the enfuing Danger, 
preiented it felf before his Eyes , the Horfes 
as well as Men, gliiter'd in Armor, and the Care 


i^o Quintus^ Curtius. Book IV. 

the Generals took to ride through the Ranks of 
their refpective Divifions, made- him fenfible that 
the Enemy was preparing with all poflible Dili- 
gence for the approaching Battel ; betides feveral 
things, which tho' of little Moment themfelves , 
fuch as the Noife of the Multitude, the Neighing 
of the Horfes, the Brightnefs of their Arms, di- 
fturb'd his Mind that was full of Solicitude for the 
future Event. 

Therefore whether he was yet unrefolv'd, or by 
the way of Trial, to know how they flood affedted, 
he call'd a Council, and afk'd 'em what they thought 
moil advifeable in the prefent Juncture. Parmenio 
(who was the moll experienc'd of all the Generals 
iri the Art of War) was rather for furprifing the. 
Enemy than for an open Battel. He faid, they 
wight eafily be va'nquifh'd, in the dead time of the 
Night. For as they confijled of Nations fo diffe- 
rent in their Cujloms and Speech, how would they 
be able in the Confufion of the Night , ever to rally 
if fet upon in their Sleep, and terrify d with the un- 
forefeen Danger ? Whereas in the Day-time, the 
frightful Afpecls of the Scythians and the Bactrians, 
with their rough Vifages and long Hair, and the mon- 
firous Sine of their vajl Bodies, might fir ike a Dread 
in the Soldiers , who are more liable to receive Im- 
preffions from Trifles, than from Realities ; moreover, 
their fmall Number would be in Danger of being 
furrounded by fo great a Multitude : for they had 
not now the Straits of Cilicia and narrow Pajfes to 
fight in, but the Plains and open Fields. 'I hey. 
were almoft all of Parmemo % Opinion ; and Poly- 
percon did not fcruple to, declare, That the Viclory 
depended on the Execution' of it. The King there- 
fore looking at Polypercon (for as he had lately be^en. 
feverer with Parmenio than he with'd, he could 
not find in his Heart to reprove him again) fa*id,- 
This fubtile Wifdom you advife me to, belongs to 
2 Thieve i 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 241 

Thieves and Robbers ; for their chief Aim is to de- 
ceive. But I fliall not always J uffer either Darius'* 
Ab fence, or the Straitnefs of the Place, or a Surprize 
in the Night to rob me of my Glory. I am deter- 
rain d to attack him openly, and had rather have 
occafon to blame my Fortune, than be afliamd of 
my Viclory. Befides, I am very -well afj'ur d, that 
the Periians keep Jlricl Guards and /land to their 
Arms, fo that it were impoffible to fall upon 'em at 
unawares. Wherefore prepare your fives for Battel. 

Having thus encourag'd.'em, he difmifs'd 'em to 
refrelh themfelves. * Now Barms imagining the 
Enemy would have done as Parmenio propos'd, 
had order'd, That the Horfes fhould Jland ready 
bridl'd all the Night, and a great Part of the Army 
to be under their Arms, and the Watches to be ftrict \ 
her kept than ufually. His whole Camp was illu- 
minated with Fires ; and he himfelf with his Ge- 
nerals and Relations rid about the Divilions that 
were upon Duty. Then invoking the Sun that 
they call Mithies, and the facred and eternal Fire 9 
to infpire his Army with a Courage ivorthy their 
ancient Glory, and the Acls of their Predecejjbrs ; 
and declar'd, that if it was poffible for the Mind of 
Man to guefi at Tokens of the Divine AJfifiance, it 
was plain, that the Gods were on their pde. It zvas 
they who flruck the Macedonians lately with a fid- 
den Fear; they being f ill in great Confufion, as ap- 
peared by their running about and f.ingmg dow-n 
their Arms : That the tune zvas now at hand that 
the Tutelar Gods of Pei'ha, had pitch' d upon to pu- 
nif) thofe mad Men , and that their General was 
no wifer than the reft. For after the manner of 
wild Beafls, he look 'd fo greedily upon his Prey, as 
tike them, to fall into the Snares v;hich were fet be- 
fore it. 

The Macedonians were in the fame Solicitude, 
and pafs'd that Night in as much fear as if the Battel 
Vol. I. M had 

Quintus Curtius. BookIV\ 

had been to be then fought. Alexander himfelf 
was more terrify 'd than ever he had been before, 
and call'd for Arifiander to offer up Vows and 
Prayers. He therefore being cloth'd in white, and 
-carrying facred Herbs in his Hand, with his Head 
cover'd, pray'd with the King, who implor'd the 
Protection of Jupiter, Minerva, and Victory. After- 
ward having olfer'd Sacrifice,according to their Rites, 
he return'd to his Tent to take his Reft the remain- 
der of the Night. But he could neither fleep nor 
compofe the Diilurbance of his Mind. One while 
he refolv'd to charge the Perfans Right Wing firft, 
ibmetimes he thought it belt to attack their main 
Body, and then again he doubted whether it might 
not be more advifeable to fall upon their Left Wing. 
At lail his Body being tir'd with the Anxiety of 
his Mind, he fell into a profound Sleep. As ibon 
as it was light, the Officers repair'd to his Tent to 
receive Orders, and were much furpriz'd at the 
unufual Silence they found there. For he us'd to 
fend for 'em, and fometimes reprimand their La- 
fcinefs; they therefore wonder'd, that being on the 
very brink of Danger, he was not yet ltirring ; fome 
were of Opinion he did not reil, but flvrunk out 
of Fear : At the lame time none of the Guards 
dar'dto enter the Tent, and yet the Time of Action 
drew nigh, and the Soldiers did not dare to take 
to their Arms, or form their Ranks without their 
•General's Orders. Parmenio therefore having wait- 
ed a conlideiable time, commanded 'em to refreih 
themlelves ; and there being a Neceliity now for the 
drawing up of the Army, he went into the Tent, 
and not being able to wake the King by calling up- 
on him, he touch'd him with his Hand , and told 
him, ;/ was bread Bay, and the Enemy was ad- 
vancing towards them in order of Battel, while your 
.Soldiers for v;ant of Orders, are f ill v:ithont their 
Arms. What is become, Sir, of your wonted Vigor 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 243 

of Mind ? You us'd. to prevent the moft early. To 
this Alexander reply'd, Bo you think it was pcjfible 
for me to compofe my [elf to Reft, till I had calm A 
the Anxiety of my Thoughts ? Thisfaid, he command- 
ed him to give the Signal for Battel. But as Par- 
menio perfifted in his Admiration how he could fleep 
fo fecurely ; he told him, there was no reafon to 
wonder at it ; for while Darius was burning the 
Country , deftroying the < Towns and Villages, and 
fpoiling the Provifions, it was impcjfible for him to 
be eafie ; but ?iow that he prepares to give me Battel, 
What fliould I fear ? He has n-azv gra?ited me all I 
defire. However I fliall fatisfy you farther hereaf- 
ter as to this Ala t^er, in the mean time every one 
of you repair to your refpeclive Commands, and Til 
be with you prefently, and then I'll tell you what you 
are to do. 

He very rarely harken'd t,o the Admonitions of 
his Friends when Danger was at hand; however, 
now having put on his Armor, he came to the Ar- 
my. The Soldiers had never feen him fo chear- 
ful before, and they conjectur'd from his undaunt- 
ed Countenance, that the Day was their own. 

The King firft of all, order'd 'em to level the 
Works, and then drew up the Army after this man- 
ner. In the Right Wing were thofe Horfe which 
they call Agema, commanded by Clitus, to whom 
he }omd Philotais Troops , and the Cavalry of ie- 
veral other Commanders; the hit Regiment was 
that of Meleager, which was next to the Phalanx. 
After the Phalanx, were the Argyrafyides ; thefe 
were commanded by Nicancr , Parmenio's Son. 
Cxnos with his Troops, were a Body of Referve; 
an:er him were Orefas and Lynceftes, and next to 
thefe Polypercon, who commanded the Foreigners. 
Amyntas had the chief Command of this Divilion. 
Philogus led the Balacri, who were lately took into 
the Alliance. This was the Difpolltion of the Right 
M z Wing, 

144 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

Wing. In the Left was Craterm with the Pe- 
loponnefian Horfe, and with him were alfo the 
Achians, Lccrenftans, and Mal&am : Thefe were 
clos'd by the Theflalian Horfe, commanded by 
Philip. The Foot were cover' d by the Horfe. 
This was the Order of the Left Wing. Now that 
{ie might not be furrounded by the Multitude, he 
had polled a ftrong Body of Referve in the Rear, 
and had on the Wings, Troops in readinefs to re- 
lieve in fiich a Cafe; not fronting as the relt of the 
Army did, but on the Flanks, that in cafe the 
Enemy endeavour'd to furround 'em, they might 
be ready to engage them. Here were ported the 
Agrianians, commanded by Attains , as alfo the 
Cretan Archers. The Ranks in the Rear, were to 
front outwardly, that the Army might be fecure 
every way. Here were the Illyrians, with the 
Mercenaries t and the Light-arm'd Thracians. In 
fine, he had fo difpos'd his Army, that it fronted 
every way, and was ready to engage on all Sides, 
if attempted to be encompafs'd : Thus the Front 
was not better fecur'd than the Flunks, nor the 
Flanks better provided for than the Rear. 

He order'd 'era, That in cafe the Barbarians let 
ioofe their arm'd Chariots with Shouts among \m t 
to open to the Right and Left, and let them flentiy 
faji by, being well allur'd they would do no Mif- 
chief if they were not oppos'd in their PtuTage, 
But if they fent them upon 'cm without fl) outing, 
that then they (liould terrify them with their Con- 
ilamations, and flick the affrighted Horfe s with their 
Darts. They that commanded the Wings, were 
order'd to extend 'em as much as they could, zvith- 
out leaving the Center too thin, that they might not 
by too clofe an Order be in Danger of being furround- 
ed. The Baggage and the Prifoners (among!! whom 
were Darius's Mother and Children" 1 were plac'd 
on a nfing Ground not far from the Army, with 

a mo- 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius, 245 

a moderate Guard. The Left was commanded 
by Parmenio , as it us'd to be, and the King him- 
felf commanded the Right. The Armies were not 
come within the Caft of their Darts, when Bion 
a Deferter came riding on full fpeed to the King, 
and acquainted him, that Dar'im had planted Iron 
Caltrops all over that Ground where he expecled 
the Macedonian Horfe, and by a certain Sign, fijew'd 
him the Place, that his Men might avoid it. Alex- 
der having order'd the Deferter to be fecur'd,. 
call'd together his Generals, and imparted the In- 
formation to 'em, requiring them to decline that 
Place, and to acquaint their Men with the Danger. 
However, it was impoffible for the whole Army 
to hear this, the Noife of both Armies taking away 
the Ufe of the Ears, fo that Alexander riding about 
(poke to the Captains and thofe that were next him,, 
in the following manner, 


YO 17 that have marctid through fo many Coun- 
tries in hopes of the Viclory, for zvhich you are 
going to fight, have now but this fingle Danger left 
to encounter with. Then he reminded 'em of the' 
River Granicus, and the Cilician Mountains ; that 
Syria and Egypt had been conquered by 'em, with 
only paffing through the fame, which were fo many 
Encouragements and Pledges of their future Glory, 
That the Perlians were Fugitives, rally' d together in 
their Flight ; and would only fight noiv , becaufe 
they could not fly any farther. That this was the 
third Day they had lain under their Arms, trem- 
bling and almofi dead with Fear, without daring to 
make the lea ft motion. That there could not be a 
greater Demonftration of their Defpair, than their 
M 3. burning 

24* Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

burning their Towns and Countrey ; by that very 
Procedure acknozvledging all to be the Enemies that 
they could not deftroy. That the empty Names of 
unknown Nations, ought not in the leaft to terrify 
'em, for it zvas of -no moment tv the* War, who they 
cali d Scythians or Caducians : being plain frcm 
their being unknown, that they are infignificant Peo- 
ple • fince it is impnffible brave Men Jl:ould lie buried 
in Obfcurity and Oblivion ; whereas Cozvards, when 
fore'd from their lurking Retreats, bring into the 
Field nothing but a barbarous Title. As for the Ma- 
cedonians, they have fo fignalizd their Virtue, that 
there is not the lea fl Comer of the Earth that is ig- 
norant of their Glory. Do but behold the uncouth 
Appearance of the Barbarians, how forrily they a>e 
arm 'd ! Seme of 'em have only a Dart, others a, 
Sting to cajl Stones, whde very few of 'em have pre- 
fer Arms. Therefore, not wit hftanding the Enemy 
be f.tperior in Number of Men, yet you have the 
Advantage of Soldiers. Moreover, he did net re*- 
quire 'em to exert their Bravery, unlefs he encou- 
raged 'em by his Example. He aflur'd 'em, he would 
fight in P erf on before the Colours, and that he jhculd 
efteem the Wounds he there receivd, as fo many Or- 
naments to his Body. That they knew very well 
the?nfelves, that all partook of the Booty, except him- 
felf. That he made no other Ufe of the Rezvards of his 
Victories, than to adorn and honour them with them. 
Thii zvfts what he thought fit to fay to the gallant 
and brave. But if there were any amongft 'em of a 
different Difpofition , He muft acquaint them , that 
•they zvere novj advane'd fo far, that it was impojfi- 
ble to fly : That having behind them fuch vaft Coun- 
trey s, fo many Rivers and Mountains to oppofe them, 
there was no PafJ'age open to their own Homes, but 
what they fhould make themfelves Szvord in Hand. 

Thus he animated the Captains, thus he encou? 
rag'd the Soldiers who were near him. 


Book IV. Qljintus Curtius. 247 

Darius was on the Left Wing of his Army, having 
with him a ftrong Guard of choien Horfe and Foot, 
and defpis'd the fmall Number of the Enemy ; judg- 
. ing, that by their extending their Wings to the ut- 
molt, their main Body mull needs (land very thin. 
Being therefore Teated^Ioft in his Chariot, he ad- 
drefs'd hirafelf both by Looks and Gellure, to the 
Troops that were about him on the Right and Left ; 
telling them, That we who were a little while fince, 
Lords of all the Countreys betzveen the Ocean and the 
Hellefpont, are now red'icd to fight, not for Glory y 
but for Safety ; nay, for what we even -prefer to our 
Safety, our Liberty. This Day will either refiore, 
or put an End to the largefi Empire the World has 
feen. At the River Granicus we engag'd the Ene- 
my with an inconfiderable Part of our Forces : when* 
we ivere overcome in Cilicia, we had Syria to re- 
pair to, and ^1? Tigris and Euphrates were as Bul- 
warks to our Dominions. Novj we are got where, 
there is no room left for Flight, every thing behind 
our Backs being exhaufied by the Continuance of the 
War. The Tozvns are difpeopl'd, and there are not 
Hands to cultivate- the Earth : Our Wives and Chil- 
dren alfo follow the Army, and will certainly fall a. 
Prey to the Emmy, if we are backward in expoimg 
cur Lives for thofe dear Pledges. As for what de- 
pended on me, I have taken Care to have fuch ari 
Army as the largefi Plains are hardly able to con- 
tain. I have furnifh'd it zvith Horfes and Arms f 
and have taken Care to f apply it zvith Provisions, 
and have chofen fuch a Place to fight in, where ail 
our Forces- may be difplay d. The reft depends on 
your felves, do but dare to conquer and the Work is 
done. Renown and Fame are but weak Arm*, againfi. 
brave Men, therefore do rot regard 'em in the Ene- 
my. For it is h'vs Ra'hnefs you have hitherto fear d, 
and mifiaken for Courage ; which when its fir ft Fury 
is fpent, becomes languid and dully like thofe Ani~ 
M 4 mals 

248 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

ptals that have loft their Stings. Jhefe fpacious 
Fields difcover the [mall Number of the Enemy , 
zvhich the Cilician Mountains hide. You fee hozv 
thin their Ranks are, how their Wings are ft retch- 
ed out , their Center is in a manner vacant ; 
fts for the Rear, they feem by their facing out- 
wards to he ready to run away ; they may be 
trod to death by the Hcrfes, tho I were barely 
to fend ray arm d Chariots among 'em. If we gain 
this Battel it puts an end to the War, for they have 
no Place to efcape to ; they are enclosed betzveen the 
Tigris and the Euphrates : What before was Ad- 
1 a?: t age jus M them, is now become a Nuifance. Our 
Army is light and ready on all Occafons, theirs is 
loaded with Booty. They are, as it were, entan- 
gled in our Spoils, fo that zve may kill 'em with eafe. 
The fame Things j';a : l be both the caufe of our Vi- 
ctory and its reward, if any of you are ft ar tied 
at the Renown cf the Nation, think v/nh your 
feliMes, that their Arms are there, and not 
their Perfons ; for a great deal of Blood has been 
Jptlt on both Sides, and in a fmall Number the Lo(2 
is foon eft felt. As for Alexander, how great fever 
he may appear to the Cowardly and Tearful, he 
is fill but one Individual ; and, in my Opinion, 
loth rafto and foolift). Nozv nothing can be Lifting 
that is net fupported by Reafon, and though he 
feems to be fuccefiful, yet at long run hell pay 
for his Temerity. Beftdes , the Turns and Revo- 
lutions of Things are of fhort Duration , there is 
no fuch thing as an unmix d Felicity. Perhaps 
it is the Will of the Gods , that the Perllan Em- 
pire {which by a Series of Succeft for thefe two 
hundred and thirty Tears , has rats 'd it felf to 
the higheft pitch of Grandure) fhould receive this 
violent Shock without being Overthrown, to put m 
in mind of human Frailty , of zvhich zve are too 
forgetful m Profperity. A little zvhile ago zve our 


Book IV. Quiktus Curtius. 249 

felves carried the War into Greece, and now we 
are forcd to drive it from our ovjn Country : Thus 
we are tofid by the mutability of Fortune, for one 
Nation is ?iot capable of the Empire we both affetT ; 
but admitting zve were dejlitute of Hopes, yet Ne- 
ccjfity ought to animate us, our Cafe is fo deplorable. 
My Mother, Daughters, and Son Ochus (vjho was 
born with a Right to fucceed in the Empire} toge- 
ther with feveral Princes defended from Royal 
Blood, and your Generals, who were like fo many 
Kings, all wear his Chains y nay, I my felf am 
more than half a Captive, unleJS you exert your 
felves : Free my Bowels from their Bondage, rejlorz 
to me thofe dear Pledges, { for which I am willing 
my felf to die) my Mother and Children , for I 
have lojf my Wife in that Prifon. Think with your 
felves how they all reach out their Hands to you, 
implore the Ajftjiance of the Gods, beg your Help, 
Pity and Fidelity,' to deliver 'em from Servitude, 
Fetters, and a precarious way of living. Can yon 
believe they are eafie under thofe they ivould hard- 
ly vouchfafe to command ? But I perceive the E- 
nemy approaches, and the nearer the Danger draws 
the lefi am I fatisfy d with what J have faid: I 
conjure you then by the Tutelar Gods of our Coun- 
trey, by the eternal Fire that is carry 'd before us 
on Altars, by the Splendour of the Sun that ri]3> 
within- the limits of my Empire, by the everlafiing 
Memory of Cyrus, who transfer d the Empire fro-;, 
the Medes and Lydiar.s to the Perfians, to free our 
Name and Nation from the utmojl Difgrace. Fa!: 
on chearfully, and full of Hopes, that you may tranf- 
mit to Poflerity the Glory you have receiv'd from 
your Predecejfors. Tcu carry in your Right Har.d: 
your Liberty, Relief, and all our future Hopes ; 
Whoever deftifes Death is leaft liable to it, the fear- 
fat only fall a prey to it. I ride in a Chariot) not 
only to comply with ■ the Cu (loin of *ny-C sultry, 

M ; ha 

2,5*0 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

hut alfo that I may be the better feen by all ;. and 
J am not againft your imitating of me, according 
as I give you a-n Example either of Fortitude or 

CHAP. xv. 

IN the mean time Alexander, that he might a> 
void the Place of Ambufcade, diicover'd by 
the Deferter, fetch'd a Compafs ; and that he 
might encounter with Darius, who led the Lett 
Wing, caus'd his Army to march in an oblique 
Line. Darius alfo on his fide advane'd towards 
him, and commanded BeJJus to charge Alexandei 's 
Left Wing with the Maffagetan Horfe m the Flank. 
He had before him the arm'd- Chariots, which up- 
on the Signal given, broke in furioufly amongft 
the Enemy, and were driven with a loofe Rem, 
rhat by the iuddennefs of the Surprize they might 
do the greater Execution ; fome were deftroy'd 
by the Pikes that ftuck out at the end of the 
Poles, and others were cut to pieces by the Scythes 
piae'd on each hue. 

The Macedonians did not give way gradually, 
but taking to their Heels confounded their Ranks-; 
and Maz,*us perceiving their Diforder, that he 
might ftrike the greater fear into 'em, fent a thcu- 
fand Horfe to plunder their Baggage, thinking that 
the Captives that were guarded with it would, at 
the approach of their Friends, break loofe and 
make their efcape. Parmenio, who was in the 
Left Wing, was not infenhble of what was doing, 
he therefore immediately difpatch'd Polydamus to 
the King, to acquaint him with the Danger , and 
knozv his Plcafure upon this Occafion. The King 
having, heard Polydamus, made this anfwer, Tell 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius . 1 j i 

Parmenio, that if we get the Day, we flail not 
only recover our oivn, but alfo be Maficrs of all the 
Enemy has ; and therefore let him not weaken the 
Army on that Account, but continue fighting Man- 
fully ; and after mine, and my Father Philip'* Ex- 
amble, defpije the lofs of the Baggage. 

th the mean time the Barbarians were pillaging 
the Camp, and having kili'd a great many of thole 
that guarded it,, the Prifoners broke their Chains, 
and arming themfelves with what came next to 
their Hands, they join'd the Horfe, and fell alfo 
upon the Macedonians, who were now in a doubtful 
Condition : Some of the Prifoners ran for joy to 
Sifigambis, and told her Darius had got the Vi- 
ctory ; that a mighty Slaughter had been made of 
the Enemies, who were at laft. ltripp'd of all their 
Baggage and Booty ; for they concluded the Perfians 
had every where the fame Fortune , and were 
now as Conquerors running about for Plunder : 
And notwithstanding they would fain have pre- 
vail'd with Sifigambis to moderate her Grief, yet 
(he remain'd in. the fame State as before, with- 
out fpeaking one Word, or changing ner Coun- 
tenance, but fate as if me were immoveable (and 
feem'd to be afraid by too early a Joy to provoke 
Fortune) infomuch that the ilanders by could not 
make any Judgment of her Inclinations. 

While thefe Things were doing, Amyntas, one 
of Alexanders Collonels of Horfe, came to the 
Afliftance of thofe that guarded the Baggage, whe- 
ther of his own Motion, or by the Kings Order.; 
is. uncertain; but he was foon oblig'd to retire to 
Alexander, not being able to fultain the Shock of 
the Cadufians and Sc thians, having been rather a 
Witnefs of the lofs 01 the Baggage than aRefcucr. 
Alexander upon this was fo tranfported with Grief, 
that he knew not what to refolve upon, he began 
to. fear, and not without caufe, left the concern. 

i$% Quintus Curttus. Book IV*. 

for the lofs of their Booty might draw the Sol- 
diers from the Fight ; he therefore fent Aretes 
with the Pikemen cafl'd Sarijlophori, againft the 
Scythians. By this time the Chariots having put 
the mft Ranks into Confution, were drove againft 
the Phalanx , the Macedonians were fo far from 
being dimearten'd at this,, that they open'd to the 
Right and Left, according to their former laftru-, and made a Lane for 'em to pafs through;, 
and Handing in clofe Order like a Bulwark, ftuck 
the Horfes with their Pikes as they went at ran- 
dom, and then furrounding the Chariots, brought 
headlong down thofe that defended 'em. Here 
was fo great a daughter made of Horfes and their 
Drivers , that it quite ffll'd and choak'd up that 
ipace ; the Drivers could now no longer guide the 
affrighted Cattle, and the Horfes, by their kicking 
and flinging , had not only broke their Traces, 
hut a!fo overturn d the Chariots, and being woun- 
ded, drngg'd after them the Men that were flain,. 
neither being able to Hand llill for their fright, nor 
to advance, being faint with the lofs of Blood, 
However, a few of thefe Chariots pierc'd clear 
through to the Rear, and mangled the Bodies of 
rhofe they fell among!!,, after a molt deplorable 
manner, the Ground was urew'd with their dif- 
fered Limbs ; and as they were heated, and their 
Wounds frefla , they were not fenfible of much 
Pain, fo that notwithstanding their maim'd and 
weak Condition, they did not let their Arms drop 
till by exceffive bleeding they fell down dead. In 
the mean time Aretes having kill'd the Captain of 
the Scythians that were pillaging the Baggage, 
piefs'd hard upon 'em, but the Baflrians coming 
feafonably to their Affiftance, turn'd the fortune 
of the Fight again : A great many Macedonians 
were trampled under foot in the very firft Charge, 
the reft fled back to Alexander ; hereupon the 
3 Perfians 

Book IV. Quintus Ccjrtius. 2,53 

Perfians gave fuch a Shout as Vi&ors are us'd to 
give , and rufti'd furioufly on the Enemy, as if 
their Defeat had been univerfal. 

Alexander therefore check'd thofe that were: 
frighten'd, and encourag'd 'em, and renew'd him- 
felf the Fight, that began to grow languid. Thus 
having infpir'd 'em with frefli Vigour , he com- 
manded 'em to charge the Enemy.. The Perfians 
Right Wing was very much weaken'd by the De- 
tachment of Baclrians which were fent to feize 
the Baggage; Alexander therefore attack'd their 
Joofe Ranks,, and made a great Slaughter of the 
Enemy, which being perceiv'd by the Perfians 
Left Wing, and thinking they had it in their Pow- 
er tofurround Alexander^, they fell upon his Rear, 
Here the King had been in great Danger, as be- 
ing in the middle of his Enemies, if the Agruir, 
Cavalry had not clapt Spurs to their Horfes, and 
charg'd the Barbarians that furrounded him, and, 
by that means fore'd 'em to face about to defend 

The Troops were hard put to it on- both Sides,- 
for Alexander had the Enemy both before and be- 
hind ; and thofe who attack'd his Rear were them-< 
felves very much prefs'd by the Agrian Forces : 
The Baclrians alfo, who were now return'd from 
pillaging the Baggage, could not recover their 
Port, and feveral Battalions feparated from the 
reft, fought with the next of the Enemies that 
came in their way. The two Kings, who were 
now near one another, encourag'd their refpective 
Troops; a greater Number of Perfians were ilain, 
the Number of the wounded was almoft equal. 
Darius was in a Chariot, and Alexander on Horfe- 
back ; they were both guarded by felect Soldiers 
that had not the leaft thought of themfelves, for 
if their King fell they neither would, nor could 
be fafe, and they look'd upon it as a noble Thing 


15*4 Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

to die in the prefence of their Sovereign ; and 
thofe were expos'd to the greateft Danger, who 
exerted themfelves moft for the Prefervation of 
the King) whom they guarded ; for every one 
coveted the Honour of killing the Prince of the 
adverfe Party. Now whether it. was an Illufion 
of the Eyes, or a Reality,, they who were about 
Alexander thought they faw an Eagle hovering 
over the King's Head , no wife terrify'd either 
by the Noife of the Anns,, or the Groans of the 
dying Men , and appear' d a long time about 
Alexanders Horfe , rather fufp ended in the Air 
than flying. It is certain , Ariftander having put 
on his white Garment, and carrying a Lawrel in 
his Hand, ftiew'd this Sight to the Soldiers, who 
were attentive to the Fight, as an infallible token 
cf the Vittory. They were then animated with frelh 
Courage and Affurance, who before were droop- 
ing, and their Alacrity encreas'd when Darius's 
Charioteer was flain ; neither did the Perfians or 
Macedonians doubt but the King himfelf was kil- 
led. Hereupon Darims Relations and Attendants 
difturb'd the whole Army ( which till then fought 
with almoft equal Advantage) with mournful 
Howlings, and baibarous Cries and Lamentations. 
This caus'd thofe on the Left to take to their 
Heels, and defert the Chariot, which thofe on the 
Right receiv'd immediately into the middle of 
their Divifion. It is laid, Darius having drawn 
his Sword, was unrefolv'd, whether he ought not 
to avoid a mameful Flight by an honourable Death. 
But perceiving,, as he fate, aloft in his Chariot* 
that fome part of his Army mil maintain'd the 
Fight, he was afham'd to leave 'em deftitute of a 
Head. While he remain' d thus between Hope 
and Defpair, the Perfians gave way by little and 
little, and broke their Order. Alexander mount- 
ing, a freih Horfe (for he had already tir'd feveral) 



continue! flicking thefe that refilled him in the 
Face, and thofe that tied from him in the Back : 
By this time it was no longer a Fight, but a per- 
fect Maflacre, and Darius himfe'lf turn'd his Cha- 
riot to make the belt of his Way. The Victors 
purfu'd the routed , but the Clouds of Dure that 
rofe up to the very Skies, intercepted their Sight, 
fo that they wander'd like Men in the Dark,, ral- 
lying now and then at the found of a. known Voice 
as at a Signal. It is true, the noiie of the Reins with 
which they (truck the Horfes that drew Dajiuss 
Chariot, were ibmetimes heard by 'em , which 
was all the Footlteps they had to purfue fym by, 

C H A P. XVI. 

BUT in the Macedonians Left Wing which 
was commanded by Parmenio, as we faid be- 
fore, the Succefs of both Parties was very dif- 
ferent : for MazAus with all his Cavalry charg'd 
furioufly the Macedonian Horfe, and prefs'd hard 
upon 'em, and as he was much fuperior in Num- 
ber, began to furround the Foot : When Par???c, 
nio difpatend Meilengers to the King to let him 
know the Danger they ivere in on that Side , and 
that unlefi they xvere fpeeddy fiucourd, t/iey jhouid 
of necejfity be fore d to fly. Alexander had purfu'd 
the Enemy a confiderable way when this melan- 
choly News was brought him ; hereupon he ft' p'd 
both Horfe and P'oot , and in a Rage cry'd out, 
That the Victory wot jnatch\l out of his Hands, and 
that Darius ivas more fortunate in his Flight than 
he in his Purfuit. In the mean time the Account 
of the King's Defeat had reach'd Mazxus, who 
thereupon ( notwithstanding he was much the 
flronger) did not prefs now fo violently on the 

Macedonian^ ; 

Quintus Curtius. Book IV. 

Macedenians ; Parmenio was altogether igno- 
rant why the Fight flacken'd , however , he laid 
hold of the Opportunity like an experienc'd Ge- 
neral, and having call'd to him the TheJJalum 
Horfe, he faid to 'em, Do you not fee how thofe 
who a little while ago bore fo f.trioufly dovm upon 
us, being fuddenly terrify d, grow flow in their At- 
tacks ? For certain it is our King s Fortune that 
alfo gives us the Victory. The Field is cover 'd with 
flaughterd Perfians; vjhy are you idle ? Are you 
not a Match for 'em even now that you fee them 
ready to fy ? 

What he faid feem'd fo probable that they re- 
fum'd frefh Courage, and clapping Spurs to their 
Horfes, charg'd the Enemy vigorously, who now 
no longer gave way by little and little,, but re- 
treated fo fait that nothing was wanting to make 
it a perfect Flight, but that they did not as yet 
turn their Backs. However, as Parmenio was {till 
ignorant how it far'd with the King, he kept his 
Men Back ; by this means Maz&us had time given 
him to fly, he therefore repafs'd the Tigre , not 
the nearelt Way, but fetching a great Compafs, 
and for that Realbn with the greater Safety, and 
came to Babyhn with the broken Remains of the 
routed Army. Darius made towards the River - 
Liens, with a few that accompany'd him in his 
Flight, and having pafs'd the fame, was wavering 
whether he ought not to caufe the Bridge to be 
broke, for he was inform'd the Enemy would 
foon be there. But then again, he confider'd the • 
many thoufands of his Men that were not yet 
come to the River, and would, if the Bridge 
were broke, certainly fall a prey to the Enemy : 
He therefore left it Handing , and declared as he 
went away, That he had much rather leave a Paf- 
fage to them that purfud him y than deprive thofe of 
it that fed after him. And having travell'd over 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 257 

a vaft Tricl of Ground, he reach'd Arbela about 
Midnight. Who can imagine or comprehend even 
in Thought the various fporting Turns of Fortune 
here, the havock that was made of both Officers and 
Soldiers ; the Flight of the Vanquim'd, the pri- 
vate Slaughters and univerfal Maffacres I Fortune 
feems in this fingle Day to have heap'd together 
the Occurrence of a whole Age. Some took the 
fliorteft Way, while others fled thro' the Woods, 
and fav'd themfelves by private Ways unknown 
to the Purfuers : There was a confus'd mixture of 
Horfe and Foot without Leaders, of the arm'd 
with the unarm'd, and of the found with, the in- 
firm and wounded. 

But at laft Fear getting the better of Compaf- 
fion, thofe that could not keep pace with the reft 
in the Flight, were left behind bewailing their mu- 
tual Calamities ; the fatigu'd and wounded were 
parch'd up with Thirffc , to relieve which they 
flung themfelves prollrate on the Banks of every 
Stream, and fwallow'd the Water with infatiai .e 
Greedinefs, which being muddy, prefently fweH d 
their Intrals ; and their Limbs being relax'd and 
numm'd therewith, the Enemy overtook 'em, and 
rous'd 'em up with frefh Wounds. Some finding 
the neighbouring Brooks taken up by others , 
draggled farther that they might drain every Place 
©f what Water they could find ; there was not 
fo out of the way, or dry a Puddle, that could 
efcape the Drought of the thirfty Searchers. The 
Villages near the Road refounded with the Cries 
and Lamentations of the old People of both Sexes,, 
who after their barbarous manner ftill call'd upon 
Darius as their King. 

Alexander having check'd his Purfuit, (as we 
faid before) was come to the River Lieut, where 
he found the Bridge loaded with a multitude of 
the flying Enemy; a great many whereof, finding 


*<5% Quintus Curtius. Book IV* 

they were clofely purfu'd, caft themfelves into the 
River, and being encumber'd with their Arms, 
and tir'd with the Action and their Flight , were 
fwallow'd up by its rapid Stream. In a little 
time , not only the Bridge could not contain the 
Fugitives, but even the River itfelf was crowded 
with 'em , by their indifcreet cafting themfelves 
upon one another; for when once Tear had friz d 
their Minds, they vain' d nothing, but zuhat cans' d 
that Tear. 

Alexander being entreated by his Followers, 
not to fuffer the Enemy to efcape with Impunity, 
alledg'd for Excufe of this Permiffion, That their 
Weapons were blunted, their Arms tir'd, and their 
bodies [pent with fo long a Chafe, befdes all which, 
Night vjcvs coming on. But in reality, he was in 
Pain for his Left Wing, (which he thought wa3 
ftill engag'd) and fo was refolv'd to return to its 
Afiiftance. He- had hardly fac'd about , when 
MefTengers came to him from Parmenio with the 
agreeable News, that his part of the Army was 
alio Victorious. He was never in greater Danger 
during the whole Day, than upon his return to 
the Camp : There was but a fmall Number with 
him, and they were not in Order, but carelefs» 
tranfported with the Victory ; for they concluded 
all the Enemy's Army was either fled, or flain : 
However, contrary to their Expectation, all on the 
fudden there appear'd a Body of Per fan Horfe, 
which at nrft halted ; but having difcover'd the 
inconfiderable Number of the Macedonians, they 
charg'd 'em vigoroufly. The King rid at the Head 
of his Men, rather diflembling, than defpiling the 
Danger: But here again he was attended by his 
nfual Profperity ; for the Per fan Commander 
coming againft him with more Fury than Discre- 
tion, theA';?*£ run him through with his Spear, ami 
afterwards dealt the like Ufage to feverai others who 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 

came in his way. His Friends Jikewife fell upon 
the Enemy, who was now in Diforder. On the 
other fide, the Perjians did not die unreveng'd; 
for the whole Armies did not engage more eager- 
ly than thefe tumultuary Troops : At lafr, it being 
dudktfh , they thought it more advilabk to fly , 
than to continue the Fight t and therefore made 
their Efcape in different Troops. 

The King having clcar'd himtelf of this immi- 
nent Danger, brought his Men fafe to the Camp, 
There fell of the Per fans this Day, according to 
what Account the Victors could take, Forty thou- 
land, and of the Macedonians lefs than Three hun- 
dred. This Victory was owing more to the King's 
Bravery, than Fortune : Here it was his Courage, 
and not the Advantage of- Ground, that conquer *di 
He had drawn up his Army mod fkilfully,. and 
fought himfelf mod gallantly. He fliew'dthe highcfl 
Wiillom in deipihng the Lofs of the Baggage and 
Booty, fince all depended on the IiTue of the 
Battel; and notwithstanding the Event was yet 
undetermined, he even then behav'd hiinfelf like 
a Conqueror. Then having ftruck a Terror into 
the Enemy, he afterwards routed 'em ; and which 
is to be wonder'd at in fo violent a Temper, 
be purfu'd 'em with more Prudence than Eager- 
nefs : For had he continu' d his Purfuit, while one 
part of his Army was ftill engag'd, he had either 
run the rifque of being overcome through his own 
Fault, or had been indebted to another for the 
Vittory ; or had he been dimearten'd at the fudden 
Appearance of the Body of Horfe that fell upon 
him as he return'd to his Camp, he muft either, 
tfoo' a Conqueror, have ftiamefully fled, or perifh'd 

Neither ought his Officers to be defrauded of 
their due Praife, for the Wounds they receiv'd 


z6o Quintus Curtius. Book 

were fo many Tokens of their Bravery. mph& 
fiion was run thro' the Arm with a Spear, Perdic 
tas, C&nus and Menidas were almoft kill'd wit 
Arrows : And if we will make a true Judg 
ment of Macedonians, at that time we muft own, 
That the King was worthy of fach Subjects, and 
they of fo great a King. 





ERE I now to relate what was 
tranfa&ed in the fame Space of 
time either in Greece, Illy Hum, or 
Thrace, by Alexanders Conduct or 
■Appointment, according to their 
ordinal Occurrence, I mould be 
forc'd to interrupt the Series of the Affairs of A- 
Jia, which I think more proper to reprefent en- 
tirely, with the fame Connexion and Order in my 
Work, as they hold in refpect to the Time of 
their Performance, down to the Flight and Death 
of Darius, I flaall therefore begin with thofe 
things that happen'd after the Fight of Arbela , 
where Darius arriv'd about Midnight, as did alio 
great part of his Friends and Soldiers, whom For- 
tune had guided thither in their Flight. Darius 
having therefore call'd them together, told 'cm, 
That he did not doubt but Alexander would repair 


2<5z Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

to thofe Cities and Counties that were mofi celebra- 
ted for Riches and Plenty of all things. That he 
a>nd his Soldiers had nozv no other Thoughts but trf 
enrUhing themfelves with the noble Spoils that lay 
expos d to "em. That this zvould be of great life to 
himfelf in his prefent Circumflances, fince he flould 
thereby have time with an unincumber d Body of 
Men, to retire to the Defarts : And as the remote 
Parts of his Dominions were Jlill untouch' J , he 
might eafly there raife frefl Forces to profecute the 
War withal. Let 'em there rifle my Treafures zvhich 
they have fo long thirfled after ; thefe will but 
make them the e after Prey to ?ne for the future ; for 
I have found by Experience that rich Furniture , 
and a great Train of Concubines and Eunuchs, are 
only fo many Impediments and Clogs y which, when 
Alexander flail draw after him, hell be inferionr to 
thofe he has overcome. 

This Speech appear'd to all that heard it full of 
pefpair, for they plainly faw thereby, that he 
yielded up the wealthy City of Babylon, and that 
the Conqueror would alfo take Potieftion of Sufa, 
and the other Ornaments of the Kingdom, which 
were the Caufe of the War. But he continu'd ro 
reprefent to 'em, That in Adverfity fine Speeches were 
of no ufe, but only thofe that zvere fuitable'to the 
J>refent Exigency of Affairs. That the War wen to be 
made with Iron, and not with Gold : With Men, not 
ivith City Houfes : And that all things followed thofe 
that were arm d. That his Predeceffors had after this 
manner recover d their primitive Grandeur, though 
they had been unfortunate at firfl. Therefore whe- 
ther he by this Speech gave 'em frefli Courage, or 
that they refpected his Sovereignty more than they 
approv'd his Counfel , he enter'd the Borders of 
Media : A little while after Arhela , which was 
full of the Royal Furniture and Treafure , was 
furrender'd to Alexander. Here were found four 


BookV. QjJINTUS Curtius. 263 

l houfand Talents ; befides which, the Wealth of 
the whole Army was lodg'd here. 

The King ibon decamp'd from hence , being 
forc'd thereto by the Sicknefs that began to infect 
his Army, occaiion'd by the Stench of the dead 
Bodies that almoft cover'd all the Field. 

In his March he had on his Left the plain Coun- 
try of Arabia, fo much celebrated for its odorife- 
rous Products. The Lands that lie between the 
Tigris and the Euphrates are laid to be fo fruitful 
and rich that the Inhabitants are forc'd to check 
the Cattle in their Pafturage for fear they mould 
kill themfelves by Surfeits. The Caufe of this 
Fertility proceeds from thefe two Rivers , which 
communicate their Waters throughout the whole 
Territory by the hidden Veins in the Earth. Both 
thefe Rivers have their Source in the Mountains 
of Armenia , and afterwards dividing themfelves, 
continue their different Courfes. Their greateft 
Diftance about the Mountains of Armenia is by 
thofe who have meafur'd it, reported to be two 
thouiand five hundred Furlongs. Thefe Rivers , 
when they begin to cut their way through the 
Lands of Media and Gordia , by degrees draw 
nearer to one another; and the farther they run, 
the narrower is the Interval between them. They 
are neareit each other in thofe Plains which are 
by the Inhabitants caH'd Mefopotamia , which lies 
between 'em ; from whence they continue their 
Courfe through the Babylonian Borders, and at laft 
empty themfelves into the Red Sea. 

Alexander in four days came to the City call'd 
Memnis : Here there is a Cave which has in it a 
Fountain that emits a varl Quantity of bitumi- 
nous Matter, fo that it is probable enough, the 
Walls of BaLylon , which are a prodigious Work, 
are cemented with that Matter. 


264 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

As Alexander was continuing his March towards 
Babylon, Maztus (who had fled thither from the 
Battel) came with his Children that were at the 
Age of Maturity, and furrender'd himfelf and the 
Town to the King. His Submiffion was* very ac- 
ceptable to the King , by reafon the Siege of fo 
ftrong a Place muft of neceffity have been tedious. 
Befide this, his Quality and Bravery were very 
coniiderable , and he had but lately diftinguilh'd 
himfelf in the laft great Action, and whole Exam- 
ple would be a great Inducement to others to imi- 
tate him. The King therefore receiv'd him and 
his Children very gracioufly : however he form'd 
his Army which he led in Perfon into a Square, 
commanded 'em to enter the Town in that Or- 
der, as if they had been going to an Engagement, 
The Walls were fill' & with Babylonians who flock'd 
thither, eager to behold their new Sovereign ; but 
the greater! part went out to meet him. Among 
thefe were Bagophanes Governor of the Gaftle, and 
Keeper of the King's Treafure, who was unwil- 
ling to be outdone in Zeal by Mazws. The Road 
was ftrew'd all over with Flowers and Garlands, 
and adorn'd on each Side with Silver Altars, which 
were fLTd, not only with Frankincenfe , but all 
manner of Perfumes. He was folio w'd by the 
Prefents he defign'd the King, -viz,. Droves of Cat- 
tle and Horfes, with Lyons and Leopards in llrong 
Cages for that Purpofe. Thefe were foliow'd by 
the Magi tinging Hymns after the manner of the 
Countrey. After thefe came the Chaldeans, and 
not only the Babylonian Prophets , but alio the 
Muiicians with their refpedtive Internments: Thefe 
are us'd to fing the Prince's Praife ; and the Chal- 
deans are addicted to the Confideration of the 
Motions of the Planets, and declare the Vicifli- 
tudes of the Seafons. Thefe were clos'd by the 
Babylonian Cavalry , whofe rich Cloathing and 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. %6$ 

Furniture, for themfelves and their Horfes, deno- 
ted Luxury rather than Magnificence. The King 
commanded the Multitude of Town's People to 
follow in the Rear of his Foot, and being encom- 
pafs'd by his Guards, enter'd the City in a Cha- 
riot, and then repair'd to the Palace. The next 
Day he took a View of Darims Furniture , and 
all his Treafure. The Beauty and Antiquity of 
the Place attracted not only Alexanders Eyes but 
likewife thofe of all that beheld it. Semiramis 
founded it, or, as a great many affirm , Belus , 
whofe Palace is Hill to be feen. The Walls are 
made of Brick, and cemented with Bitumen, and 
are thirty two Foot in breadth ; fo that two Cha- 
riots that met, might fafely pafs by each other : 
They were one hundred Cubits in highth , and 
the Towers that were at certain Diftances , were 
ten Foot higher that the Walls. The Compafs of 
the whole Work took up three hundred fixty 
eight Furlongs : It is faid that each Furlong was 
finifh'd in a fingle Day. The Buildings are not 
contiguous to the Walls, but at the Diftance of an 
Acre from them : Nay the City is not wholly ta- 
ken up with Houfes , but only ninety Furlongs 
thereof, nor do all the Houfes join to one ano- 
ther ; as I fuppofe, becaufe it was judg'd fafer to 
have 'em fcatter'd up and down in ieveral Places. 
The reft is fow'd and plough'd , that in cafe of a 
Siege the Inhabitants may be fupply'd with Corn 
within themfelves. The Euphrates runs through 
the City , and is kept in on both fides by very 
ftrong Banks , which arc themfelves a prodigious 
Work : But thefe have behind 'em large and deep 
Caves, to receive the rapid Streams, which other- 
wife, when they rife above the Banks, would be 
apt to bear ddwn the Houfes, if it were not for 
thefe fubterraneous Receptacles. Thefe Caves are 
alio lin'd with Brick , and cemented with Bitu- 
Vol. L N men. 

2,66 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

men. The two Parts of the Town have a Com- 
munication with each other by a Stone-Bridge , 
built over the River, which too is rank'd amongft 
the Wonders of the Eaft. For as the Euphrates 
carries with it a very deep Mud, which makes it 
very difficult to clear its Channel fo perfectly as 
to find a firm Foundation. Moreover the great 
Heaps of Sand that gather about the Pillars that 
fupport the Bridge Hop the Courfe of the Water, 
which being by that Confinement check'd, beats 
more furioully againft it than it would do if it had a 
free Palfage. The Cattle is twenty Furlongs in 
circumference ; the Towers are thirty Foot deep 
within the Ground , and eighty Foot in highth 
above it. On the Top of the Cattle are the Pen- 
file Gardens , lb much celebrated by the Greek 
Poets ; they are of equal highth with the Walls 
of the Town, and are mighty pleafant both on 
the account of their ihady Groves and the Tall- 
nefs of the Trees that grow there. This bulky 
Work is fupported by Pillars , over which there 
runs a Pavement of fquare Stone, able to bear the 
Earth which is laid upon it to a great depth , and 
the Water with which it is irrigated. This Pile 
carries Trees of fo large a dimenfion , that their 
Boles are eight Cubits about ,• and fifty Foot in 
highth , and altogether as fruitful as if they grew 
in their natural Soil. Now notwithftanding time 
preys by little and little, not only on artificial Works, 
but even upo*i Nature herielf ; yet this huge Pile 
which is pelter'd with the Roots of lb many Trees, 
and loaded with the weight of lb large a Grove, 
remains ftill .entire. It is fupported by twenty 
large Walls, diftant eleven Foot from one another, 
fo that they who behold thefe Groves at a di- 
ftance would take 'em to be fo many Woods 
growing upon their Mountains. It is reported 
that a King of Syria reigning in Babylon, contriv'd 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. l6j 

this mighty work to gratify his Queen, who being 
wonderfully delighted with Woods an& Forefts in 
the open Fields, perfuaded herHufband to imitate 
the Beauties of Nature in this Work. 

The King r elided longer here than he had done 
any where : nor could there be any Place more 
deftrudtive of military Difcipline. Nothing can be 
more corrupt than the Manners of this City, nor 
better provided with all the Requifites to ftir up 
and promote all forts of Debauchery and Lewd- 
nefs : for Parents and Hufbands fuffer their Chil- 
dren and Wives to* proftitute themfelves to their 
Guefts, if they are but paid for the Crime. The 
Kings and Noblemen of Perfta take great Delight 
in licentious Entertainments : And the Babyloni- 
ans are very much addicted to Wine , and the 
Confequences of Drunkennefs. The Women in 
the Beginning of their Feafts are modeftly clad ; 
then after fome time , they lay afide their upper 
Garment , and violate their Modefty by degrees ; 
at laft (without Offence be it fpoken) they fling 
away even their lower Apparel : Nor is this the 
infamous Practice of the Courtizans only, but 
likevvife of the Matrons and* their Daughters, who 
look upon this vile Proftitution of their Bodies as 
an Ad: of Complaifance. It is reafonable to 
think that that victorious Army, which had con- 
quer'd A ft a, having wallow'd thirty four Days in 
all kind of Lewdnefs and Debauchery, would 
have found itfelf much weaken'd, for any fol- 
lowing Engagements, if an Enemy had prefented 
■it felf : But that the Damage might .be lefs fenfi- 
ble, it was from time to time as it were renew'd 
with frefh Recruits : For Amyntas the Son of 
Andrommes, brought from Antipater fix thoufand 
Macedonian Foot, and five hundred Horfe. of the 
fame Nation ; and with thefe fix hundred Thra- 
tian Horfe , and three thoufand five hundred of 
N 2 that 

2,68 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

that Countrey's Foot, There came alfo from Pe- 
loponnefiis four thoufand mercenary Foot, and 
three hundred and eighty Horfe. The faid Amyn- 
tas likewife brought him fifty young Gentlemen 
of the Nobility of Macedonia to ferve as Guards 
of his Perfon. Their Office is to ferve the King 
at Table , and attend him with Horfes when he 
goes upon Action ; to accompany him a hunting, 
and do Duty by turns at his Chamber-Door : It is 
here they learn the firft Rudiments of War, and 
lay as it were the Foundation of their future Pre- 
ferment to be Generals in the Army, or Gover- 
nors of Provinces. 

The King having appointed Agathon Governor 
of the Cattle of B'abylon, affigning him feven hun- 
dred, Macedonians and three hundred Mercenaries 
for that Purpofe ; left the Government of the 
Territory and City to Menetes and Apollcdorus, al- 
lotting them a Garrifon of two thoufand Foot and 
one thoufand Talents, commanding both to make 
new Levies to recruit the Army. He gave to Ma- 
z&as, who came over to him, the Superintenden- 
cy of Babylon ; and order'd Bagopha?ies, who had 
furrender'd the Cattle to him, to follow him. He 
gave thfc Government of Armenia to Mithrenes, 
who had yielded up Sardis. Out of the Money 
found in Babylon he order'd every Macedonian 
Trooper fix hundred Denarii, and five hundred to 
every foreign Trooper, and to every Foot Soldier 
two hundred. 


ALexander having fettl'd things after this man- 
ner, march'd into the Country, call'd Satra- 
jpene The Soil whereof being fruitful, and af- 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 269 

Wording plenty of all kinds of Provifions, he ftay'd 
here the longer : And that Idlenefs might not im- 
pair the Courage of his Soldiers, he appointed 
Judges, and propos'd Prizes to thofe that (houkl 
diftinguifh themielves in military Exercifes. Thoie 
Eight that mould be judg'd the braver!, were each 
to be made Collonels of a thouland Men, and 
were call'd Chiliarch&. This was the firft Inftitn- 
tion of Regiments of this Number, for they be- 
fore coniifted but of five hundred, and did no? 
ufe to be the Reward of Bravery. A great Num- 
ber of Soldiers flock'd hither to behold the noble 
Spectacle, and at the fame time were fo many 
Judges of the Behaviour of each Contender, and 
alfo of the Juftice of the Sentence of the Judges 
themfelves ; lince it was impoffible to conceal 
whether the Honour was beftow'd on the account 
of Merit, or out of Favour. The firft Prize was 
adjudg'd to AdarchiM the Elder, who had been 
chiefly inftrnmental in renewing the Fight at Ha- 
Ucamajjksy where the young Soldiers gave ground : 
The next was given to Amigenes : Phiiotas An- 
iens had the third ; and Amyntas obtain'd the 
fourth : After thefe Antigonm was thought wor- 
thy, and next to him Lynceftes Amyntas : The 
feventh Place was awarded to Theodotus , and the 
laft to Hellanicus. 

He alfo made feveral ufeful Alterations in mi- 
litary Difcipline , from what had been pracftis'd 
by his FredecefTbrs : For whereas before, the 
Horfe were divided into Corps according to their 
refpe&ive Nations, he took away this Diftindtion, 
and appointed 'em Collonels of his own chufing, 
without having any regard to their Nations. 

It was ufual upon a Decampment to give the 
Signal by Sound of Trumpet , but as very often 
that was not fufficiently heard , being drown'd by 
the Noife of the Soldiers in their Hurry : He there- 

N 3 fore 

^yo Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

fore order'd that a long Pole for the future fhould 
be fet over his Tent, from whence the Signal 
might be obferv'd by all , which was Fire in the 
Night and Smoak in the Day. 

As the King was on his March to Sufa, Abuli- 
tes, who was Governor of that Province, fent his 
Son to meet him on the Road, and affure him he 
was ready to furrender the Town. It is uncertain 
whether he did this of his own Accord, or by Da- 
rim's Order, thereby to amufe Alexander with the 
Booty : However the King receiv'd the Youth ve- 
ry gracioufly , and was conducted by him to the 
River Choafpes , whofe Waters are reported to be 
very fweet and foft. Here Abulites met the King 
with Prefents of Regal Magnificence : Amongft 
other things there were Dromadaries of an extra- 
ordinary Swiftnefs ; twelve Elephants brought 
from India by Darin* 's Order ; but were not now 
a Terror to the Macedonians, as they were in- 
tended , but a -Help : Fortune having transferr'd 
the Riches of the Vancmifli'd to the Victor. Ha- 
ving enter' d the Town, he took out of the Trea- 
fury a prodigious Sum , viz,, fifty thoufand Ta- 
lents of Silver, not coin'd, but in the Wedge and 
Bar. Several Kings had been a long time heap- 
ing up thefe vail: Treafures as they thought for their 
Children, and Pofterity, but one fingle Hour put 
them all into the Hands of a foreign Prince. 

He then feated himfelf in the Regal Throne , 
which , being much too high for his Stature, his 
Feet could not reach the Ground, one of his Pa- 
ges therefore brought a Table and fet it under his 
Feet. Hereupon one of Darius 's Eunuchs wept, 
which the King obferving , enquird into the Caufe 
of his Grief. Then the Eunuch told him, that 
Darius was usd to eat upon that Table ; and that 
he could not behold , without JJjedding Tears , the 
Table, which was confecrated to his Mafiers life, 

apply d 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 271 

aptly 'd in a manner fo infult'ing and contemptuous. 
At thefe Words the King was feiz'd with a mo- 
deft Shame, for having violated the Houfliold 
Gods, and commanded it to be taken aivay : But 
Phihtas intreated him by no means to do fo, but 
on the contrary to take it as a good Omen, that 
that Table off of which his Enemy us d to eat , was 
now become his Footftool. 

Alexander deligning now to pafs into Perfia , 
gave the Government of Suza to Archelaus, lea- 
ving him a Garrifon of three thoufand Men ; Xe- 
nophilus had the Charge of the Caftie, having with 
him for Garrifon the fuperannuated Macedonians. 
The Care of the Treafury was committed to Cal~ 
licrates, and the Lieutenancy of the County of 
Suza was reftor'd to Abulites. Darius's Mother 
and Children were likewife left here. 

The King received about this time feveral Gar- 
ments, and a great Quantity of Purple from Ma- 
cedonia , which was fent him as a Prefent , with 
the Workers of them ; he order'd 'em immedi- 
ately, to be carry d to Sizygambis : for he mew'd 
her all manner of refpecl, and even paid her the 
Duty of a Son. He charg'd the Meflengers at the 
fame time to tell her, that if the Clothes pleas & 
her , fhe Jhould let her Grand-Children learn t& 
VJork \m , and make Prefent s of y em. At thefe 
Words (he fell a weeping , and thereby fufficient- 
ly declar'd how unacceptable the Prefent was to 
her ; for there is nothing the Perfian Ladies have 
more in contempt than even to let their Hands 
touch Wool. They who carry'd the Prefents ac- 
quainted him, that Sizygambis feemd afflitled : The 
King hereupon thought himfelf oblig'd to go and 
comfort her, and excufe himfelf for his Overfight; 
which accordingly he did and told her , Mother, 
the Clothes I now have on, were not only a Pre- 
fent from my Sifters , but alfo their Work. Our 
N 4 different 

zji Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

different Cuftoms led me into my Error : I defire 
therefore you would not mifmterpret my Ignorance. 
I hope I have hitherto carefully enough o'oferv d 
thofe of your Cuftoms that come to my Knowledge . 
When I underftood it was not the Praclice of Per- 
lia, for Sons to fit in their Mothers Pre fence with- 
out their Leave firft obtain d , every time I ca?ne 
to vifit you, I kept /landing, till you fignifyd to me 
1 might fit : And vjhenever you offer d to fall down in 
honour of me, I never would fuffer it. In fine, as 
a Token of the perfect Veneration I have for you, I 
give you ahvays that Title which is only due to my 
dear Mother Olympias. 


TH E King having reliev'd her Uneafinefs af- 
ter this manner, came in four Encampments 
to a River, call'd by the Inhabitants Pafitigris. It 
has its rife in the Mountains of the Uxians , and 
continues its Courfe in a furious manner among 
the Rocks for the fpace of fifty Furlongs between 
its grovy Banks ; after which it runs through the 
Plains in a fmoother Channel, and is naviga- 
ble ; and having pafs'd through a fruitful Soil , 
for the Space of fix hundred Furlongs with a 
gentle Stream, it empties itfclf into the Perfian 

Alexander having pafs'd this River with nine 
thoufand Foot, the Agrians , mercenary Greeks, 
and three thoufand Thracians, came into the Coun- 
try of the Uxians ; it borders upon the Territory 
of Sufa, and extends it felf as far as the Frontiers 
of Perfia, leaving but a narrow PaiTage between 
it and the Sufians. Madates had the Government 
of this Country , who was no Time-ferver, but 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. %J$ 

was refolv'd to run all Hazards for the lake of his 
Allegiance. However, thofe that were acquainted 
with the Roads inform'd Alexander, That there 
was a bye-way through the Mountains, that led to 
the back fide of the City, and therefore if he fent a 
feiv light arm'd Men that Way, they might make 
themfelves Mafiers of a higher Ground than that of 
the Enemies. 

The King liking the Advice, pitch'd upon thofe 
that gave it to ferve as Guides to his Men , and 
order'd Tauron with fifteen hundred Mercenaries, 
and about a thoufand Agrians to execute it, and 
fet out after the Sun was down. As for himfelf, 
he decamp'd at the third Watch, and about break 
of Day had pafs'd the Streights, and having cut 
down Timber to make Hurdles, and other necef- 
fary Engines, to cover thofe that mould advance 
the Towers, began the Siege of the Place ; here 
was nothing to be feen but craggy Rocks and Pre- 
cipices, the Soldiers were therefore repuls'd as 
not having the Enemy only to encounter with, 
but alfo the Difficulties of the Place, notwithihn- 
ding which they advane'd ; for the King was a- 
mong the firft, and would fometimes ai"k 'em, if 
having redue'd fo many ftrong Towns they were 
not afhamd to be baffled in the Siege of a frnall in- 
fignificant Cajlle? The King was now attack'd at 
a diftance, and not being to be prevail'd upon to 
withdraw, the Soldiers form'd a Tortoile with 
their Bucklers to protect him from the Arrows, 
Darts and Stones that were levell'd at him from the 
Walls. At length Tauron appear'd with his De- 
tachment above the Caftle, at whofe fight the E- 
nemies Courage began to flag, and the Macedo- 
nians fought with more vigour. The Townfmen 
were now attack'd both before and behind, and 
nothing could flop the Fury of the Enemy ; fome 
few were for dying refolutely, but more were in- 
N 5 clinU 

274 Quintus Curtius. Book V, 

clin'd to fly, and a great Number retir'd into the 
Caftle. From hence they deputed thirty Ambaf- 
fadors to implore his Mercy, but they receiv'd for 
anfwer, That there was no room for Pardon. Being 
therefore feiz'd with the dread of future Torments, 
they difpatch'd Deputies to Sifygambis Barius's 
Mother, by a private way unknown to the Ene- 
my, to intreat her to ufe her Interefl with the 
King in their behalf for they were not ignorant 
that he lov'd and honour'd her as a Parent. They 
were the more encourag'd to this, becaufe Ma- 
dates had marry'd her Siller's Daughter, and was 
nearly related to Barms. Sifygambis refus'd to 
comply with their Requeft for a long time , tel- 
ling them , That it did not fuit with her prefent 
Circumftances to turn InterceJJ'or for others, and 
that fhe had reafon to fear tiring the Clemency of 
the Conqueror ; befides that, fl)e oftner reflected on 
her being at prefent a Captive, than of her having 
been a Queen. However, at laft being overcome 
by their Importunity, fhe writ a Letter to Alexan- 
der, wherein fie beggd his Pardon for the Liberty 
flie took to intercede for the Befieged, for whom floe 
implord his Mercy; and hop' d he would at leafl for- 
give her, for folic it ing his Indulgence in the behalf 
of a Friend and Relation, who was now no longer 
an Enemy, but an humble Suppliant for his Life. 

Here now is a remarkable Inftance of the King's 
Moderation and Goodnefc at this time, for he not 
only at her Requelt pardon'd Madates, but gran- 
ted to all their Liberty, as well to thofe that were 
Captives as thofe who mrrendred themfelves, con- 
firming their Immunities : He likewife left the 
Place untouch'd, and permitted 'em to cultivate 
their Lands Tax free : She could not have ob- 
tain'd more of Darius, tho' her Son, had he been 
Conqueror. Jftafterwards/united the Uxian Nation 
to the Government of Sufa ; then having divi- 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 2*75 

ded his Army with Parmen'io , he commanded 
him to march thro' the flat Countrey, while he 
wi h the light arm'd Forces, took his Way along 
the Mountains, which run in a perpetual Ridge in- 
to Perfm. 

Having ravag'd all this Countrey, he arriv'd the 
third Day on the Borders of Perfia, and on the 
fifth he enter'd the Straits which they call PyU 
Sufiddi. Arioba.rza.nes> with twenty five thoufand 
Foot, had taken Pofleffion of thefe Rocks, which 
were on all fides fieep and craggy, on the tops 
whereof the Barbarians kept themfelves, being 
there out of the caft of the Darts. Here they re- 
main'd quiet on purpofe, and feem'd to be afraid 
till the Army was advanc'd within the narrower!: 
part of the Straits ; but when they perceiv'd 'em 
to continue their March as it were in contempt 
of 'em, they rowl'd down Stones of a prodigious 
bignefs upon 'em , which rebounding often from 
the lower Rocks fell with the greater force, and 
not only cruhYd iingle Perfons but even whole 
Companies. They likewife ply'd their Slings and 
Bows from all Parts ; even this did not feem a 
hardfhip to thefe brave Men, but only that they 
were forc'd to perifh unreveng'd, like Beafts taken 
in a Pit-fall : Upon this their Anger turning into 
Rage, they caught hold of the Rocks, and help- 
ing one another up, did all they could to get to 
the Enemy ; but the parts they laid hold on gi- 
ving way to the ftrength of fo many Hands, fell 
upon thofe that loofen'd them. In thefe fad Cir- 
cumftances they could neither ftand ftill nor go 
forward, nor protect themfelves with their Buck- 
lers, by reafon of the great fize of the Stones the 
Barbarians puQYd upon 'em. The King was not 
only griev'd, but afham'd he had fo rauSly brought 
his Army into thefe Straits. Till this Day he had 
been invincible, having never attempted any thing 
N 6 m 

z?6 Quintus Curtius. Book V. 

in vain. He had enter'd the Straits of Cilicia with- 
out damage, and had open'd himfelf a new Way 
by Sea into Pamphylia, but here that Happinels 
which had always attended him, feem'd to be at 
a Hand, and there was no other Remedy but to 
return the lame Way he came. Having there- 
fore given the Signal for a Retreat, he commanded 
the Soldiers to march in clofe order, and to join 
their Bucklers over their Heads, and fo retire out 
of the Straits, after they had advanc'd thirty Fur- 
longs within them. 


T.HE King, at his Return from the Straits, ha- 
ving pitch'd his Camp in a plain open Ground, 
not only held a Council on the prefent Juncture 
of Affairs, but alfo was fo mperftitious as to con- 
fult the Priefts concerning what was moft advifable 
to be done : But what, in fuch a Cafe, could 
Arijiander (who was then in greateft Efteem ) 
pretend to foretel ? Laying afide therefore the 
nnfeafonable Sacrifices , he gave Orders to bring 
to him fuch Men as were well acquainted with 
the Countrey \ thefe Men told him of a Way 
thro' Media, which was fafe and open, but the 
King was afham'd to leave his Soldiers unbury'd, 
for there was no Cuftom more religioufly obfer- 
ved amongft the Macedonians than that of bury- 
ing their dead: He therefore commanded thePri- 
f oners he had lately taken to be brought before him, a- 
mong thefe there was one who was flriH'd in both the 
Greek and Perjlan Languages ; this Man told him, 
It u-as in vain for him to think of leading his Ar- 
my into Perfia , over the tops of the Mountains ; 
that the narrow Ways lay all among Woods, and 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. 277 

were hardly pajj'able to fingle Perfons, all the Coun- 
trey being cover'd with Woods, which were in 
a manner united by the intermixture of their 
Branches. For Perfia on one fide is hemm'd in 
by a continual ridge of Mountains that extend 
them'felves lixteen hundred Furlongs in length, 
and one hundred and feventy in breadth, begin- 
ning at Mount Caucafa , and reaching as far as 
the Red Sea , which ferves .for another Fence 
where the Mountains fail. At the foot of the 
Hills is a fpacious Plain, very fertile, and thick fet 
with Towns and Villages. The River Araxes 
runs thro' thefe Plains into the Mediis, carrying 
along with it the Rivers of feveral Torrents : The 
Medus, which is a lefs River than that it receives, 
empties it felf into the Sea to the fouthward. No 
River can contribute more to the Produ&ion of 
Grafs than this, for whatever Land it waters it 
clothes it with Flowers and Herbage. Its Banks 
are alfo cover'd on both fides with Plane Trees 
and Poplars, fo that to thofe who behold it at a 
dillance, the Woods upon the Banks feem to 
be contiguous to thofe upon the Mountains , be- 
caufe the fhaded River glides along in a low Chan- 
nel ; aud the little Hills that border upon it are 
well cloth'd with Wood , this fruitful Water pe- 
netrating through the Earth to the Roots of the 

There is not any Countrey in all Afia more 
healthful than this, the Air is temperate, and on one 
tide the long ridge of Mountains, with their fhady 
Groves alleviate the exceffive Heat of the Sun, 
and on the other the adjoining Sea cheriflies the 
Ground with its moderate Warmth, 

The Prifoner having given this Account,, the 
King afk'd him, whether he had what he /aid by 
the Relation of others , or by his own Infpeclion ? 
He made Anfwer , that he had been a Shepherd, 


178 Quintus Curtius. Book V. 

and knew all thofe by-ways perfectly well 1 and 
that he had been twice taken Prifoner-, once by the 
Periians in Lycia, and nozv by himfelf. This An- 
fvver put the King in mind of the Oracle that had 
told him, # Lycian fljould be his Guide into Perlia; 
having therefore made him large Promifes, fui- 
table to the prefent Neceffity, and the Prifoner's 
Condition, he order'd him to be arm'd after the 
Macedonian manners and in the Name of Fortune 
to lead the way, vohich (notwithjianding its feem- 
ing Impraclicablenefi ) he did not doubt to pafi thro 
zvith a fmall Number, unlefi he imagind that 
Alexander could not do that for the fake of 
Glory and Honour that he had done on the account 
of his Flock. Hereupon the Prifoner perfiiled to 
urge the difficulty of the Undertaking, efpecially for 
Men in Arms. To which the King reply'd, Take 
my Word for it, none of them that are to follow 
zvill refufe to go wherever you lead 'em. Then ha- 
ving committed the Guard of the Camp to Cra- 
term , with the Foot he commanded , and the 
Forces under Maleager, and a thoufand Horfe 
Archers, he order'd him to obferve the fame Form 
of Encampment, and to keep a great many Fires, 
that the Barbarians might by that think the King 
was there in Per/on; but tf he found Ariobar- 
zanes got Intelligence of his March thro" the zvinding 
narrow Ways, and thereupon made Datachments to 
oppofe his PajJ'age ; that then Craterus Jhould ufe his 
utmofi Efforts to terrific him, and oblige him to keep 
his Troops together to oppofe the prefent Danger ; but 
if he ( the King ) deceiv d the Enemy , and gaind 
the Wood, that then, upon the Alarm among the 
Enemies endeavouring to purfue the King, he fljould 
boldly enter the Straits they had been repulsed in 
the Day before, fince he might be fure they were un- 
defended, and the Emmy turrid upon himfelf. 


Book V. Quintus Curtius. 279 

At the third Watch, he broke up in great Si- 
lence, without fo much as the Signal from the 
Trumpet, and follow'd his Guide towards the 
Narrow Way. Every light-arm'd Soldier had Or- 
ders to carry zvith him three Days Provifion. But 
befides the Steepnefs of the Rocks, and the Slip- 
perinefs of the Stone that often deceiv'd their Feet, 
the driven Snow very much incommoded 'em ; 
for it fomerimes fwallow'd them up as if they had 
fallen into Pits; and when they were help'd up 
by their Companions, they rather drew them after 
them, than got them out. Moreover the Night, 
and unknown Countrey, befides the Uncertainty 
whether the Guide was faithful or not, very much 
increas'd their Fear : For if he deceived the Guards, 
and made his Efcape, they -were liable to be taken 
like wild Beajls : So that the King s and their Safety , 
depended on the Fidelity and Life of one Man. At 
length they gain'd the Top of the Mountain. The 
Way to Ariobarzanes lay on the Right-hand : Here 
he detach'd Philotas and C&nws, as alio Amyntsu 
and Polypercon, with a Body of the lighteft-arm'd, 
with Inftruclions, that by reafon there was Horfe 
intermixt with the Foot, they Jliould march leifure- 
ly through that Part of the Countrey where the Soil 
was fruitful and afforded Plenty of Forage. He alfo 
appointed fome of the Prifoners for their Guides. 
As for himfelf taking with him hi* Guards, and 
thofe Troops call'd the Agema, he march'd with a 
great deal of Difficulty through a By-Path , re- 
.inote from the Enemies Out-Guard. It was now 
the middle of the Day, and his Men being tir'd, it 
was neceffary to give them fome Reft ; for they 
had ftill as far to go, as they were already come, 
though it was not fo fteep and craggy. 

Having therefore refrehYd his Men both witli 
Food and Sleep , at the fecond Watch he conti- 
nued his March, without any great Difficulty. How- 

280 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

ever, by reafon of the Declivity of the Moun- 
tains towards the Plain , there was a great Gulph 
(occafion'd by the Meeting of feveral Torrents that 
had wore away the Earth) which ftopp'd their fur- 
ther Progrefs. Befides, the Branches of the Trees 
were fo entangl'd one within the other, and join'd 
fo clofe, that it oppos'd their PalTage like a thick 
Hedge. This call 'em into the utmoft Defpair, 
and they had much ado to retain their Tears : The 
Darknefs of the Night alfo increas'd their Terror, 
for if any Stars appear'd, they were intercepted by 
the clofe Contexture of the Boughs. The very 
Ufe of their Ears was alfo taken away; for the 
Wind was high and blew fo violently among the 
Trees, that the Noife of the interfering Branches 
was ftill greater. At laft the long expected Light 
leffen'd the Terrors which the Night had en- 
haunc'd ; for by fetching a fmall Compafs, they 
declin'd the Gulph; and now every one began to 
be a Guide to himfelf. Having therefore gain'd 
the Top of a Hill, from whence they could difco- 
ver the Enemy's Out-Guards, they refolutely 
(hew'd themfelves at the Back of the Enemy, who 
miftrufted no fuch thing. Thofe few who dar'd 
engage, were kill'd; and the Groans of thofe that 
were dying, together with the difmal Appearance 
of thofe that fled to their main Body, {truck fuch 
a Terror amongft 'em , that they took to their 
Heels without fo much as trying their Fortune. 

The Noife having reach'd Craterus's Gamp, he 
prefently advanc'd to take PofTeflion of thofe 
Streights where they had been baffl'd the Day be- 
fore. At the fame time, Philotas with Polypercon, 
Amy nt as, and Cmu*, who had been order'd to 
march another way, was a frefti Surprize to the 
'Barbarians, who were now furrounded on all Sides 
by the Macedonians ; notwithstanding which, they 
■behav'd. themfelves gallantly; which makes- me be- 

Book V. Quintus Curtius. 281 

lieve, that Neceffity emboldens the moft Coward- 
ly, and that oftentimes Defpair is the Caufe of 
Hope : For naked as they were , they clos'd in 
with thofe that were arm'd , and by the Bulk of 
their Bodies, brought 'em down to the Ground, 
and then ftuck feveral of 'em with their own 
Weapons. However, Ariobarzanes with forty 
Horfe, and about five thoufand Foot, broke thro' 
the Macedonian Army (a great many falling on 
both Sides) and endeavour'd to poflefs himfelf of 
Perfepoli* the chief City of the Coimtrey. But be- 
ing deny'd Entrance by the Garrifon, and the Ene- 
my purfuing him clofely, he renew'd the Fight, 
and was flain with all his Men. By this Time 
Craterus marching with the utmoft Expedition, al- 
fo join'd the King. 


THE King fortify'd his Camp in the fame 
Place where he had defeated the Enemy : 
For notwithstanding he had gain'd a compleat Vi- 
ctory, yet the large and deep Ditches in many 
Places, retarded his March, and fo he thought it 
more advifable to proceed leifurely; not fufpecft- 
ing fo much any Attempt from the Barbarians, as 
the Treachery of the Ground. 

In his March he receiv'd Letters from Tiwidates 
(Keeper of the Royal Treafure) wherein he no- 
tify'd to him , That upon Advice of his Approach, 
the Inhabitants would have rifl'd the Treafury; 
wherefore he defired him to hajien his March, a?zd 
come and take PoJJ'eJfton of it: That the Way was 
fafe, although the River Araxcs run a-crofs. I can- 
not applaud any Military Virtue of Alexanders fo 
much as his Expedition in all Actions. Leaving 


181 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

therefore his Foot behind, he march'd all Night 
with his Cavalry, notwithstanding their late Fa- 
tigues, and arriv'd by Break of Day, at the 
There were feveral Villages in the neighbourhood, 
which having pillag'd and demofcuYd, he made a 
Bridge of the materials. The King was not far 
from the Town when fo fad a Spectacle prefented 
it felf to his Eyes, as can hardly be parallell'd in 
Hiftory. It confifted of four thoufand Greek Ca- 
ptives, whom the Perfians had mangl'd after a mi- 
serable manner. For fome had their Feet cut off, 
others their Hands and Ears, and all their Bodies 
were burnt with barbarous Characters, and thus re- 
ferv'd for the cruel Diverfion of their inhuman 
Enemies; who now finding themfelves under fo- 
reign Subjection, did not oppofe their Defire to go 
out and meet Alexander. They refembl'd fome 
ftrange Figures more than Men, being only di- 
ftinguiuSable as fuch by their Voice. They drew 
more Tears from their Spectators than they (hed 
themfelves ; for in fo great a Variety of Calami- 
ties, notwithstanding they were all Sufferers , yet 
their PUnimment was fo diverfify'd, that it was a 
difficult matter to determine which of 'em was 
moft miferable. But when they cry'd out, that at 
laji Jupiter the Revenger of Greece, had operid his 
Eyes, all the Beholders were fo mov'd with Com- 
panion, that they thought their Sufferings their 
own. Alexander having dry'd his Eyes (for he 
eould p hot forbear weeping at fo fad an Object) 
bid 'em have a good Heart, and affur'd 'em, They 
fliould fee their native Countrey and their Wives 
again, and then encamped at two Furlongs diftance 
from the Town. 

Thefe Greeks in the mean time, withdrew them- 
felves to deliberate concerning what they fhould 
defire the King to do for 'em. Some were for 
afldng a Settlement in Ana, others were for return- 

Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 283 

ing home, when Euthymon the Cym&on fpoke to 
'em after the following manner : They who a lit- 
tle while ago were afliamd to come out of their dark 
Dungeons to implore Relief , are now for expofmg 
their hideous Sufferings to all Greece, as if it were 
an agreeable Speclacle ; when at the fame time, it 
is hard to determine, whether we our felves are 
more afliatnd or grievd at our Misfortunes. Thofe 
bear their Afjiiclions left, zvho hide them. There is 
no Countrey fo fuitable to the Wretched, as Solitude, 
and an abfolnte Oblivion of their former State. Tor 
they who rely much on the Compajfion of their 
Triends, are ignorant that Tears are foon dryd up. 
No Body can love fincerely thofe they loath ; for as 
Calamity is full of Complaints, Profperity is dif- 
dainful. Every one confiders his own Circumflances 
when he deliberates concerning thofe of others ; and 
were we not equally miferable, we had long ago 
loath* d each other. Is it a wonder, that the Happy 
delight in one another ? Let us therefore, I befeech 
you (fince we may be faid to be long fince dead) feek 
for a Place where zve may bury the Remains of our 
mangld Carcaffes, and conceal our Deformities in a 
foreign Countrey. We Jhould Le\very agreeable Ob- 
ject's to thofe Wives we marry d in our Youth / Can 
you imagine our Children {who are now in the 
Tlower of their Age and Profperity) will own us ? 
Or will our Brothers be better naturd to the Refufe 
of Jayls ? Befides, hozv many is there amongjl us 
who can travel fo far ? It is a likely matter, that 
at this difiance from Europe , banijh'd to the re- 
motefi Parts of the Eajl, loaded ivith Tears and In- 
firmities, having lojl the greatefi of our felves, zve 
jhould be able to undergo thofe Tatigues that have 
tird even the victorious Army. Then what zvill 
become of our prefent Wives (that Chance and Ne- 
cejfity fore d us to take as the only Comfort in our 
Mtfery) and fmall Children i Shall we drag them 

284 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

along with us, or leave 'em behind us ? If zve take 
*em with us, no Body zuill own us. Shall we then 
leave thefe prefent Comforts , tvhen it is altogether 
uncertain whether we flail live to fee thofe we go 
to ? Let us therefore refolve to hide our felves among 
thofe who began to know us in our State of Mi- 
fery. This was Eutymon's Sentiment. But Th&- 
tetus the Athenian oppos'd thus. There is no Per- 
fon of any religious Principles, who values his Friends 
by the outward Figure of his Cir cum fiances, efpe- 
cially tvhen it is the Inhumanity of an Enemy, and 
not Nature, that is the Caufe of their Calamity. He 
deferves all kind of Evil , who is aflamd of acci- 
dental Misfortunes. He can have no other Motive 
to think fo hardly of the reft of Mankind, and to de- 
fpair of Pity, but becaufe he would refufe it to ano- 
ther. The Gods now offer d 'em what they could 
never have hop'd for, viz. the Bleffing of returning 
to their native Count rey, their Wives and Children, 
and whatever Men value Life for, or defpife Death 
to preferve. Why do we not then break out of this 
Prifon ? Our native Air is quite different from this, 
the Light it felf feems another thing; The Greeks 
Manners, Religion, and Language are in requeft with 
the Barbarians, and flail we, whofe Birthright they 
are, voluntarily for fake 'cm ? when at the fame time 
our greateft Mifery is to be deprivd of thefe Blef- 
fings. As for my Part, I am refolv'd to return 
home to my native Countrey, and to lay hold of the 
King's extraordinary Bounty. If any amongft us 
are fo fond of thofe Wives and Children that Ser- 
vitude has forc'd upon 'em , they may continue 
here ; however , they ought to be no hindrance to 
thofe to whom nothing is dearer than their native 

Some few were of this Opinion ; the reft were 
overcome by a long Habit, which is ftronger than 
Nature ; they agreed therefore to defire the King 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. z%$ 

to affign 'em fome Place for their Habitation ; and 
chole a Hundred out of their Body, to prefer their 
Petition. Alexander thinking they would afk, 
what he hi mfc If intended for 'em , told 'em, He 
had order d every one of them a Horfe, and a Thou- 
fand Denarij ; and that when they fhould come to 
Greece , he would fo provide for them , that ( ex- 
cept the Calamities they had experienc d in their 
Captivity ) none fhould be happier than they. At 
thefe Words, they fell a weeping , and being de- 
jected, could neither look up, nor fpeak ; which 
made the King enquire into the caufe of their 
Sadnefs. Then Euthymon made an Anfvver 
fuitable to what he had faid to his Companions. 
Hereupon the King, mov'd with their Misfortune 
and Refolution , order'd Three thoufand Denary 
to be diftributed to every one of 'em, befidesTen 
Suits of Cloaths, with Cattle, Sheep, and fuch a 
quantity of Corn, as was fufficient to cultivate 
the Land that was affign'd them. 


THE next Day, having call'd together all his 
Generals, he reprefented to 'em, That no 
City had been more mifchievom to the Greeks, than 
this Seat of the ancient Kings 0/Perfia ; From hence 
came all thofe vajl Armies : From hence Darius 
fir ft , and then Xerxes , made their impious Wars 
upon Europe ; It was therefore necejfary to raze it, 
to appeafe the Manes of their Ancejlors. The In- 
habitants had abandon'd it, and were fled fome 
one way, and fome another; fo that the King 
led the Phalanx into it, without farther delay. 
He had before this made himfelf Mafter of many 
Towns of Regal Wealth and Magnificence, fome 
z by 

i%6 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

by Force , and fame by Composition, but the 
Riches of this exceeded all the reft : Hither the 
Perfians had brought all their Subfhuce ; Gold 
and Silver here lay in Heaps : Of Cloaths there 
was a prodigious quantity : The Furniture of the 
Houfes feem'd not only defign'd for Ufe, but for 
Luxury and Orientation. This gave occafion to 
the Conquerors to fight among themfelves , each 
taking for an Enemy, his Companion that had 
got the richelt Spoils ; and as they could not carry 
off all they found, they were now no longer em- 
ploy'd in taking, but in picking and chuiing. They 
tore the Royal Garments, every one being wil- 
ling to have his Share of 'em : With Axes they 
cut in pieces VeiTels of exquilite Art : In fine, 
nothing was left untouch'd, nor carry'd away en- 
tire ; the Images of Gold and Silver were broke 
in pieces, according as every one could lay hold 
of them. Avarice did not only rage here, but 
Cruelty like wife ; for being loaded with Gold and 
Silver, they would not be troubl'd to guard their 
Prifoners, but inhumanly kill'd 'em, and now bar- 
baroully murder'd thofe they had at firft Ihewn 
Mercy to in hopes of Gain. This occafion' d a 
great many to prevent the Enemy, by a volun- 
tary Death, fo that putting on their richelt Ap- 
parel , they call themfelves headlong from the 
Walls, with their Wives and Children : Some fet 
Fire to their Houfes, (which the Enemy defign'd 
to do) and periftYd, with their Families in the 
Flames. At laft the King gave Orders, not to 
injure the Perfons of the Women, nor meddle with 
their Apparel. 

The immenfe Treafures taken here exceeded 
, all belief : But we mult either doubt of all the 
reft, or believe, that in the Exchequer of this 
Place was found a Hundred and twenty thoufand 
Talents; which the King defigning for the Ufe of 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. 287 

the War, caus'd Horfes and Camels to be brought 
from Suia to Babylon, to carry it off for that pur- 
pofe. This Sum was afterwards increas'd, by the 
taking of Perfagad&, wherein were found Six thou- 
fand Talents. Cyrus had built this City ; and 
Gobares y who was Governor thereof, furrender'd 
it to Alexander. 

The King made Nicarthides Governor of the 
Cattle of Perfopolis , leaving with him a Garrifon 
of Three thouiand Macedonians : He alfo con- 
tinu'd Tyridates ( who had deliver'd up the Trea- 
fure) in the fame Honours he had enjoy 'd under 

Alexander left here the greateft part of his 
Army, with the Baggage, under the Command 
of Par memo and Craterus ; and taking with him 
a Thouiand Horfe , and part of the light-arm'd 
Foot, penetrated farther into the Countrey of 
Perjia, under the Pleiades, about the beginning of 
Winter. On his Way, he was very much incom- 
moded with Storms of Rain, and Tempefts that 
feem'd intolerable , notwithstanding which, he. 
purfu'd his intended Progrefs. He was now got 
into a Countrey cover'd over with Snow and Ice : 
The fad view of the Place, and the impafiable 
Waftes and Solitudes, itruck the tir'd Soldier with 
Horror, who now began to think he was got to 
the End of the World. They beheld with Afto- 
nimment the frightful Solitudes, which had not 
the leaft figns of Human Culture; they therefore 
requir'd him to return, before the very Light and 
Heavens faild \m. The King forbore chaftiiing 
'cm in the Amazement they were in, but leaping 
from his Horfe , march'd on foot before 'em 
through the Snow and Ice. They were amam'd 
not to follow him ; therefore fiiil his Friends, 
then the Captains, and at laft the Soldiers march'd 
after him. 

2 The 

288 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

The King was the firft that with a Pickaxe broke 
the Ice and made himfelf a Paflage ; then the reft 
imitated his Example. At length having made 
their way through Woods almoft impaflable, they 
began to difcover here and there fome Tokens 
that the Place was inhabited , as alfo Flocks of 
Sheep wandering up and down. The Inhabi- 
tants live in Cottages, and thought themfelves 
fufficiently fecur'd by the Impracticablenefs of the 
Countrey. At the light of the Enemy, they pre- 
fently kill'd thofe who could not follow them, and 
fled to the remoteft Mountains, which were co- 
ver'd with Snow ; but after fome Conferences 
with the Prifoners , their Fright abated , and they 
furrender'd themfelves to the King , who was no 
way fevere to them. 

Alexander having ravag'd the 'Countrey of Per- 
fia, and reduc'd feveral Towns under his Obedi- 
ence, came at laft into the Countrey of the Mar- 
dians, who are a warlike Nation, and very diffe- 
rent from the reft of the Perfians in their manner of 
living. They dig themfelves Caves in the Moun- 
tains, where they dwell with their Wives and 
Children , feeding on their Flocks, or wild Beafts. 
The Women are not of a fofter Nature tfcan the 
Men ; they have bufhy Hair, and their Bannents 
hardly reach their Knees. They bind their Fore- 
head with a Sling, which ferves them both for Or- 
nament and Weapon. However the fame Tor- 
rent of Fortune bore down this Nation, as it had 
done the reft ; fo that on the thirtieth day after 
he departed from Perfepolis , he return'd thither 

Then he made Prefents to his Friends, and to 
the reft according to their refpe&ive Merit, diftri- 
buting amongft 'em almoft all that had been taken 
in the Town. 

C H A P. 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 189 

C H A P. VII. 

BU T the excellent Endowments of his Mind, 
that noble Difpofition whereby he fiarpafs'd 
all the Kings his PredecelTors , that manly Con- 
ftancy in iurmounting Dangers , that unparaliel'd 
Celerity in undertaking and executing the greatelt 
Deiigns , his inviolable Faith to thofe who fub- 
mitted to him , and his wonderful Clemency to- 
wards his Prilbners , were all fully 'd by his excef- 
five Love of Wine : For notwithstanding his E- 
nemy and Rival for the Empire, was at this time 
making the greateft Preparations to renew the 
War , and the late conquer'd Nations were yet 
uneafy under his new Government, yet he would 
fpend the Day-time in revelling and fcafling ; to 
which Entertainments the Women were alfo ad- 
mitted ; not fuch w r hom it was a Crime to vio- 
late , but fuch as,were common, and whofe Con- 
versation was a Difgrace to a Man in Arms. One 
of thefe , whofe Name was Thais, being heated 
with Wine, told him, he could not do any thing 
that *iore oblige all the Greeks , than if he 

burnt . -/i yalace of the Kings of Perfia : That 
they expecled this by way of Reprifal for thofe 
Towns of theirs the Barbarians had deflroyd. This 
drunken Harlot had no fooner fpoke her Opinion 
in a Matter of fo great a Confequence, but pre- 
fently fome of the Company (who were alfo load- 
ed with Wine) applauded the Propofal ; and the 
King not only heard it with Patience, but eager 
to put it in Execution, faid, Why do ice not revenge 
Greece ? Why do we delay fetting Tire to the 
Tovm ? They were all heated with Wine, and in 
that drunken Condition immediately rife to burn 
that City they had fpared in their Anger. The 
Vol. I. O King 

190 Quintus Curtius. Book V. 

King fhew'd 'em the Example, and was the firft 
that fet Fire to the Palace, after which his Guefts, 
Servants , and Concubines did the fame. There 
being a great deal of Cedar in this noble Stru- 
cture, it prefently took Fire, a-nd communicated 
the Flames. The Army which was encamp'd not 
far from the Town, no fooner perceiv'd the Con- 
flagration but, imagining it to be cafual, they ran 
to help to quench it : But being come to the En- 
trance of the Palace , and feeing the King himfelf 
carrying frefh Flambeaux to increafe the Fire , 
they flung down the Water they had brought, and 
fed the Flames with dry Materials. 

This was the End of the nobleft City of the 
Eait, from whence fo many Nations receiv'd their 
Laws; which had been the Birth-place of fo ma- 
ny Kings ; formerly the chief Terror of Greece ; 
had tilted out a Fleet of a thoufand Sail of Ships , 
and fent out Armies that, like -an Inundation, al- 
moft cover'd all Europe, had laid Bridges over the 
Sea, and hollow'd Mountains to make the Sea a 
PalTage ; and in fo long a time as has elaps'd iince 
its Deitrueuon , never was rebuilt : For the Ma- 
cedonian Kings made choice of other Towns for 
their Refidence, which are now in the Poiieffion 
of the Parthians. The Ruin of this City was fo 
complete that were it not for the River Araxes 
we mould hardly know where it ftood. This Ri- 
ver run at no great Diftance from the Walls of 
this. Town, which (as the neighbouring Inhabi- 
tants rather conjecture than certainly know) was 
fituate about twenty Furlongs from it. 

The Macedonians were amam'd fo famous a 
City fhould be deftroy'd by their King in a drun- 
ken Humour. They therefore made a ierious 
Matter of it, and perfuaded themfelves, it was 
expedient it JJjould be confurrid thvs way. But as 
for Alexander , as foon as Reft had reilor'd him 

2 tO 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 291 

to himfelf, it is certain £<? repented of what he had 
done ; and he laid, the Perfians would have made 
more ample Satisfaction to Greece , had they been 
necejfitated to behold him fitting in Xerxes'* Zhront 
in his Royal City. 

The next Day he order'd thirty Talents to be 
given to the Lycian> who had been his Guide into 
Perfia. From hence he pafs'd into the Countrey 
of Media, where he was met by new Recruits 
from Cilicia. They confuted of five thoufand 
Foot, and one thoufand Horfe, both the one and 
the other were under the Command of Plato the 
Athenian. Having receiv'd this Reinforcement, 
he refolv'd to purfue Darius. 


THIS Prince was by this time got to Ecbata- 
na, which is the Capital of Media. The 
Parthians are now in Pofieflion of this Town ; it 
is the Royal Seat during the Summer. Darius in- 
tended from hence to go into Baclra ; but fear- 
ing to be prevented by Alexander's Celerity, he 
alter* d his Mind and maped his Courfe another 
way. Alexander was fifteen hundred Furlongs 
Diftance from him , but now he thought no Di- 
ftance remote enough, againft his Expedition. He 
therefore rather prepar'd himfelf to fight , than to 
fly. He was follow'd by thirty thoufand Foot, 
amongft whom were four thoufand Greeks of an 
invincible Fidelity to the hit towards the King. 
He had alfo four thoufand Slingers and Archers, 
befides three thoufand three hundred Horfe which 
confilted chiefly of Baclrians. They were com- 
manded by Bejfus , who was Governor of the Ci ; 

O z ty 

apx Quintus Curtius. Book V. 

ty as well as Countrey of Baclriana. Darius with 
thefe Forces march'd at fame Diftance from the 
High-way , commanding thofe who guarded the 
Baggage to go before. Then having cali'd a 
Council, he fpoke to this ErTecl : If Fortune had 
linked me -with Cowards, -who preferrd any kind of 
'Life to an honourable Death ; I would rather chufe 
to hold my Tongue, than zvafte my Breath in 
Speeches to no Purpofe ; but I have had greater Ex- 
perience than I could wijh , both of your Courage 
and Fidelity ; fo that I ought rather to endeavour 
to fhew my felf worthy of fuch Friends , than in 
the leaft doubt of your being like your felves. Out 
of fo many thoufand that zvere under my Command, 
you only have faithfully adherd to me , tho twice 
conquer d, and twice forcd to fly. Tour Fidelity 
And Conftancy make me believe I am flill a King : 
It is true the Traitors and Deferters at prefent reign 
in my Towns) but it is not becaufe they are thought 
zvorthy of that high Station, but only to try by 
their Rewards , to fliake your Loyalty. Notwith- 
standing wJiich you have chofe rather to Jhare my 
Fortune than that of the Conqueror, and thereby 
fheivd your felves zvorthy to be recompenc d by the 
Gods, if it fliould not be in my Power. There c&n 
be no Pofterity fo deaf, no Fame fo ungrateful, as 
not with due Praifes to extol you to the Skies. 
Therefore notwithftanding I had fome thoughts of 
fiying, contrary, heav'n knows , to my ozun Difpo- 
jition ; yet relying on your Bravery, I an willing 
to meet the Enemy. For hoiu long muft I re at 
Exile in my own Kingdom ? Hozu l ug muft I in 
my own Dominions fly before a Foreigner and ftrange 
King, when I have it in my own Power to try 
the Fortune of War once more , and either recover 
zvhat I have loft, or at leaf: die an honourable 
Death ? Unlefs it foould be thought better to lie at 
the -Conqueror s Mercy, and after the Example of 
2 Mazaeuc 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 293 

Mazaeus and Mithrenes receive perhaps the preca~ 
rious Sovereignty of a jingle Nation. But I hope the 
Gods will never fuffer any Body to take the Diadem 
from my Head, or be flow it on me ; neither will I 
zvhile alive , refign my Empire , my Kingdom and 
Life fhall end together. If you are thus difposd, if 
this be a fixd Refolution among you, none of you 
need to doubt of his Liberty ; none of you fit all be 
fubjecl to the difdainful Haughtinefi of the Mace- 
donians. Tour Right-hands jh all either revenge your 
Sufferings, orput an End to 'em-, I am my felf an 
J'ftjlance of the Mutability of Fortune , and I have 
Reafon to hope for her gentler Revolutions. But if 
the Gods have no Regard to juft and religious Wars, , 
it will fill be in the Power of the Brave to die honou- 
rably. I therefore conjure you by the glorious Actions 
of our Ancejlors, who have held the Government of 
all the Eafiern Kingdoms with fo much Praife ; by 
thofe great Me-n , to whom the Macedonians for- 
merly paid Tribute ; by the vafi Fleets that have 
been fent into Greece ; by the Trophies of fo many- 
Kings, 1 once more beg and befeech you to arm your 
Jelves with a Courage worthy your noble Extraction* 
and Nation, and that you will bear with the fame- 
Conjlancy you have hitherto fiewn, whatever For- 
tn'M fnall for the future alot you. As for my owru 
part, I am refolvd to fignalize nvy felf for ever, ei- 
ther by a glorious Victory, or a brave Engagement. 


H I L E Darin* was faying thefe things, the 
Appearance of the prefent Danger was fo- 
frightful to them, that the Minds and~ Hearts oS 
them all were feiz'd with Horror ; . none of 'em 
knew either what -to think or fay. At laft Art*** 
O 3 bazus, 

294 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

bazus, the oldeft of his Friends, and who, as we 
faid before, had formerly rclided with Philip, de- 
clar'd himfelf to this purpofe : We are ready, Sir, 
to follow you into the Field in our richeft Apparel 
and brighteft Armour, with this Difpofitton , That 
we neither defpair of Victory, nor fear our Fate. 
The reft feem'd to be of the fame Mind. 

But Nabarzanes, who had enter'd into an abo- 
minable, and before that time , unheard-of Con- 
fpiracy, to feize the King , by the Help of thofe 
Troops they each commanded, with this Dellgn, 
that it Alexander purfu'd them, to deliver him alive 
into his Hands, and thereby ingratiate themfelves 
with him, fince he could not but be mightily pleas'd 
to have his Enemy in his Power; but if they found 
they could make their Efcapes, then to kill Damn, 
and feizing the Kingdom, renew the War again. 
As they had for fome time been hatching this 
Treafon, Nabarzanes laid hold of this Oceahon to 
pave the Way to his wicked Purpofe, and faid, / 
am fenfible, Sir, that what I am going to fay, will 
not at firfi be grateful to you i But rue fee Phyfici- 
ans cure defperate Difeafes with rough Medicines ; 
and the Maflers of Ships, when they fear a Ship- 
wreck, fling a great Part of their Goods over-board 
to fave the reft. However, I do not offer to perfuade 
you to fuftain any Lofi. But on the contrary, by 
falutary Meafures to preferve both your felf and 
Kingdom. The Gods feem to be againft us in the 
War we make, and Fortune is obftinate in her Per- 
fection of the Perlians. We muft therefore begin 
a-new, with better Omens. Refign your Empire and 
the Management of Affairs for a while to another, 
who /hall be no longer King than till the Enemy 
withdrazvs from Afia ; and then the Conquer or frail 
re (lore the f acred Depofitum into your hands again. 
Reafon feems to promife this would not be long a- 
doing. Badlra is yet entire, the Indians and the 

BookV. Quintus Curtius. 29 ? 

Sagce are ftill at your Devotion : There are fo ma- 
ny Nations, fo many Armies, fo many thousands of 
Horfe and Foot to renew the War with, that there 
is ftill more left to carry it on, than has been loft, 
Why jhould we then 9 after the manner of Brutes, 
run headlong to Deftruclion ? It is the Bufine/S of 
brave Men to defpife Death rather than hate Life. 
Cowards are fometimes by continual Hardjhips, 
brought to have a mean Opinion of themfelves and 
Def pair ; whtreas true Courage leaves nothing un- 
try'd. Death therefore is the laft Remedy, which 
then to embrace chearfully, is fufficient. Let us then 
repair to Ba&ra, which will be a fafe Retreat, and 
let BelTus who is Governor of that Countrey, be con- 
flicted King for a Time , and when the prefent 
Troubles fhall be happily fettl'd, he fiall reftore to 
you, as to his lawful Sovereign, the Empire which 
he only receivd in Truft. 

It is no wonder Darius was tranfported at this 
Difcourfe, altho' he was yet ignorant of the im- 
pious Defigns it was intended to promote. Thou 
vile Slave, faid he, haft thou found a proper Time 
to difclofe thy Parricide? And having drawn his 
Sword, he feem'd difpos'd to kill him ; but Bejjus 
and the Baclrians, with dejected Looks interpos'd, 
tho' they intended at the fame time, to have bound 
him if he had perfifted. 

In the mean time Nabarzanes made his Efcape, 
znd BeJJus follow'dhim, and they both immediately 
drew off their Troops from the reft of the Army, 
in order to take private Meafures. After their 
Departure Artabazus made a Speech fuitable to 
the prefent Juncture of Affairs , and endeavoured 
to appeafe Darius 's Anger. He entreated him to 
bear patiently the Folly or Error of thofe who were 
devoted to his Service, and to confider, that Alexan- 
der was approaching, who ivould be found a heavy 
Burthen, tho they were all ready and united : What 
O 4 would 

296 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

would he then be, if any of thofe who had follow d 
hnn in his Flight, foould be alienated from his In- 
tereft? Barms was in this perfuaded by him, and 
notwithftanding he deiign'd to have decamp'd, yet 
in the prefent Confufion of Affairs, he refolv'd to 
continue in the fame Place. But being opprefs'd 
with Grief and Defpair, he fhut himfclf up in his 
Tent. The Army being now under no one's 
particular Command, were variouily difpos'd, and 
they did not now as heretofore, deliberate in com- 
mon; which Patron, who was Captain of the 
Greeks perceiving, he order'd his Men to take to 
their Arms, and to be ready on all Occafions. The 
Perfians had withdrawn themfelves, and BejJ'us was 
with the Batlrians, and labour'd to bring the^r- 
(inns over to him. He reprefented to them the 
Wealth of Batlnana , which was ftill untouch'd , 
and at the feme time reminded 'em of the Rifles 
they would unavoidably run, if they ilay'd where 
they were: But the Perfians were all of one Mind, 
and laid, it were a Crime to defert the King. 

While thefe things were doing, Artabazus dif- 
charg'd the Duty of a General : He went about the 
Perfians Tents, exhorting them fometimes apart,and 
fometimes all together, and did not leave them 
till he was pretty well afiur'd of their Obedience. 
Then returning to Darius, he with much Difficul- 
ty at laft prevail'd with him to eat , and demean 
him f elf like a King. 

chap. x. 

BU T Bejfus and Nabarzanes were bent upon 
the Execution of their execrable Defign, be- 
ing inflam'd with an impotent Defire of reigning. 
At the fame time it was impollible for 'em to 


BookVi Quintus Curttus. 297 

compafs that Authority while Darius was living ; 
for amongft thefe People the Majefty of King is 
held in the greateft Veneration. At the very 
Name, they alienable together from all Parts, and 
conftantly pay him the fame Adoration in Adver- 
fity, which he us'd to receive from them in his 
Profperity. The Countreys thefe impious Wretches 
were Governors of, ferv'd to fwell their ambitious 
Minds ; for it was as large in extent, and as power- 
ful in Men and Arms, as any of thofe Nations 
whatever, m aking aim oft the third Part of A/ia. 
The Number of young Men was fufficient to make 
good the vaft Armies Darius had loft. This made 
them not only defpife Darius, but even Alexander 
himfelf, and imagine, that if they could but make 
themfelves Matters of thofe Countreys, they might 
be able to reftore the Per/ian Empire, 

After a long Confultation, they refolv'd to feize 
the King by the Baclrian Soldiers, who were in* 
tirely at their Devotion, and then fend a Mefien- 
ger to Alexander to let him know they were ready 
to deliver hhninto his Hands alive. If (which was 
what they fear'd) he fhould deteft their. Treafon, 
then they defign'd to kill Dariur, and repair with 
their Forces to Batlra. But it was impoffible for 
them to feize Darius openly, there being fo many 
thoufand Perfians ready to affift him ; befides which, 
they were alio afraid of the Fidelity of the Greeks,. 
They therefore refolv'd to compafs by Stratagem 
what they could not effed by Force , and coun*- 
terfeit a Repentance of their Fault in withdrawing 
themfelves from the Army, and like wife to ex- 
cufe their Confternatioato.the King. 

In the mean time, they difpatch'd Emiffaries to 
folicite the Perfians to a Revolt, and try to {hake 
their Conftancy, by Hopes on the one fide, and 
Fear on-- the other: They iniinuated to 'em, That 
they expos d themfelves to manifefi Ruin , and ine-. 

O 5 vitablo 

298 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

citable DeflruHion : That Baclriana wm ready to 
receive them, and heflow on them Prefents and Riches 
as much as even their Defires could conceive. 

While thefe Things were in Agitation, Arta- 
bazus came to them, either by the Kings Order, 
or of his own Motion, and afiur'd them, Darius § 
Anger was appeasd, and that he was ready to flew 
\m the fame Favour as before. Hereupon they 
wept, and excus'd their Fault, and begg'd of Ar~ 
tabazus to intercede iu their behalf and implore the 
Kings Mercy. The Night being pafs'd after this 
manner, Nabarzanes repair'd to the Entry of the 
King's Tent with the Baclrian Soldiers, covering 
his fecret Treachery, with a fpecious Pretext of a 
folemn Duty. 

Darius having given the Signal to march, feated 
himfelf in his Chariot, according to Cuftom, and 
Nabarzanes with the other Parricides, flung them- 
felves upon the Ground, and hypocritically wor- 
ihipp'd him they defign'd fuddenly to have in their 
Cuftody as a Prifoner, fhedding at the fame time 
Tears, the ufual Marks of Repentance ; fo falfe is 
the Heart of Man, and fo praflis'd in Diffimulation. 

Darius, who was himfelf naturally fincere, and 
of a mild Difpolition, was mov'd by their Prayers 
and fubmiffive Behaviour, and not only believ'd 
what they faid, but even wept himfelf. But this 
it felf had no Influence over the Hearts of thefe 
Wretches, to make 'em repent of their villainous 
Defigns, tho* their Eyes were WitnefTes how wor- ' 
thy a Perfon they deceiv'd, both as a Man, and as a 
King. As for his part, not dreaming o^the Dan- 
ger that was at hand, he made all the hafte he 
could to efcape falling into the Hands of Alexan- 
der •, whom he only dreaded. 


BookV. Qointus Curtius. *99 


PATRON who commanded the Greeks, com- 
manded his Men to put on their Armour, which 
us'd to be carry d with the Baggage, and to be rea- 
dy on all Occafions, to execute his Orders. He fol- 
lowed the Kings Chariot, watching for an Oppor- 
tunity to fpeak to him ; for he had penetrated in- 
to Bejfus his Defign ; which Bejjus miftrufting, would 
not depart from the Chariot, but follow'd it clofe, 
rather like one who guarded Darius as a Prifoner, 
than as an Attendant of the King. Patron there- 
fore having waited a conliderable Time, often iup- 
preffing what his Tongue was juft going to utter, 
(as hefitating betwixt Fidelity and Fear ) kept his 
Eyes fixt on the King, who at laft (perceiviug it) 
fent Bubaces one of his Eunuchs to him, to inquire , 
if he had any thing to fay to him. Patron made 
anfwer yes, but without a Witnefs. Being hereup- 
on commanded to draw near, without any Inter- 
preter; for Darius underftood Greek very well. He 
told the King; Sir, of fifty thoufand Greeks that 
we were in your Service, there is now but a fmall 
Number of us left, who have accompany d you in 
all your Variety of Fortune; and are the fame to- 
wards you in your prefent Condition, as we zvere in 
your mojl profperous State. Whatever Place you (hall 
repair to, we fliall confider as our ozvn Homes and 
native Countrey : Tour Profperity and Adverfity, 
have linked us to you. 1 therefore beg and befeech 
you by this our invincible Fidelity , to pitch your 
Tent amongft us , and fujfer us to be the Guards of 
your facred Perfon. We have loft Greece, and have, 
no Ba&riana to repair to. All our Hope is in your 
felf, and Iwifl) we had no Reafon to diftruft others. 
It is medlefs to fay more. As I am a Foreigner and 
O 6 Stranger 

30O Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

Stranger, J fiould not afk to have the Guard of your 
Royal Perfou, if I thought it could be fafe with any 

Notwithftanding Beffus was ignorant of the Greek 
Tongue, yet his guilty Confcience made him be- 
lieve Patron had ditcover'd him , but he was put 
out of his Pain by one that underftood the Greek 
Language, and had heard what was faid. Darius 
no way frighted, as could be perceiv'd by his Coun- 
tenance, afk'dhim the Caufe of his Advice. Where- 
upon, thinking it dangerous to delay it any longer, 
he reply'd, -Sir, Beflus and Nabarzanes have con- 
fpird againfl you ; your Fortune and Life are in the 
utmoft Peril. This Day will be either yours, or the 
Parricides laft. Had the King heeded this Infor- 
mation, Patron had had the Glory of preferving 
his Life. Now let them turn this to a Jell that 
will, who hold that human Affairs are guided by a 
blind Chance; for my part I believe they depend 
upon an eternal Decree, and on a Chain of hid- 
den Caufes, and that every one performs his Race 
under the Direction of an immutable Law which 
has long iince determin'd its Period. Darius^ An- 
fv/er was , That although the Fidelity of the Greek 
Soldiers was fuffiaently known to him, yet he was 
rejvlv'd never to withdraw himfelf from his native 
Subjecls. That it was more vexatious to him to di- 
firuji than to be deceivd. That he would rather fiif- 
fer whatever Fortune had decreed, than feek for Safe- 
ty among Strangers ; and that he had already liv'd 
too long, if his ozvn Soldiers plotted his Dejlruflion. 
Patron therefore defpairing of the King's Welfare, 
return'd to his Poll ready to run any Hazard for 
his Preiervation, 


BookV. Qoiotu's Curtius. ' 301 


BEJfus had in a manner refolv'd upon killing the 
* King forthwith, but apprehending he mould 
not ingratiate himfelf with Alexander, unlefs he 
deliver'd him up alive, he defer'd his intended 
Villany to the next Night. In the mean time he 
came to Darius, and gave him Thanks that he 
had fo prudently declin d the Treachery of a perfi- 
dious Man , zvho began already to have an Eye on 
Alexander'* Riches, for moft certainly he defignd 
to have made him a Prefent of the King's Head ; 
but it was no -wonder that a mercenary Man made 
a Traffck of every thing, fince he had neither Pledge 
nor Home, and was in a manner banijh'd out of 
the World ; a falfe Friend and a doubtful Enemy, 
and always ready to ferve thofe who bid moji. After 
this he began to juflifie himfelf, and caird the 
Tutelar Gods of the Countrey to witnefi his Inno- 
cence and Fidelity. Darius, by his Countenance 
feem'd to believe him, tho' he no way doubted 
of the Greelu Information ; but in the prefent 
Juncture it was equally dangerous to diftruft his 
Subjects, or to be betray'd by them. There were 
thirty thoufand of 'em whole Inclination to Vil- 
lany was -to be fufpedted, and there were but four 
thoufand Greeks under Patron, to whom if he 
fhould commit the care of his Perfon/ 'diftrufting 
his own Subje&s, he Taw they werttTci make that 
the excufe of their Parricide , and therefore he 
chofe rather to perifti undefervedly than to give 
'em a Pretext for their Crime. However, he made 
anfwer to Beffus, That Alexander'* Juftice was not 
lefi known to him than his Valour : That they ivere 
deceiv d who expecled from him a reward for their 
Treafon, fince there could not be a more rigid Cha- 


3ci .Quintus Curtius. Book V. 

Jlizer of Infidelity. The Night drawing on, the 
Perfians, according to Cuftom, laid by their Arms, 
went to the next Villages to fupply themfelves 
with Neceffaries; but the Baclrians, by Beffus's 
Order ftood to their Arms. In the mean time 
Darius fent to Artabazus to come to him, and 
having related what Patron had told him , Arta- 
hazus was for his palling immediately in the 
Greeks Camp, alluring him, that the Perfians would 
not fail to join him as foon as they underftood his 
Danger; but being doom'd to his Lot, he was no 
longer capable of wholfome Advice, fo that em- 
bracing Artabazus for the laft time (who was the 
only Comfort he had in his prefent Circumftances. ) 
They both wept bitterly, and the King was fore'd 
at laft to orfler him to be taken from him, he being 
unwilling to leave him. Darius cover'd his Head 
that he might not fee him depart in fo much Af- 
fliction, and then flung himfclf upon the Ground. 
At the fame time his Guards, whole Duty it was 
to defend the King's Perfon at their own Perils, 
fled from their Poft, not thinking themfelves a 
Match for the Confpirators whom they expected 
every Minute. The King was now in' a man- 
ner left alone, there remaining, with him only a 
few Eunuchs, who did not know where to go, 
In this folitary Condition he ruminated on feve- 
ral Things, till tir'd with that Lonefomnefs which 
he had had recourfe to, to eafe his Mind, he or- 
der'd Bubaces to be call'd to him , who being 
come he faid, Get you gone UkevAfe, and take care 
of your [elves ; you have, according to your Duty y 
adherd firmly to your Prince s Intereft to the very 
laft. For my part, I'll here expect my Doom. Perhaps 
you may wonder I do not with my own Hand 
end my Days ? But I had rather perijh through 
another's Crime than by my own. 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. 303 

"At thefe Words the Eunuch not only flU'd the 
, Tent, but the whole Camp with mournful Cries 
and Lamentations ; then feveral others enter'd 
alfo, and tearing their Clothes bewail'd the de- 
plorable Condition of their King. At laft thefe 
Howlings reach'd the Perfians Quarters,, who 
feiz'd with Terror, did neither dare to take to 
their Arms for fear of the Batlnans, nor keep 
themfelves quiet , 4eft they mould be thought 
fhamefully to defert their Sovereign. 

A various dillonant Clamour run through the 
Camp, which was now without a Head or Di- 
rector ; they who belong'd to Nabarzanes , and 
BeJJ'us grounding upon thefe doleful Lamentations 
told 'em, The King had laid violent Hands up- 
on lAmfelf. They therefore- flew to the Tent 
with thole who were to be the. Executioners 
of their abominable Villany ; and undeman- 
ding at their arrival there that the King was li- 
ving, thefe Wretches order'd him to be feiz'd 
and bound. 

Thus he who a little while ago was carry'd is. 
a magnificent Chariot, and honour'd by his Sub- 
jects as if he had been a God, was now (with- 
out the Concurrence of foreign Power) made 
a Prifoner by his own Slaves, and put into a for- 
ry Cart, cover'd over with Skins. The Kings 
Money and Furniture, is rifled and plunder'd, as 
if it had been done by the Laws of War ; and 
having after this manner loaded themfelves with 
Booty , the Wages of the vileft Impiety , they 

Artabazus, with thofe under his Command, 
and the Greek Troops , march'd towards Parthia y 
thinking themfelves to be fafer any where than 
in the Society of Parricides ; as for the Perfians 
(Bejfus having made 'em vaftPromifes, but chiefly 
becaufe they had no Body elfe to follow ; ) they 


304 Qijintus CurVius. Book V. 

join'd the Batlrians. However, that it might not 
be laid they did not Honour their King, they be- 
ftow'd golden Fetters upon Darhts, Fortune feem- 
ing indufirious to find out new zvays to infult this 
Prince. Now that he might not be known by his 
Apparel, they cover'd the Cart, .as we faid before 
with fordid Skins, and caus'd it to be drawn by 
Strangers, that he might not be difcover'd to any 
that mould enquire after him, the Guards follow- 
ing at a diftance. 


Alexander being inform-'d Darius was broke 
up from Ecbatana , leaving the Road that 
led to Media, refolv'd to follow him with the ut- 
mod diligence. While he was at Tabas, which is 
a Town fituatein the extreme Parts of the Par&- 
tacene, Deferters acquaint him, that Darius was 
making all the hafte he could to get into the Ba- 
tlriana. Afterwards he was more certainly in* 
form'd by Bagyfihenes the Babylonian , That the 
King was not as yet in Chains , but war in the 
greatefi Danger, either of lofing his Life or being 
made a Prifoner. 

The King having therefore calFd a Council, told 
'em, We have fill to execute a matter of the great- 
efi Confequence, but the Labour ivill be very fiwrt ; 
for Darius is not far from hence, either deferted or 
fain by his own Men. Our Victory depends on 
our making our felves Mafier of his P erf on , and 
this mighty thing is to be compafi'd by Expedition. 
To which they all reply'd , That they were ready 
to fllow him wherever he pleafed, and defird hinz 
neither to fpare their Labour or their Lives. Here^ 
upon he led the Army with fuch Expedition^ that 

Bbok V. Qjljintus Curtius. 305. 

it refembled more a Race than a March, he did 
not ib much as let 'em reft in the Night. After 
this manner he march'd five hundred Furlongs , 
and was now come to the Place where Beffus had 
feiz'd Darius. Here Melon , Darius 's Interpreter, 
is taken Prifoner ; for being Sick, he had not been 
able to follow the Army, fo that finding himfelf 
furprii'd by Alexanders Expedition he feign'd him- 
felf a Deferter. By this Man he was inform'd of 
every thing , but it was now requifite to give his 
Army reft, he therefore made choice of fix thou- 
fand Horfe, to whom he added three hundred of 
thofe they call Dimr,ch&, thefe were heavy arm'd 
Horfe, but if Occafion and the Place requir'd it 
they ferv'd alfo on foot* 

While Alexander was thus employ'd , Orfillos 
and Mythracenes, who detefted BejJUs's Parricide, 
furrendred themfelves to him, and acquainted him, 
that the Perfians were five hundred Furlongs off, 
but they would fiew him a nearer Way. The King 
receiv'd them gracioufly, and in the beginning of 
the Night taking them for his Guides, he fet for- 
wards with the light Horfe, commanding the Pha- 
lanx to follow as faft as they could. Be. march'd 
in a fquare Body, and fo moderated his fpeed as- 
not to leave any of his Men behind him ; they 
had already march'd three hundred Furlongs when. 
Brocubelui, Mazaus's Son, ( who had been here- 
tofore Governor of Syria, but was now alfo come 
over to Alexander,) inform'd him, That Beflus 
was hut tzvo hundred Furlongs off ; and that his 
Army (vjhich mifirufied nothing) obferv'd no man-- 
ner of Order in their March ; that they feem'd to 
make towards Hircania, andij he haftend his March,, 
he might come fuddenly upon 'em as they were dif- 
fered up and down. He told him alfo, /^/Darius 
was Jlill alive, 


306 Quintus Curtius. BookV. 

This Account made him ftili more eager to o- 
vertake him, fo that clapping Spurs to their Hor- 
fes they made all the hafte they could : After 
fome time they came within the noife of the E- 
nemy , • but the Clouds of Duft intercepted the 
fight of 'em ; he therefore now abated his fpeed 
to give the Duft time to fettle again upon the 
Ground. In a little time they were difcover'd by 
the Barbarians, whofe flying Army they like wife 
perceiv'd ; and, in all probability, would have had 
the worft of it, if Befits had been as refolute to 
Fight, as he had (hewn himfelf to commit the 
Parricide ; for the Barbarians were much fuperior 
in Number and Strength, befide?, they were frefb, 
whereas Alexanders Army was fatigu'd. But the 
very Name of Alexander, and his Fame, which 
are of great Moment in War , made 'em take to 
their Heels. BeJJUs, and the reft of his Aftbciates, 
came now to Darius, and defir'd him to get on 
Horfeback , and make his efcape from the Ene- 
my ; but he refus'd it, and told 'em, That the a~ 
venging Gods were at hand : And invoking A- 
lexander's Juftice, faid, He would not follow any 
longer Parricides. This fo inflam'd their Anger, 
that they caft their Darts at him, and having 
given him feveral Wounds they left him ; they 
alfo wounded the Horfes that drew him, that 
they might not be able to go any farther, kil- 
ling likewife the two Servants that attended on. 
the King. 

After the Commiffion of this Villany they took 
different Courfes in their Flight, Nabarzanes made 
towards Hircania, and BejJ'us towards Baclriana, 
being accompany'd with only a fmall Number of 
Horfemen. The Barbarians being forfaken by 
their Leaders, difpers'd themfelves here and there, 
according as they were directed by Fear or Hope ; 
about five hundred Horie had got together, and 


Book IV. Quintus Curtius. 307 

feem'd unrefolv'd, whether they mould defend 
themfelves or fly. 

Alexander underftanding the Enemies Confter- 
nation, detach'd Nicanor with part of his Cavalry 
to Hop the Enemies Flight, and follow'd himfelf 
with the remainder. About three thoufand of 
thofe who made Refinance were kill'd, and the 
reft were driven like Sheep or Cattle, without any 
farther Mifchief, the King having given Orders u 
abfta'tn from jhedding any more Blood. None of the 
Prifoners could give any Account of Darius; e- 
very one examin'd ftrictly whatever he could lay 
his Hands on, and yet they could not make any 
difcovery of him. 

Alexander made fuch violent hafte that he had 
hardly three thoufand Horfc with him, but fe- 
veral Bodies of the Fugitives fell into the Hands 
of thofe that follow'd him. It is almoft incre- 
dible, that there mould be more Prifoners than 
there was Men to take 'em ; Fear had fo robb'd 
'em of all manner of Senfe, that they could 
not fo much as reflect either on the inconfi- 
derable Number of the Enemy, or their own.Mul- 

In the mean time, the Cattle that drew Da- 
rim having no Body to govern them, were got 
out of the Highway, and having wander'd about 
four Furlongs itopp'd in a certain Valley, being 
faint both by their Wounds and the Heat. There 
was a Spring not far off, which fome of the Coun- 
trey had fhew'd to Polyflratus, a Macedonian^, who 
was almoft periming with Thirft. While he was 
here drinking Water out of his Helmet, he ob- 
ferv'd the Darts that ftuck in the Bodies of the 
wounded Cattle ; and wondring they were not 
rather taken away than kill'd, he perceiving at the 
fame time the Voice of a Man half dead, out of 
a natural Curiolity could not help reaching into 


jc8 Quintus Curtius. Book V- 

the Waggon to difcover what might be hid there , 
and fo removing the Skins which cover'd it, he 
found Darius there,, wounded in feveral parts of 
his Body. Darius underftood fomething of the 
Greek Language, and' upon this Occafion faid, 
That at leafi it was a Comfort to him in his : re- 
fent Calamity, that he had the Opportunity of fpsak- 
tng to one that underftood him,, and fo fliould not 
utter his dying Words in vain ; he order d him 
therefore to tell Alexander, That tho he had "never 
d'eferv 'd any thing at fas Hands, yet it was his Lot 
to dye very much indebted to him for his good Of- 
fices. That he gave him a great many Thanks for 
the Civilities he had fiewn his Mother, Wife and 
Children, to whom he had not only granted Life,, 
hut maintain d alfo according to their former Rank 
and Dignity ; zuhercas he was deprivd of all thefe 
Blejfings by his own Kinfmen and Friends, to whom 
he had given both Life and Kingdoms. That he 
therefore, out of Gratitude begg'd of the Gods, that, 
they would blejS his Arms and make him Conqueror - 
of the whole World. That he hop'd he would not 
neglecl revenging the bafe Ufdge he had recejv'd from 
Trajytors, not only on his private Account^. but for 
Example fake, and the good of all Kings, fince it 
would be no UjJ Glorious to him than Beneficial.* 
He was now faint, and call'd for fome Water, 
which being brought to him by Pclyftratus , he. 
drank, and then faid to him, Whoever thou art, it 
adds to all my other Misfortunes, that I have not 
tvherewith to acknowledge this great Kindne/S ; 
Alexander will do it for me, and the Gods will re- 
ward him for his extraordinary Humanity and Cle- 
mency towards my Tam'ily ; thou ffjalt give him 
therefore my Hand as the only Pledge I ha ve of the 
fncerity of my Wifoes. 

Having utter'd thefe Words, and taken Poly- 
fir at us by the Hand he expir'd ; wh'en Alexander 


BookV. Quintus Curtius. 309 

was inform'd of it he came to the Place, and re- 
flecting how unworthy that Death was of his 
high Rank, he we?t , and taking off his Cloak 
fpreadit over the dead Body; afterwards he caustt 
it to be drefs'd in royal Apparel, and fent it to 
Syfigamhis to be bury'd after the manner of the 
Kings of Perfia, among the Royal Tombs of his 





HI LE thefe-Things were tranfaft- 
ing in Ajia, there happen'd fome 
difturbance in Greece and Macedo- 
nia. Agis t the Son of ArcUidamtu> 
who was flain as he aflilted the Ta- 
rentins) on the fame Day that Phi- 
lip overcame the Athenians near Ch&ronea. This 
Prince, out of an Emulation to Alexanders Cou- 
rage and Vertue, folicited his Citizens not to fuf- 
fer Greece to be any longer oppreJJ'd by the Mace- 
donians ; for if a Remedy were not apply d in time, 
they would not fail to be enjlavd after the fame 
manner", it was necejfary therefore , he faid, to exert 
themfelves while the Perfians were jlill able to make 
fome refiftance ; that if they flaid till they were 
"quite reducd, it zuould be to no purpofe then to af- 
fert their ancient Freedom againft fo mighty a Power, 
The Lacedemonians being ftir'd up by this Speech, 
only waited for a favourable Opportunity to be- 
gin the War ; and being encourag'd by Memnorfe 


Book VI. Qjuintus CuRTius. 311 

Succefs, they began to join their Counfels to his, 
and notwithstanding he was taken off in the be- 
ginning of his profperous Career, they ftill pur- 
fu'd their Meafures with the fame' vigour. Agis 
went to Pharnabazus and Autophradates, andob- 
tain'd from them thirty Talents and ten Galleys, 
which he fent to his Brother Agefdam, to enable 
hun to pais into Creet , whole Inhabitants were 
divided in their Afte&ions to the Lacedemonians 
and Macedonians. Ambaifadors were alfo fent to 
Darius to folicit for a larger Sum of Money, and 
a greater Number of Ships; and altho' the Per- 
fians had been lately defeated near lfjus> it was fo 
far from being a hindrance to their obtaining their 
Demands, that it made them more readily com- 
ply therewith ; for as Alexander was intent' on 
his purfuit after Darius , who led him ftill farther 
into the Countrey, a great Number of the hir'd 
Troops, after this Battel, fled into Greece ; fo that 
Agis, by the means of the Perfian Money, took 
eight thoufand of 'em into his Service, and by 
their AiTiftance retook the greateft part of the 
Cretan Towns. But when Memnon, whom Alexan- 
der had fent into Thrace, had ftir'd up the Barba- 
rians to revolt, and Antipater was march'd with 
an Army from Macedonia to compofe thofe Trou- 
bles : The Lacedemonians laying hold of that Op- 
portunity, brought almoft all Peloponnefus ( except 
a few Towns) over to their Intereft, and having 
raifed an Army of twenty thoufand Foot, and 
two thoufand Horfe , gave the command of it to 
Agis. Antipater being inform'd hereof, fettled 
the Affairs of Thrace as well as he could, return'd 
to Greece with all poffible Diligence, and there ga- 
ther'd what Forces he could from the Friends and 
Cities that were in Alliance with Alexander ; fo 
that in a little time he found himfelf at the Head 
of forty thoufand effective Men. There came to 


3 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

him alfo a ftrong Body ftomPeloponnefus, but as he 
had fome diftruft of 'em, he diflembled his Sufpicion, 
and thank'd 'em for fjewing themfelves fo ready to 
defend Alexander'* Dignity again fl the Lacedemo- 
nians ; and afiur'd them, he would not fail to ac- 
quaint the King therewith, zvho in time would alfo 
thank them himfelf ; but at the prefent he did not 
want any farther Reinforcement ; that therefore 
they might return home, having fujficicntly difchar- 
ged-the Obligations of their Alliance. 

Then he difpatch'd ExprelTes to Alexander to 
acquaint him with the Commotions in Greece , 
who overtook him at Baffra. In the mean time 
Antipater obtain'd a compleat Vi&ory in Arcadia, 
Agis being kill'd in the Battel. 

However, Alexander ( being inform'd before of 
fhefe Difturbances in Greece) had taken all the 
proper Meafures againft 'em, which the diftance 
of Place could allow ; for he had order'd Am- 
photeric to fail to Peloponnefus with the Cyprian 
and Phoenician Ships, and had alfo directed Me- 
netes to convoy three thoufand Talents to the 
Sea fide, that he might be near at hand to fup- 
ply Antipater with what Money he ihould know 
he wanted. He knew very well of what moment 
the ifTue of thefe Troubles might prove to all his 
other Affairs, and yet when fcewas inform'd of the 
Viclory obtain d by Antipater, comparing that Action 
with his own Atchievements, he in derifion call'd 
it the Battel of the Mice ; yet in the beginning of 
this War the Lacedemonians were not unfuccefs- 
ful ; for encountring with Antipater 's Forces near 
Corrhagus , a Caftle in Macedonia, they had the 
Advantage, the report of which Succefs drew over 
to their Party, thofe whofe Minds were in fufpence 
till they faw which way Fortune would incline ; 
There was but one Town among the El&ans and 
Ach&ons, viz.. Pellene, that did not enter into their 

Alliance : 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 3*3 

their Alliance : In Arcadia , Megalopolis alio re- 
main'd faithful to the Macedonians, out of refpect 
to Philif i Memory, from whom they had received 
Favours ; but at the fame time it was clofely he- 
fieg'd, and could not have held out long had not Ar- 
tipater come feafonably to its relief; who having 
pitch'd his Camp not far from that of the Ene- 
my's , and finding himfelf, upon a Comparifon of 
his and their Strength, not , only fuperior to them 
in Number of Men, but alio in all military Pro- 
vifions, he refolv'd to come to an Engagement as 
ibon as ever he could. On the other lide, the 
Lacedemonians did not decline coming to an En- 
gagement, fo that a Battel was fought that veiy 
much afflicted the Spartan Affairs ; for, confiding 
in the ftraitnefs of the Place where they fought 
(which render'd the Enemy's advantage in Num- 
ber almoit of no ufe to them) they behav'd them- 
felves gallantly for a while ; nor did the Macedo- 
nians fhew lefs vigour in their Refinance , which 
occaiion'd a great deal of Blood to be fpilt on 
both Sides ; but Antipater fending feafonably frefti 
Succours to that part of his Army that labour'd 
moll, the Lacedemonians were oblig'd at lalt to 
give Ground. Agis no fooner perceiv'd this, but 
with the Royal Regiment (which was compos'd 
of the ftouteft Men) he flung himfelf where the 
Fight was fiiarpell, and killing thofe who were 
moll: forward to reiift , he drove a great part of 
the Enemies before him. They who were be- 
fore victorious , now began to fly, till they drew 
their too eager Purfuers into the open Plain ; a 
great many were kill'd in the Flight, but the Ma- 
cedonians had no fooner gain'd a Ground where 
they could rally and recover their Order, but they 
renew'd the Fight, which was for a while conti- 
nued with equal Bravery on borh Sides. Of all 
the Lacedemonians the Km<i diflinguiuYd himfelf 
Vol. I. P mod, 

3T4 Quintus Curtius. BookVT. 

molt, he was not only remarkable by his Arms 
and Perfon, but alfo by his Greatnefs of Soul, in 
which alone he was invincible : He was attack'd 
on all Sides, both at a diftance and near at hand, 
yet he maintain'd the Fight a conilderable time, 
receiving fome of the Darts in his Buckler, and 
declining others by his extraordinary Agility, till 
being at lalt run thro* both his Thighs with a Spear, 
and having loft a great quantity of Blood, his 
Strength faii'd him. Then his Attendants took 
him upon his Buckler, and carry'd him in hafte to 
the Camp, tho* the violent Motion was very painful 
to him by reafon of his Wounds. The Lacede- 
monians did not for this leave off Fighting, but as 
foon as ever the Ground was more favourable to 
them than the Enemy, they clos'd their Ranks , 
and gallantly receiv'd their furious Charges. It is 
believ'd there never was a more defperate Fight 
than this, wherein were engag'd the Armies of 
the two moft warlike Nations in the World , 
and for a conilderable time with equal Advan- 
tage. The Lacedemonians reflected on their for- 
mer Glory , and the Macedonians were animated 
by their prefent Grandure ; thole fought for Li- 
berty, and thefe for Sovereignty : The Lacedemo- 
nians wanted a Head, and the Macedonians were 
ftraiten'd for room. The various Changes and 
Accidents of this Day were fuch as fometimes en- 
creas'd the Hope, and fometimes the Fear of both 
Parties, as if Fortune had on purpofe equally dil- 
pens'd her Favours to thefe brave Men. But the 
ltraitnefs of the Place where the Fight was Hill ob- 
ftinate, and the Victory wavering, would not per- 
mit the whole Forces to engage, fo that there were 
more Spectators than Combatants, and thofe on 
each fide who were out of the call: of the Darts, 
encourag'd their Companions by their Acclama- 
tions. However, the Lacedemonians began now 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 315- 

to faint, and could hardly hold their Arms, that 
were flippery with Blood and Sweat, fo that the 
Enemy ftill preffing upon them, they at firft gave 
way, and were at laft put to an open Flight. The 
Conqueror purfued the fcatter'd Forces, and ha- 
ving pafs'd over all the Ground the Lacedemonian 
Army at firft took up, wasinpurfuit of Agis him- 
felf. But he no fooner beheld his Men flying, and 
the Enemy drawing near him, than he command- 
ed thofe who carry'd him to fet him down, and 
then try'd whether his Limbs were able to fecond 
his Refolution ; but finding they were not, he 
plac'd himfelf on his Knees, and having put on 
his Helmet, and cover'd his Body with his Buck- 
ler, he with his Right Hand fhak'd his Spear, and 
challeng'd any of the Enemies to come and take 
away his Spoils. Not one of 'em dar'd to come 
near him, but a great many caft their Darts at him 
afar off, which he return'd again upon the Ene- 
my, till at laft one of 'em lodg'd it felf in his na- 
ked Breaft. The fame was no fooner pull'd out 
of his Wound but he grew faint, and gently lean'd 
his Head on his Buckler, and foon after re- 
filling his Spirit with his Blood, he fell dead upon 
his Arms. 

There were flain of the Lacedemonians five thou- 
fand three hundred and fixty, and of the Macedo- 
nians three hundred ; but there hardly return'd to 
the Camp a fingle Perfon that was not wounded. 
This Victory did not only quell the Spartans and 
their Confederates, but difappointed all thofe who 
depended on their Succefs. Antipater was not un- 
fenfible that the Hearts of thofe that congratulated 
his Viciory did not agree with their outward Ap- 
pearance, but as he defir'd to put an End to the 
War, it was neceffary for him to be deceiv'dj and 
notwithftanding he was pleas'd with his Succefs, 
yet he was afraid of Envy, becaufe what he had 

P 2 done 

3 1 6 Qvrsrvs Curtius. Book VI* 

done exceeded his Station ; for tho* Alexander 
was very deiirous to have his Enemies overcome, 
yet he could not eafily brook that Antipater fhould 
be the Conqueror, for he look'd upon that Ho- 
nour that was granted to another, to be a dero- 
gation to his own. This was the reafon why An- 
tipater (who knew his Difpofition perfectly) did 
not dare to conclude any thing upon the Victory, 
but had recourfe to the Council of Greece to de- 
termin what was fit to be done. The Lacedemo- 
nians defir'd nothing more of it than that they 
might be allow'd to fend AmbafTadors to the King, 
which being granted he readily pardon'd 'em all, ex- 
cept the Authors of the Rebellion. The Megalopo- 
litans, whofe City was belieg'd after the defection, 
were order'd to pay to the Ach&ans and JEtohans 
one hundred and twenty Talents. Thus ended this 
War, which being kindled on the fudden, was ne- 
vertheless ftnifk'd before Alexander defeated Da- 
rius at Arbcla. 


Alexander, whofe Genius was better qualify'd 
for the Toils of War , than for Eafe and 
Quiet, no Iboner found himfelf deliver'd from 
Military Cares, but he prefently gave himfelf up 
to all manner of Votuptuoufheis ; and he that 
had fhewn himfelf invincible to the Arms of the 
Perfians, was eafily fubdu'd by Vice. He delight- 
ed in unfeafonable Entertainments, and would pals 
whole Nights in Drinking and Revelling, having 
with him Crowds of Proflitutcs; in a word, he 
(truck into all the foreign Manners, as if he thought 
them preferable to thofe of his own Conntrey, and 
•bv that procedure offended both the Eyes and 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 317 

Minds of his own People to fuch a degree as to 
be look'd upon by the major part of 'em as an E- 
nemy; for he in a manner forc'd the Macedonians 
(who were tenacious of their own frugal Disci- 
pline, and were accuftom'd to relieve the Wants 
of Nature with a cheap Diet, and fuch as was ea^- 
fily procu'd) to indulge the foreign Vices of the 
conquer'd Nations. This occafion'd feveral Con- 
fpiracies againft him, the Soldiers mutin'd, and 
in the highth of their Grief would fpeak their 
Minds freely ; hence proceeded his groundlefs Suf- 
picions, his indifcreet Fears, and other Evils of 
the like Nature, which we (hall hereafter give an 
Account of. 

As Alexander therefore pafs'd the Nights aswell 
as Days in unfeafonable Feafting, he reliev'd the 
fatiety of thefe Entertainments with Plays and 
Mufick, and was not contented with fuch Perfor- 
mers as he had from Greece , but order'd alfo the 
Women that were Prifoners to fmg after their 
manner, whofe uncouth and barbarous Songs were 
altogether difagreeable to the Macedonians, who 
were Grangers to it. Among thefe Women he 
obferv'd one to be more dejected than the reft, 
and feem'd modeftly to refill: thofe who would 
introduce her for that purpofe ; fhe was a perfect 
Beauty, and her becoming Modefty made her 
Charms ftill more confpicuous. Her caft down Eyes, 
and the Care (he took to hide her Face as much 
as ihe could, gave the King fome reafon to fufpect 
fhe was of too high Rank to be expos'd at thofe 
ludicrous Entertainments ; he therefore afk'd her, 
Who fhe was? Sheanfwer'd, She was grand Daugh- 
ter to Ochus, who not long ago had been King of 
Perfia, and whofe Sen was her Father; and that 
fhe was married to Hiftafpes, who zvas himfelf a 
Relation of Darius, and had had the Command of 
a confiderable Army. The King retain'd yet fome 
P 3 fmall 

318 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

fmall remains of his former Vertues , refpecting 
therefore in her Adverfity, her Royal Extraction, 
and fo celebrated a Name as was that of Qchus \ 
he not only commanded her to be fet at liberty, 
but alfo to be reftor'd to all her PoiTeffions, and 
gave Orders to have her Hufband found out that 
he .might reftore her to him. 

The next Day after he gave Orders to Heph&- 
fiion to caufe all the Captives to be brought before 
him> and having examin'd into every one's Ex- 
traction, he feparated thofe that were nobly de- 
fended from the reft. Thefe were ten in Num- 
ber, amonglt whom was Oxathres, Darius s Bro- 
ther, who was not lefs deferving for his natural 
Endowments than for his eminent Rank. The 
lait Booty amounted to twenty fix thoufand Ta- 
lents, of which Sum twelve thoufand were diftri- 
buted among the Soldiers by the way of Dona- 
tive ; and the like Sum was embezell'd by thofe 
who had the Care thereof. 

At this time there was a Nobleman of Perjia, 
whofe Name was Oxydatcs, ftill detain'd in Prifon, 
and was deftin'd by Darius to fufFer capital Pu- 
nimment; Alexander not only fet him at Liberty 
but alfo conferr'd upon him the Satrapmip of Me- 
dia. As for Darius's Brother , he receiv'd him 
into the Band of his Friends, and preferv'd to him 
all the Honour due to his illuftrious Birth. 

From hence he march'd into Parthiene, which 
was then a contemptible Nation, but at this time is 
the moil confiderable of all thofe that lie behind the 
Euphrates and the Tigris , and extends it felf as far 
as the Red Sea. The Scythians made themfelves 
Mailers of this champian,, fruitful Countrey, and 
are troublefome enough to their Neighbours, they 
have Territories likewife in Europe and Afia ; thofe 
who inhabit above the Bofphorus belong to Ajia, and 
thofe that are in Europe, enjoy the Countreys that 

BookVl. Quintus Curtius. 319 

lie on the Left of Thrace, as far as the Boryflhenes, 
and from thence to the Tanais, another River. 
The Tanais runs between Europe and Apa; and 
it is no way doubted, but the Scythians, from 
whence the Parthians defcend, came not from the 
Bofphorus, but out of Europe. 

There was at this time a famous City call'd 
Hecatompbylos, which had been built by the Greeks, 
Here the King remain'd fome Time, being fup- 
ply'd with Proviiions from all Parts. While he 
encamp'd in this Place, a fudden Rumor arofe, 
without any other Ground or Author than the 
wanton Idlenefs of the Army ; That the King be- 
ing contented with what he had done, defignd to 
return forthwith to Macedonia. The Soldiers 
hereupon run to their Tents, like mad Men, and 
pack up their Baggage ; one would have thought 
the Signal had already been given to decamp. 

The Camp was now all in Confuiion, fome run- 
ning up and down to feek their Comrades, and 
others loading the Waggons ; fo that it came at 
laft to the Kings Ears. This Rumor was ftrength- 
ned by thofe Greeks whom Alexander had dif- 
mifs'd, with Orders to return to their own Homes, 
having given fix thoufand Denary to each Trooper, 
and from hence the reft of the Army concluded 
that the War was at an End. 

Alexander, who had refolv'd within himfelf to 
pafs into India , and the remoteft Parts of the 
Eaft, was no lefs alarm'd hereat, than the Confe- 
quence of the thing requir'd ; he therefore order'd 
all the General Officers to repair to his Tent, and 
there with Tears in his Eyes, complain'd to them, 
That he was ftop'd in the middle of his gloriotu Ca" 
reer, and compeWd to return home more like one that 
wsts conquer d than- a Conqueror ; and this not thra 
the Cowardice of his Army, but the Envy of. the Gods,, 
who had. on the fudden, infusd into the Minds of 
P 4 the 

3io Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

t.b§ brave Men that compos d it, a longing Deftre to 
fee their own Countrey, whither in a little time he 
intended to lead \m himfelf, loaded with Honor and 
Gtory. Hereupon every one of them ofTer'd a- 
freih their Service to him, and begg'd to be em- 
ployed in the mod difficult Undertakings; alluring 
him, He need 'not doubt of the Soldiers ready Obedi- 
ence, if he would but make them a proper Speech, 
fu\talle to the prefent Occafion; fince they were ne- 
ver known to depart from him in the leafi, difpiri- 
:ed or deje&ed, whenever he thought fit to diffufe 
<imon<r(l 'em his own Alacrity, and fome Portion of 
the Vigor of his great and noble Mind. He there- 
fore promis'd to do as they defird, and order'd 
them to go and prepare their Ears for his purpofe ; 
and having maturely confider'd with himfelf all 
that was requifite on this Occafion, he order'd the 
Army tope drawn out, and then made theibilow- 
mg Speech to 'em. 



IT is not to he wonder d at , Soldiers, that when 
you look back on the many great Things we 
have done, a Defire of Reft, and a Satiety of Glory, 
fhould fteal upon you. Tor, paffing over the Illyri- 
ans, the Triballi, Bceotia, Thrace, Sparta, the A- 
chaeans, and Peloponnefians, all whom I have fub- 
dud either in P erf on , or by my Appointment and 
Directions ; xve enter d upon a War at the Helle- 
fpont, and deliver d the Ionians WiEolia from the 
cruel Servitude of the Barbarians, and have made 
our felves Maflers of Caria, Lydia, Cappadocia, 
Phrygia, Paphlagonia, Pamphylia, Pifidia, Cilicia, 
Syria, Phoenicia, Armenia, Perfia, Media, and Par- 
thiene. / have conquer d more Provinces, than o- 
thers have taken Toivns ; and 1 cannot tell, but in 

BooRVT. Quintus Curtius. 

this Recital, the great Number may have made me 
ft ill forget fome. If therefore I were certain, thefe 
Countreys we have over-run in fo JJjort a Time, 
would remain firm to us, I would then, even againji 
your Wills, Soldiers, be for returning to my houfliold 
Gods, to jny Mother, and Sifters, and the reft of my 
Citizens, that I might there chiefly enjoy with you T 
the Praife and Glory we have acquir'd; where w&- 
can have- a full Fruition of the Rexvards of our Vi- 
ctories, in the joyful Converfation of our Children* 
Wives, and Parents, in a^ profound Peace and fo- 
cure Reft, and an undifturb d^Poffeffion of the Fruits 
of our Bravery. But as our Empire is yet new, and 
(if we will fpeak the Truth) even precarious ; fince 
the Barbarians bear our Yoke at prefent but with a 
ftijf Neck, it is Time, Soldiers, that muft tame their 
Minds, and f oft en their favage Temper. Do we- not 
fee, that the very Fruits of the Earth, require their 
proper Seafons to ripen in ? So great an Influence h®s 
Time even over thofe Tilings that are void of Senfe. 
Can you imagine then, that fo many Nations, enurd 
to the Empire and Name of another , disagreeing 
with us in Religion and Manners , as well as Lan- 
guage, can be perfectly fubdud the Bay they arc 
overcome ? No, Soldiers, it is your Arms that rfr- 
ftrain 'em, and not their Wills : And' t ho your Pre<- 
fence keeps them in awe, when once you are abfent, 
they 11 declare themfelves your Enemies. We have, 
to do zvith zvild Beafts, which when taken arid foufr 
up, are tamd by length of Time ; a thing not to be 
hopd for otherwife, from their own fierce Natures 
I am talking ail this while as if we had wholly 
fubdud all Darius s Dominions; but that's a Mi>- 
ftake , for Nabarzanes po/jejjes Hyrcania, and Beffas 
has not only feiz'd Ba<5hiana, but alfo threatens :<< 
Bejides the Sogdians, the Dahae, the MalTagetse, the 
Sacae, and the Indians, arc yet unconquer'd. All 
thefe as foon as our Backs are turn d wild- pur- ^ 

32Z Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

us, for they may be faid to be of the fame Nation, 
not Strangers and Foreigners. And it ts obfervable, 
that all Nations more zuillingly obey their oven So- 
vereigns, tho their Government be never fo harfh. 
We mufl therefore , Soldiers , either refign what we 
have with fo much Pains acquir d, orfubdue the reft. 
For as Phy/icians leave nothing in the Bodies of their 
Patients that can endanger a Relapfe, fo mufl we 
lop off whatever can annoy or refifi our Empire. A 
fmall Spark neglected, has often been the Caufe of 
great Conflagrations. Nothing can fafely be de- 
fpis d in an Enemy : Whomfoever you contemn, be- 
comes more couragious by your Negligence. ■ Darius 
himfelf did not come to the Periian Empire, by Right 
of Hereditary Succeffion, but got into Cyrus'* Throne, 
through the Intereft of Bagoas the Eunuch, that 
you may not think it fo difficult a Tajk for BelTus 
to take PojfeJJion of a vacant Kingdom. But, Sol- 
diers, we have certainly committed a great Crime, 
if we conquer d Darius to no other purpofe but to de- 
liver up his Dominions to one of his Servants, who 
with the utmoft Audacioufnefi kept his Sovereign in 
Chains at the time he flood mofl in need of Affiftance, 
and to zvhom we that had conquer d him, had cer- 
tainly fhewn Mercy ; and at la(l barbaroufly mur- 
thered him, to rob us of the Glory of preferving him. 
Will you after all this, fuffier fuch a Wretch to reign ? 
whom I long to fee nail'd to a Crofi, and by that 
ignominious Death, make ample Satisfaction to all 
Kings and Nations, for his execrable Treachery. But 
if upon our Return home, you fhould immediately 
hear that this Villain was burning the Greek Toivns, 
and laying wafle f^Hellefpont; how fenfibly youd 
be griev'd, that Beffus fhould run aivay with the 
Reward of your Victories ! How quickly would you 
arm ! What Hafte would you then make to recover 
<\0ur own! But is it not much better to fupprefi him 
At once, while he is flill full of Apprehenfion, and 


Book VI. Quintus Curtiu B. 3*3 

hardly knows what to do f, We have but four Days 
March to come at him ; we who have made our 
Way through fo many deep Snows, pafi d fo many 
Rivers, ar.d climbed over fo many Mountains : We 
ftall meet with no Sea to flop our March, neither 
flmll have the Straits of Cilicia, to obflrucl our Paf- 
fage, all the Way is plain and open : We may be 
faid to fiand at the very Boor of Viclory : We have 
only a few Fugitives and Ruffians to reduce. It will 
be a glorious Work, and deferve to be tranfmitted to 
Pofierity amongfi your mofi memorable Atchieve- 
ments, that you zvere fo far from fuffering your. 
Hatred to Darius, who zvas your Enemy, to conti- 
nue after his Death, that you even took Satisfa- 
btion of his Parricides, not fuffering any wicked Per- 
fon to efcape unpunifhed. This once done, hovj much 
more willingly will the Perfians obey us, when they 
come to underftand that you undertake pious Wars? 
and that it is Beffus'^ Crime, and not his Name 
you are offended at ? 


THIS Speech was receiv'd by the Soldiers with 
all poffible Chearfulnefs, and they defir'd him 
to lead them wherever he thought fit. The King 
therefore laid hold of their prefent Difpofition, and 
pafling through Parthiene, he came the third Day 
to the Borders of Hircania, where he left Craterus 
with the Forces he commanded, and thofe that 
were under Amyntas, adding thereto fix hundred 
Horfe, and as many Archers, with Orders to fe- 
cure Parthiene, from the Incurfions of the Barbae 
rians. He gave to Erygyim the Care of the Bag- 
gage, appointing him a fmall Body for that pur- 
pofe, and commanded him to march along the 
P 6 plain 

3 H Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

plain Countrey, while he himfelf with the Phalanx 
and Cavalry, having march'd a hundred and fifty 
Furlongs, incamp'd in a Valley at the Entrance in- 
to Hyrcania. Here there is a Wood, the Trees 
whereof are very tall, and Hand thick, lb that it is 
very ihady, and the Soil of the Valley is very fat, 
being plentifully waterd by the Streams that de- 
fcend from the Rocks. At the Foot of thefe 
Hills the River Zioberis riles, which for the Space 
of three Furlongs runs entire in one Channel, 
and afterwards is divided by a Rock, and lb purfucs 
two different Courfes between which it difpenfes 
all its Waters. At fome diftance it unites again, and 
runs in a rapid Stream like a Torrent, and by rea- 
fon of the Rocks through which it paries, becomes 
more violent, and then precipitates it felf under 
Ground, puriuing its fubterranean Courfe for the 
fpace of three hundred Furlongs, and then rifes 
again as from a new Spring, and cuts it felf a new 
Channel much larger than its firft, k being thirteen 
Furlongs in Breadth: After which, contracting it 
felf again, it runs between ftraiter Ranks, and at 
la ft falls into another River call'd Rhidagus.. The 
Inhabitants afrirm, that whatever is cafe, into the 
Cave nearer! its Source, and where it firfl: hides it 
felf under Ground, comes out at the other Mouth, 
where the River opens its felf, when it appears 
again. Alexander therefore caus'd two Bulls to- 
be caft into it where the Waters enter the Earth, 
whofe Bodies were afterwards feen, where the Ri- 
ver breaks out again , by thofe who- were fent to 
examine into that Matter. In this Place Alexan- 
der had refted his Army four Days , when he re- 
ceived Letters from Kabarzanes (who had con- 
fpir'd with Befits againft Darius) to this effect That 
he had never bee-n Darius' j Enemy i That on the con- 
trary, he had alvjays advisd him to what he thought 
mofl conducing to his Advantage ancL Inttrejl ;. for- 


Book VI. Quiotus Curtius. 32-5* 

vjhich faithful Counfel he had like to have been 
kiil'd by him. That Darius entertain d fome Thoughts 
ef committing the Guard of his Perfon to Foreigners, 
which was not only againft all Law and Reafon, but 
a great Reflexion on his own Subjects Fidelity, which 
they had preferv'd inviolate to their Kings, for the 
fpace of tzvo hundred and thirty Tears : That finding 
himfelf in fo doubtful and dangerous a Condition, he 
had took that Counfel which the prefent Necejfity of 
his Circum fiances had fuggefied to him. That Da- 
rius having kiil'd Bagoas, had fatisfy'd his People 
with no ether Excufe, than that he had killd him 
zuho was plotting and contriving his Death. There 
is nothing fo dear to wretched Mortals as Life, out 
of Love to vjhich, he had been driven to the lafi 
Extremities ; but however, he had been fore d there- 
to by irrefifiible Necejfity, it being far from his own 
Inclination and Choice : That in general Caiami- 
ties, every one is apt to eonfult his otvn Interefi and 
Welfare : However, if he thought fit to command 
him to come to him, he would readily obey him with- 
out the leafi Apprehenfion or Fear ; for he could not 
fuppofe that fo great a King would violate his Promife, 
it not being ufual for the Gods to deceive one ano- 
ther. That if he did not think him worthy the Ho- 
nour of his Royal Word^ there were Places enow 
"where he could be fafe, and that all Count reys were 
alike to a brave Man. 

Hereupon Alexander made no Difficulty to give 
him his^ Royal Security (after the manner the/^r- 
fians are us d to receive the fame) that if he earner 
he fkould not be injur d. Notwithstanding which, 
he march'd his Army in Order of Battel, fending 
Scouts before him , to difcover the Places he was 
to pafs through. The light-arm'd Troops com* 
pos'd the Van, then foJJow'd Phalanx, and the 
Baggage came in the Rear of that. As they were 
a warlike Nation, and the Situation of the Coun- 


3x6 Quintus Curtius. BookVL 

trey was fuch as render'd it of difficult Accds, the 
King thought it proper to be the more circum- 
fpedt and wary in his March : For the Valley ex- 
tends it felf as far as the Cafpian Sea, and feems 
to lire tch it felf out in two Arms, the middle where- 
of ftrikes into a Hollow, fo that it refembles the 
Horns of the Moon, before that Planet fills up its 
Orb. On the Left are the Cercett, the Mofyni, 
and Chalybes, and on the other fide are the Leu- 
cofyri, and the Plains of the Amazons ; it has thofe 
to the Northward, and thefe to the Weftward. The 
Cafpian Sea-Water not being fo brackifh as that 
of others, feeds Serpents of a prodigious Bignefs, 
and Fifh of a quite different Colour from thofe of 
other Seas. Some call it the Cafpian, and others the 
Hyrcanian Sea. Some fay, that the Palus M&otis 
falls into it, and bring that for an Argument why 
this Sea's Wate-s are fweeter than thofe of others. 
When the North Wind blows, it 1 wells the Sea, 
and forces it violently on the Shore, carrying its 
Waves a great way into the Countrey, where it 
ffagnates for fome time, till the Heavens changing 
their Afpect, thefe Waters return to the Sea again 
with the fame Impetuouihefs they firft broke their 
Bounds , and fo reltore the Land to its own Na- 
ture. Some have been of Opinion, that thefe 
Waters do not come from the Cafpian Sea, but 
do fall from India into Hyrcania, whofe lofty Si- 
tuation (as we faid before) by degrees finks in- 
to this perpetual Vale. From whence the King 
march'd twenty Furlongs by a Way almoft im- 
paflable, having a Wood hanging in a manner o- 
ver it ; befides which Difficulties , the Torrents 
and Standing Waters obitruded his Paffage , but 
as no Enemy appear'd , he made a fhift to get 
through it : And at laft marching farther on , he 
came into a better Countrey, which befides other 
Proviiions with which it abounded, there was great 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 327 

Plenty of Apples, and the Soil was very proper 
for Vines. There is alfo a kind of Tree that is 
very common here, and very much refembles an 
Oak, whofe Leaves are in the Night laden with 
Honey, but unleis the Inhabitants gather it before 
the Sun rifes, the leaft Heat thereof conlumes it. 

The King having march' d thirty Furlongs farther, 
was met by Phrataphernes, who furrender'd himfelf 
to him, and all thofe who had fled with him, after 
Darius % Death. Alexander receiv'd him gracioufly,. 
and afterwards arriv'd at a Town call'd Arvsu. Here 
Crater us and Erigyus join'd him, bringing along 
with them Phradates,who had the Government of 
the Tapurians. The King's taking him alfo into 
his Protection, was an Example to a great many 
others, to truft themfelves to his Clemency. He 
afterwards appointed Menapis Governor of Hyrca- 
nia, who had in Ochuss Reign, taken Refuge with 
King Philip. He likewife reftor'd to Phradates 
the Government of the Tapurian Nation. 


Alexander was now come to the utmoft Bounds 
of Hyrcania, when Artabazus (who as we 
before took notice, had always firmly adher'd to 
Darius) came to him with Darius' s Relations, his 
own Children, and a Body of Greek Soldiers. The 
King immediately offer'.d him his Right-hand, for 
he had been formerly entertain'd by Philip, when 
in Ochusk Reign , he had been forc'd to fly from 
his Countrey. But the chief Caufe of his receiving 
him fo kindly , was his firm Adherence to his 
Prince's Intereft to the raft. Finding himfelf there- 
fore fo gracioufly receiv'd, he addrefs'd himfelf to 
the King in thefe Words : Long may you, reign in 


3iS Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

perpetual Felicity. As for my ovjn party I am fuf- 
ficiently happy on ad other Accounts: I have but 
ene Grievance, aud that is, that my advancd Age: 
will not permit me to enjoy your Goodhefi long. He ; 
was in the ninety fifth Year of his Age, and was* 
accompany'd by his nine Sons which he had all of 
one Woman : Thefe he alfo presented to the King, 
and wiuVd they might live fo long, as they might be 
ferviceable to his Majefty. 

Alexander for the molt part walk'd on foot, but 
then he order'd Horfes to be brought for himfelf and 
^rtabazsus, left if he walk'd himfelf on Foot, the 
olc^ Man mould be amam'd to ride. Afterwards 
having pitch'd his Camp, he order'd the Greeks 
who came along with Art abacus, to be brought 
before him. But they made anfwer, that unlefi he 
took the Lacedemonians alfo into his Protection, they 
ivould deliberate amongfl themfelves what Meafures 
they fliouid' take. They were AmbafTadors from 
the Lacedemonians to Darius, who being overcome, 
they join'd thofe Greeks that were in the Per fan 
Service. But Alexander without giving them any 
Promife or Security, commanded them to come im^ 
mediately and fubmit to ivhat he fhould alot them. 
They demurr'd upon the Matter fome time, be- 
ing of different Opinions ; however, at laft they 
prom-is'dto come. But Democrates the Athenian, 
being confcious to himfelf, that he had always op- 
pOs'd as much as he could the Macedonians Pro- 
sperity, defpairing of Pardon, run himfelf through 
with his Sword, the reft according to their Agree- 
ment, furrender'd themfelves to Alexander. They 
were fifteen hundred Soldiers of them*, befides 
fourfcore and ten, who had been fent AmbajJ'a- 
dcrs to Darius. The greateft part of the Soldiers 
were diftributed among the Troops by way 
of Recruit, and the reft were fent home. As for 
the La,-cedcmonians,kQ commanded them to be kept 


Book VI. QuinTus Curtius. 319 

in Cufiody. The Mardians are a Nation border- 
ing upon Hyrcania, a hardy People, and accuftom- 
ed to live by thieving: They alone neither fent 
Ambafl'adors to Alexander, nor gave the leaft To- 
ken to imagine, they would obey his Orders. This 
rais'd his Indignation, that a fmgle Nation (hould 
hinder him from being thought invincible. Leaving, 
therefore his Baggage under a fufficient Guard, he 
advanc'd towards them with his bell: Troops. Ke 
had march'd all the Night, and by Break of Day, 
the Enemy appear d in fight : But it was rather a 
tumultuous Alarm than a Fight ; for the Barbari- 
ans were foon driven from the Eminences they 
pofTefs'd, and put to Flight, and the neighbouring 
Villages being deferted by the Inhabitants, were 
plunder'd by the Macedonians. But the Army could 
not penetrate into the more inward Parts of the 
Countrey, without being much harrafs'd and fa- 
tigu'd. The Tops of the Hills are encompafs'd 
with high Woods, and impaffable Rocks, ana the 
Barbarians had fecur'd by a new kind of Fortifi- 
cation, what was plain and open. The Trees are 
let thick on purpofe, then they with their Hands 
bend the tender Branches downwards, and having 
twitted them together, they fet them in the Ground 
again, where taking Root, they put out frefh 
Branches, which they do not fuffer to grow ac- 
cording to the Appointment of Nature ; but they 
fo intermix them, that when they are cloath'd 
with Leaves, they in a manner hide the Ground. 
Thus the Way was perplex'd with one continu'd 
Hedge, by the means of thefe interwoven Boughs, 
which like fo many Snares caught hold of thofe that 
pafs'd thro' 'em. In this Cafe there was no Remedy 
but cutting down the Wood: But this again was 
a very laborious Tafk; for the Boles of the Trees 
were full of Knots, which made them very hard 
to. cut, and the implicated Boughs, like fo many 


330 Quintus Curtius. Book VI- 

lufpended Circles , by their tender Pliantnefs gave 
way, and baulk'd the Force of the Stroke : On 
the other fide the Inhabitants are fo habituated 
to run like wild Beaffc among thefe Coverts, 
that on this Occalion ney enter'd the Wood, 
and gall'd the Enemy with their Darts. Alexan- 
der was therefore oblig'd (after the manner of 
Hunters) fM to find out their Haunts, by which 
means he denroy'd a great many of them, and at 
laft order'd his Army to furround the Wood, and 
if they found any Entrance, to break through the 
fame. But as they were altogether ignorant of the 
Countrey, they wander'd up and down like Men 
loft, and fome of 'em were taken by the Enemy, 
and with them the Kings Horfe Bucephalus, which 
he did not value after the rate of other Cattle, for 
he would fuffer no Body but Alexander to mount 
him, and whenever he had a Mind to get upon 
him, he would kneel down and receive him on 
his Back, as if he was fenfible who it was he car- 
ry'd. The King therefore being tranfported with 
Anger and Grief, even beyond what was decent , 
order'd his Horfe to be fought after, and gave the 
Barbarians to underftand by an Interpreter, that if 
they did not reftore htm, not one of them jhould 
efcape alive. This Declaration fo terrify'd them , 
that they not only reftor'd the Horfe, but made 
him alfo other Prefents. However, this did not 
appeafe the Kings Anger, fo that he commanded 
the Woods te-ke^ cut down, and cans' d Earth to be 
br n wht to fill up^the hollow Part of the intricate 
Covert. The W ork was pretty well advanc'd , 
when the Barbarians flefpairing of their being able 
to defend the Countrey, furrender'd themfelves to 
the King, who receiving Hoftages from them, ap- 
pointed Phradates to be their Governor, and on 
the fifth Day return'd from thence to his Camp, 
where having confer'd on Artabazji* double the 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 331 

Honour Darius had beftow'd on him, he fent him 

Then he continu'd his March to the City of 
Hyrcania, where he was no fooner arriv'd than 
Narbarzanes yielded himfelf to the King upon his 
Parole, making him at the fame time very noble 
Prefents ; lamong the reft was Bagoas, an Eunuch, 
who was in the flower of his Youth , and had 
been familiarly us'd by Bariiu formerly, and was 
now by Alexander; it was chiefly at this Eunuch's 
intreaty that he pavdon'd Narbarzanes. 

The Nation of the Amazons (as we faid be- 
fore) borders upon Hyrcania, and inhabits the 
Plains of Themifeyra, along the River Thermodoon. 
Thaleftris was the Name of their Queen , who 
had in her Subjection all the Countrey that lies 
between Mount Caucasus, and the River Phafis. 
This Queen was come out of her Dominions in- 
flam'd with a defire to fee Alexander ; and being 
advanc'd pretty near the Place where he was, fhe 
fent Meffengers before to acquaint him , that the 
6}ueen was coming to have the fati&f ac~lion of feeing 
and converfmg with him : Having obtain'd admit- 
tance, fhe commanded the reft of her Followers 
to ftay behind, and taking with her three hundred 
of her Female Militants, fhe advanc'd. As foon 
as fhe came within fight of the King, fhe leap'd 
from her Horfe, holding two Javelins in her right 
Hand. The Amazons Apparel does not cover all 
their Bodies, for their left Side is naked down to 
the Stomach, nor do the Skirts of their Garments 
( which they tie up in a knot ) reach below their 
Knees. They preierve their left Breaft intire that 
they may be able to fuckle their Female OfF-fpring, 
and they cut oft and fear their Right, that they 
may draw their Bows, and likewife caft their Darts 
with the greater eafe. Thaleftris Iook'd at the 
King with an undaunted Countenance, and nar- 

33^ Quintus Curtius. BookVI. 

rowly view'd his Perfon, which did not come up 
to the Fame of his great Exploits ; for the Bar- 
barians have a great Veneration for a majeftical 
Prefence, eiteeming them only capable of per- 
forming great Aftions, whom Nature has favour'd 
with an extraordinary Perfonage. Being afk'd by 
the King, Whether Jhe had any thing to defire of 
him ? She did not boggle to tell him, That her 
Errand was to have Children by him, jhe being wor- 
thy to bring him Heirs to his Dominions ; as for 
the lemale Sex, Jhe would retain that herfelf, and 
refiore the Male to the lather. Hereupon A- 
lexander alVd her," J/* fie would accompany him in 
his JVars ? To which fhe excus'd herfelf, with her 
having left no Body to take care of her Kingdom. 
Her Paflion being greater than the Kings, oblig'd 
him to flay here a little while, fo that he enter- 
tain'd her thirteen Days to gratifie her Defire ; af- 
ter which fie return' d to her Kingdom, and the 
King march' d into Parthiene. 


HERE £*gave aLoofe to all hisPafftons, and 
laying afide his Continency and Moderation 
(winch are eminent Vermes in an exalted For- 
tune) deliver'd himfelf up to Voluptuoufnefs and 
Pride. He now iook'd upon the Manners! Drefs, 
and wholefome Discipline of the Kings of Mace- 
don, as things beneath his Grandure, and there- 
fore emulated the Perfian Pomp, which feera'd to 
vie with the Majeftyof the Gods themfelves. He 
began to fufFer the Conquered of fo many Nations 
to proftrate themfelves on the Ground, and worftiip 
him, and hop'd by degrees to enure 'em to fer- 
vile Offices, and make them like Slaves. He 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 333 

wore about his Head a purple Diadem, intermix'd 
with white, and took the Perfian Habit, without 
fearing the Omen of parting out of the Drefs and 
diftinguiftiing Tokens of the Conqueror, into thofe 
of the Conquer'd ; nay, he would fay himfelf, 
that he wore the Perfian Spoils, but the misfortune 
was, that he at the fame time imbib'd their Man- 
ners, for the outward Magnificence of Apparel 
was follow'd by an inward Infolence of Mind. And 
notwithstanding he Rill feal'd thofe Letters he fent 
into Europe with his ufual Seal, yet he afnYd that 
of Darius to all thofe he fent into Afia ; it ap- 
pearing plain from thence, that one Mind was not 
capable of the Fortune of both : He oblig'd alfo 
his Friends, hi* Captains and chief Officers of hi* 
Army to Drefs after the Perfian manner; andtho* 
within themfelves they deipis'd the lame, yet they 
did not dare to refufe complying, for fear of in- 
curring his difpleafure. The fame Number of 
Concubines that Darius had, viz.. three hundred 
and flxty, fUl'd the Royal Palace, and thefe were 
attended by Crowds of Eunuchs, who were them- 
felves accuftom'd to fupply the place of Women. 
The old Soldiers who had ferv'd under Philip, pub- 
licity detefted this Luxury, and foreign Exceffes, 
as being altogether ftrangers to fuch Voluptuouf- 
nefs, mfomuch that it was the General talk 
throughout the Camp, That more zvas loft by the 
Victory than gain 'd by the War , fince they might 
properly be faid to be conquer d themfelves, zvhen 
they were thus enjlavd to foreign Cuftoms and Man- 
ners ; and, in fine, all the B.ezvard they were like 
to receive for their long abfence from their native 
Countrey, zvas to return Home in captive Habits : 
That it zvas high time for 'em to be afljamd of 
themfelves, zuhen they faw their King affecl to re- 
femble rather the Conquer'd than the Conquerors , 
and of King of Macedonia become one of Darius'* 
Satraps, As 

334 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

As Alexander was not ignorant that his Beha- 
viour difpleas'd his chiefeft and belt Friends, as 
well as his Army in general, he endeavour'd to 
recover their Affection by his Liberality and Boun- 
ty, but the Rewards of Servitude are always dif- 
agreeable to free and noble Souls ; that therefore 
the Diicontent might not break out into Sedition, 
he thought it advifeable to put an end to thefe 
Effects of Idlenefs by the Toils of Wars. ■ 

Befits had now affum'd the Royal Robes, and 
order'd himfelf to be call'd Artaxerxes, and was 
.gathering together the Scythians, and the other 
Inhabitants along the Tana'u. Satibarzanes was 
the PerTon that gave him this Account, whom he 
had taken into his Protection, confirming to him 
the Government he held before. But finding his 
Army heavy laden with rich Spoils, and other 
Materials of Luxury, which was a great hindrance 
to their Expedition in their Movements, He firft 
order'd his own Baggage to be brought into the middle 
of the Plain , and then that of all the reft of the 
Army, excepting only what xvas abfoltttely necef- 
fary. The Plain into which the laden Carriages 
were brought, was very fpacious and large : Every 
one now impatiently expecting what would be 
his next command, he order'd the Cattle to be ta- 
ken away, and then fetting fire to his own Bag- 
gage, he commanded the reft to do the like to theirs. 
It was a great Mortification to fet fire themfelves 
to thofe things they had fo often refcu'd from 
the Flames the Enemy had kindled todeftroy 'em; 
yet no Body dar'd to lament the lofs of the re- 
ward of his Blood, feeing the Kings Furniture 
underwent the fame Fate. This done, Alexander 
made a (hort Speech to 'em which alleviated their 
Grief, and they were now pleas'd to find them- 
felves more fit for the Service of the War, and 
more ready upon all Occailons, rejoicing, That 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 335* 

by the lofi of their Baggage , they had prefervd their 
Difcipline. They therefore began their March to- 
wards Battriana ; but Nicanor, Parmenio's Son be- 
ing fnatch'd away by fudden Death, was a great 
Affliction to the whole Army. The King was 
more griev'd thereat than any Body , and would 
fain have ftopt there fome time, that he might 
be prefent at the Funeral himlelf, but the fcarcity 
of Provifions oblig'd him to haften his March ; 
leaving therefore Philotas with two thoufand ftx 
hundred Men to perform the funeral Rites to his 
Brother, he with the reft of the Army advanc'd 
towards Befits. As he was upon his March, he 
receiv'd Advice from the Neighbouring Satraps, 
that BeJJus was advancing towards him with an 
Army in a hollile manner ; and that Satibarzanes, 
whom he had lately confirm'd in his Govern- 
ment over the Arians , was alfo revolted from 

Hereupon, notwithstanding he was intent upon 
BeJJus , y^t judging it more advifable to fupprefs 
Satibarzanes firlt, he took with him the light arm'd 
Foot, and the Cavalry, and marching with the ut- 
moft diligence all the Night , he came unexpect- 
edly upon him. Satibarzanes being inform'd of 
his Arrival , took along with him two thoufand 
Horfe ( for a greater Number could not be got to- 
gether in the Hurry and Confufion he was in) 
fled to Battriana; the reft of his Party fav'd them- 
felves in the neighbouring Mountains. There was 
a Rock which towards the Weft was very fteep, 
but to the Eaftward was of a more eafie and gentle 
Defcent, being cover'd with Wood, and having 
a Fountain from whence the Water ran in great 
abundance ; it was two and thirty Furlongs in 
Circumference, the top of it was a green Plain. 
Here they plac'd the ufelefs Multitude, while they 
employ'd themfelves in calling Stocks of Trees and 
2 great 

33^ Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

great Stones upon the Enemy. They were about 
thirteen thouiand Men in Arms. 

Alexander having left Craterus to continue the 
Siege of the Rock, made all the hafte he could to 
overtake Satibarzanes, but underftanding he had 
gain'd too much Ground of him, he return'd to 
the Siege of thofe who had polled themfelves on 
the Mountains. At hk Arrival he commanded 
the Army to clear that part of the Way to the Rock, 
which was any wife -practicable ; but when this 
was done, impaflabie Rocks and Precipices pre- 
fented themfelves afrefli, fo that their Labour 
feem'd to be loft, where Nature it felf oppos'd the 
Undertaking: However, as his Mind was fram'd 
to ftruggle with the greateft Difficulties, finding it 
was impoffible to advance, and dangerous to re- 
tire back ; he apply'd his Thoughts to all manner 
of Contrivances, and he no looncr rejected one, 
but his Mind fuggefted him another. As he w.v- 
ftill labouring to find out an Expedient for his Pur- 
pofe , Nature fuppiy'd the deficiency of Reafon. 
The Wind was Weftward, and blew very frefli, 
and the Soldiers had cut down a great deal of 
Wood, thereby to open themfelves aPafiage thro' 
the Rocks, and the vehement heat of the Sun had 
dry'd the Wood. Alexander therefore caus'd a 
great Pile to be made that the Fire might not 
want Fuel to nourifh it ; at laft fo many Trees 
were heap'd upon one another that they equall'd 
in highth the top of the Mountain ; then he or- 
der'dthis huge Pile to be fet on Fire on all fides : 
The Wind carry'd the Flame into the Enemies 
Faces, and the Smoke, like a black Cloud , dar- 
ken'd the very Skies ; the Woods rung with the 
crackling caus'd by the Flames, which were now no 
longer confin'd to the Soldiers Pile, but communi- 
cated themfelves to the next growing Trees. The 
Barharians, to avoid the greateft of Torments, en- 
2 deavour'd 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 337 

deavour'd to make their efcape thro 1 any part of 
the Wood that was not yet on fire ; but where 
the Flame yet granted them a Tallage the Ene- 
my was ready to receive them, lb that there was 
a horrible kind of variety in their manner of pe- 
riQiing; fome caft themfelves into the middle of the 
Flames, and fome flung themfelves headlong from 
the Rocks , while others expos'd themfelves to 
the fury of the Soldiers; a few that were half con- 
fum'd with Fire, were taken Prifoners. 

From hence Alexander return'd to Craterus, 
who was at prefent befieging Artacacna , he had 
prepar'd every thing for the Kings Arrival, and 
waited only for his coming, to refign to him ( as 
decency requir'd) the Honour of taking the 
Town. Alexander therefore order'd the Towers 
to be advanc'd to the Walls of the Place, at the 
fight whereof the Barbarians were feiz'd with 
fuch a Confirmation, that extending their Hands 
upon the Walls in a fuppliant manner , they in- 
treated him to turn his Anger upon Satibarzanes, 
the Author of the Defeffion, and grant them his 
Pardon, who laid themfelves at his Mercy, Here- 
upon the King not only pardon'd them, but rais'd 
the Siege, and reftor'd to the Inhabitants all that 
belong'd to 'em. Upon his leaving this Place, he 
was met by a frefh fupply of Recruits : Zoilus 
brought with him out of Greece five hundred 
Horfe, and Antipater had fent three thoufand 
more from Illy rium ; Philip had like wife with 
him one hundred and thirty TheJJ'alian Troop- 
ers ; there came alfo from Lydia two thoufand 
fix hundred Foot and three hundred Horfe of the 
fame Nation. Being reinfore'd with thefe Troops 
he advanc'd into the Countrey of the Drang*, who 
are a warlike Nation, and were at this time un- 
der the Government of Barzae?itei,\\ho was con- 
cern' d with Befits in the Treafon agaimt Darius 
Vol. I. Q This 

3 3 8 Quintus Curtius. Book VI 

This Traitor, to avoid the Punimment due to his 
Crime, was fled to India. 


HERE the King had encamp' d during nine Days, 
andakho' /^wasa Prince of undaunted Re- 
iolution, and had {hewn himfelf invincible, yet he 
had like to have been taken off by domeftick 

Dymnm was a Man who had none of the great- 
eft Intereft at Court, and entertain'd at this time 
an unwarrantable Paffion for a difcarded Eunuch 
call'd NichomachiM, being intirely fubdu'd there- 
by, thinking he ingrofs'd him to himfelf; coming 
therefore to the Youth at a certain time like 
one aftoniftYd (as might be perceiv'd by his Coun- 
tenance) he took him privately into a Temple, 
and told him, He bad Secrets of the greateji impor- 
tance to impart to him ; and as the Eunuch was 
very attentive to what he faid, Dymnus conjur'd 
him by their mutual Loz>e, and rhe Pledges they 
had given each other thereof to give him the San- 
ftion of a folemn Oath , that he would never re- 
veal zvhat he JJjould impart to him. Nichomachus 
thinking he would communicate nothing to him 
after fo religious a manner that could be Perjury 
in him to difclofe, fwore by the Gods there prefent, 
that he would not. Upon this afTurance Dymnus 
told him, There was a Confpiracy againfi the King 
which would be put in Execution in three Days , 
and that he himfelf was concern d therein , with 
feveral other brave Men of the fir ft Rank, The 
young Man had no fooner heard this than he let 
him underfland, He had not given his Faith to 
conceal fo black a Treafon, and that no Religion 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 339 

could bind him to Secrefie in a Crime^df that Na- 
ture. Hereupon Dymnus was in a manner di- 
ffracted between Love and Fear, and taking the 
Eunuch by the Hand , with Tears in his Eyes, 
firft intreated him to be concern d in the Enterprise, 
or if he could not do that, at leajl that he would 
not betray him, of whofe Affeclion , among other 
Inftances, he had this firong Proof, that he entrujl- 
ed him with his Life. 

The Youth perfifting in an obftinate abhorrence 
of the Defign , Dymnm threaten'd to kill him , 
telling him, The Confpirators would begin their glo- 
rious Undertaking with his Death ; fometimes he 
call'd him effeminate Coward, and fometimes be- 
trayer of his Friend. Then he try'd to move him 
by large Promifes, even that of a Kingdom, but 
finding him no way to be prevail'd upon, he drew 
his Sword and put it fometimes to the Eunuch's 
Throat, and fometimes to his own, fo that at laft, 
what with Threats , and what with Intreaty, he 
brought him to promife not only to keep the Secret, 
hut alfo to be concern d in the Execution -thereof : 
Notwithftanding which, his Mind adher'd firmly 
to its firft Refolution, (hewing himfelf thereby 
worthy to have been Vertuous and Chafte. How- 
ever, he feign'd. himfelf fo enflavd by his Love 
for Dymnus, that he could refufe him nothing, and 
then defir'd to know, Who were his Partners m 
this Undertaking, for he faid, it was of the greatefi 
Importance with whom he embark 'd in a Defign of 
this Nature. 

Dymnus, who was infatuated with his Paffion 
and Crime, return'd him Thanks, and at the fame 
time congratulated him, That being himfelf a brave. 
Touth, he did not fcruple to aff'ociate himfelf with 
Demetrius, one of the Kings Guards, Peucolaus 
and Nicanor ; he added to thefe Aphaebetus, Lo- 
ceus, Dioxenus and Amyntas. Nichomachw, af- 
Q * ter 

34*0 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

ter this (being difmiVd by him) immediately re- 
pair'd to his Brother Cebalmm, and imparted to 
him what he had heard. It was agreed between 
'em, that the Informer fiiould remain in the Tent 
for fear if he flwuld be feen in the King's Jippart- 
?i:cnt, not being us'd to have admittance there, the 
Confpirators ji)ctdd conclude they were betray d. 
Ceballinus himfelf waited without the Porch (not 
being allow'd a nearer accefs, ) expecting the co- 
ming in or out of ibme of thofe who were fa- 
miliar with the King, to introduce him to his Ma- 
jefty. It happen'd that Philotas , Parmenio's Son, 
upon fome unknown Account, remain'd laft with 
the King ; Cebalinus therefore (at his coming 
ouO with all the outward marks of Grief and 
Difturbance, communicated to him what his Bro- 
ther had told him, and begg'd of him to acquaint 
the King therewith as foon as pojfible. Philotas 
commending his Fidelity, immediately went back 
to the King, and having difcours'd with him on feve- 
ral other things, did not fo much as mention what 
Cebalinus had infonn'd him of. At Night as Philo- 
was coming out of the Palace, the young Man 
who waited for him in the Porch, afk'd him, Whe- 
ther he had acquitted htmfelf of h 'vs Promife , in 
reference to zuhat he had intruded him -with. Phi- 
lotas excus'd himfelf to him, and told him, that 
i the King was fo taken up with other Affairs that 
he had not had an opportunity to do it. Cebalinus 
therefore attended again the next Day, and as 
PhilotM was going to the King, he put him in 
mind of what he had told him the Day before, and 
Phihtas promis'd him afrefli to take care of it ; 
however, he did not then neither acquaint the 
King therewith. Cebalinus hereupon began to 
diftruft him , and thinking it to no purpofe to 
trouble him any farther, he addrefs'd himfelf 
to Metron Mafier of the Kings Armory, and 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 341 

imparted to him what he had told Philottu. Me- 
tron immediately hid Cebalinus in the Armory, 
and repair'd to the King (who was then bathing 
himl elf ) and inform d him of what he had heard. 
The King preiently lent Guards to feize Dymnus, 
and then came into the Armory, whom as foon 
as Cebalinu* faw , tranfported with joy he told 
him, He -was glad he had found a means to fave 
him from the zuicked Defigns of his Enemies. A- 
lexander having duly inquir'd into the whole mat- 
ter, alk'd Cebalinus, How long it was fince Ni- 
chomachus had given him this Information ? To 
which he anfvver'd, That it zvas now the third 
Bay. Alexander concluding, that he could not 
conceal it fo long without being guilty himfejf , 
commanded him to be fecur'd; but Cebalinus de- 
claring loudly, That the Moment he heard of tt , 
he had acquainted Philotas therewith, of which hit 
Majefty might be fatisfy d if he afled Philotas him- 
felf : The King farther inquir'd, Whether hi had 
prel'd Philotas to impart it to him ? which Ceba- 
linus affirming to have done , Alexander lining 
his Hand to Heaven, with Tears in his Eyes com- 
plain'd highly of the Ingratitude of the Per/on 
whom he had honour d with the firft place in his 

In the mean time Dymnus, w 7 ho was not ig- 
norant on what Account he was fent for by the 
King, wounded himlelf grievoufly with his Sword, 
but being hinder'd by the Guards from killing hinv 
felf outright, they brought him to the Palace, 
where the King fixing his Eyes upon him, faid to 
him , What great Mi f chief have I done to thee, 
Dymnus, that Philotas fhould feemto thee worthier 
of the Kingdom of Macedon than my felf ? Dym~ 
nuis Speech now fail'd him, fo that giving a great 
Groan, and turning his Face from the King, he 
fell down- dead. 

Q 3 The 

342* Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

The King afterwards fent for Philotas, who be- 
ing come, he faid to him, That Cebalinus, who 
would deferve the worfi of Punifhments if he jhould 
have conceal'd two L}ays together the Knowledge of 
a Confpiracy againfl \&y Life, cafis the blame upon 
Philotas, to whom, he fays' , he immediately gave an 
Account thereof : The eafie accefi you have to my 
Perfon makes your Guilt the greater, if you zvink id 
at it; and, I mufl own, it would have better become 
Cebalinus than you to have been fo negligent in a 
matter of that Confequence. Tou have a favourable 
Judge if you can with Juflice deny what you ought 
not to have committed. To this Philotas, without 
the leaft fign of Fear, as far as could be perceiv'd 
by his Countenance, reply'd, That it zuas true Ce- 
balinus had acquainted him with the regardlefi In- 
formation of a forry Catamite, zvhich the inconfi- 
derablenefi of the Author made him think not wor- 
thy of Credit, fince he thought he jhould by fuch a 
difcovery only expofe himfelf to the laughter of the 
more judicious. However, fince Dymnus had kil- 
ied himfelf, hozv groundlefi foever the Account might 
be, he ozvnd it ought not to have been conceal'd; 
then embracing the King, he beggd of him to have 
a greater regard to his pafi Life, than to a Fault 
which conftfled only in filence, and not in any matter 
of Tafl. 1 cannot determine whether the King 
really credited what he faid, or only fupprefs'd his 
Anger , but it is certain he gave him his Right 
Hand as a Pledge of his being reconcil'd to him, 
and told him, He looked upon him rather to have 
defpisd the Information than conceal'd it. 


BookVI. Quintus Curtius. 343 


THIS did not however hinder the King from, 
calling a Council of his Friends, to which 
Philotas was not fummon'd, and N.chomachus was 
brought before 'em. Here he related all that he 
had told the King. Crateras was of the Number 
of thoie the King had the greater!: Elteem for, and 
on that account, fomewhat jealous of Philotas s 
Intereft. Moreover, he was not infenfible, that 
Philotas had often tir'd the Kings Ears with ex- 
travagant Exaggerations of his Behaviour and Ser- 
vice, who tho' he did not on that fcore fufpecl: him 
to be evilly difpos'd, yet he thought him a little 
too arrogant. Craterus therefore thinking he could 
not have a more favourable Opportunity to fup- 
prefs his Rival, covering his Hatred with the fpe- 
cious Appearance of Zeal and Piety, faid, Would 
to God, Sir, you had deliberated with us at firfi> 
concerning this Affair ; we had then endeavoured to 
perfuade you ( if you were refolvd to pardon Philo- 
tas) to have let him remain d in Ignorance, how 
much he zvas indebted to you, rather than (having 
brought him in Year of his Life) force him to make 
deeper Reflections on his own Danger, than on. 
your Goodnefl. For he may alzvays have it in hi? 
Power to confpire againft you, though you may not 
always be able to pardon him. Do not therefore 
imagine, that he who dard to undertake fo foul a 
Crime, can be alter d in his Difpofition by a Par- 
don : He knows very well, that they who by un- 
pardonable Vaults have exhaufled your Mercy, have 
no room left to hope for it any more. And admit- 
ting he may be alter d by Repentance, or overcome 
by your Clemency ; yet I am fure his Father Par- 
menio, who has the Command of fo great an Ar~ 
Q 4 »9fc 

344 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

my, and is in fo confirm d a Credit zuith the Sol- 
diers ; in fine,jwho in point of Authority with them, 
is little infer tor to your fie If , will not be very zvcll 
pleas' d to ftand indebted to you for the Life of his 
Son. There are fame Kindnefies which we hatre\ a 
Man is ahvays ajhamd to confefi he .has deferv'd 
Death. He would therefore rather have the World 
think you have done him an Injury, than given him 
his Life. From whence I infer, that you will le 
f 'jrc'd to contend with them for your Safety. There 
fire fi'll Enemies enow to encounter zvith ; fiecurg 
therefore your Perfion againfi dome/lick Treafons : 
Thefe once rcmovd, I fear no foreign Evil. This 
was Crater y-;;'s Sentiment. The reft were alfo of 
Opinion , He would never have fiijled a Dificovery 
of that Moment, unlefs he were either principal m 
the Co?ifipiracy, or an Accomplice : For, faid they, 
who that had the leaft Spark of Piety, or good Difi- 
pojition, {though he zvere not of the Band of your- 
Friends, as he teas, but of the Dregs of the People) 
having heard what he had beed told, would not 
have prefently run to the King, and acquainted him 
therewith ? But he who zvas Parmenio'* Son, Ge- 
neral of the Horfie, and privy to the King's mofi fie- 
cret Affairs, could not fo much as imitate -Cebalinus'j 
Example, who the Moment he zvas inform d by his 
Brother of the Danger, came and declard the fame 
to him, nay, he was fo far from detecling the Mif- 
chief himfielf, that he pretended the King was not 
at leifure, for fear the Informer fijould addrefi him- 
felf to fome Body elfe, and fo the Villany might come 
to light. Nichomachus, notwithstanding his Oath 
to the Gods, made all the hafle he could to dificharge 
his Confidence ; but Philotas having pafisd the befi 
part of the Day in Merriment zvith the King, could 
not find in his Heart to add to his other long, and 
perhaps fiuperfiuous Dificourfies, a fezv Words of the 
gt eat eft Moment and Importance to the Kings Safe- 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 345- 

ly. But admit, fay they, that he did not give Credit 
to the Report, on the account of the Youth of the In- 
formers, What then made him keep 'em in Sufpence 
for two Days, as if he had believ'd it? Certainly 
he ought to have difmifs'd Cebaiinus, if he flighted 
his Information. Every Man in his own private- 
Peril, may rely upon his Bravery and Courage, but 
where the Kings Safety is in Danger, we ought 
there to be credulous, and not defpife even falfe Dis- 
coveries. They all therefore agreed, he ought to 
be compell'd to declare his Confederates. The 
King having commanded them not to divulge the 
Matter, difmifs'd them. And that he might not 
give the leaft Sufpicion of his new Meafures, he 
gave publick Notice , that the Army mould de- 
camp the next Day. He alfo invited Philotas to 
his laft Supper, and vouchfaf d not only to eat, 
but alfo to converfe familiarly with him he had 
already condemned. 

At the fecond Watch, Hephcflion, Craterus; C&- 
mts and Erigyius, of the Band of his Friends, and 
Perdiccas and Leonatus his Efquires, attended by a 
few others enter'd the Palace without Lights, and 
prefently gave Orders to the Guards, to be arm'd 
all the Time they were upon Duty. Soldiers were 
now planted at all the Avenues, and fome Horie 
were order'd to guard the Roads, that- no Body 
might efcape to Parmenio, who was then Gover- 
nor of Media, and had the Command of a great 
Army. Attarras at this time enter'd the Palace 
with three hundred arm'd Men, unto whom were 
appointed ten of thofe that had the Guard of the 
King's Perfon, who were every one follow'd by ten 
of thofe call'd Men at Arms. Thefe were fent to 
feize the otherConfpirators, zndAttarras going with' 
three hundred Men to take Philotas, made choice 
of rifty of the moft refolute amongft 'em, and 
broke open his Door, having plac'd the reft rouiui 

Q 5 tkr 

3 46 Quintus Curtius . Book VI. 

the Houfe, to prevent his making his Efcape. But 
Philotas was in a profound Sleep, either from the 
Confcioufnefs of his Tnnocency, or from fome Fa- 
tigue , fo that Attarras feiz'd him in that Condi- 
tion. Being now awak'd, as they were putting him 
in Chains, he cry'd out, The Bittemefs of my Ene- 
mies Malice, O King , has overcome thy Goodnefs. 
Having utter'd thefe Words, they cover'd his Head, 
and brought him to the Palace. The next Day 
the King commanded the Macedonians to appear 
at the Palace with their Arms ; they amounted to 
about fix thoufand Men, befides a Crowd of Rab- 
ble and Camp Followers. The Men at Arms con- 
ceal'd Philotas amongft their Body, that he might 
not be feen publickly, till the King had fpoke to 
the Soldiers ; it being an ancient Cuftom with the 
Macedonians ; for the Army to judge of capital 
Crimes in Time of War, and the People in time 
of Peace, fo that the Kings Power fignifyd nothing 
unlefs he firft perfuaded them of his Opinion. Bym- 
nus his Body was firft brought before 'em, the 
major part being ignorant what was his Crime, or 
how he came to be kill'd. 


THIS being done, the King came out to the 
Army, carrying in his Countenance all the 
Tokens of an afflicted Mind, the general Sadnefs 
of all his Friends at the fame time, gave them no 
Imall Expectation of the Event. The King re- 
main'd fome time with his Eyes fix'd on the Ground, 
as if he was aftonmYd and difmay'd. At laft re- 
covering his Spirits, he expreft himfelf thus. / had 
like, Soldiers, to have been fnatch'd from you by the 
-wicked Contrivance of a few Perfons. It is by the 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 347 

Providence and Mercy of the Gods, that J am noxv 
alive. Tour venerable Afpecl inflames my Anger 
/till the more,, againft the execrable Parricides ; for 
the greateft, nay, the only Advantage I propofe to 
my felf from Life, is , that I am ahle to return 
Thanks to fo many gallant Men, who have deferv'd 
well of me. Here he was interrupted by the Sol- 
diers Lamentations, and every Body's Eyes were 
now fill'd with Tears. Then continuing his Speech, 
he faid, If zvhat I have already told you, raifes fuch 
Emotions in you, how much greater /hall I excite,, 
when I jhew you the Authors of this horrible De- 
fign ? I tremble at the mentioning of 'em, and as if 
it were ftill pojfible to fave 'em, I am unwilling to 
declare their Names. However, I muft overcome 
my former Friend/hip for 'em, and let you know who^ 
thefe impious Wretches are : For which way can I 
conceal fo abominable a Crime? Know then, Sol- 
diers, that Parmenio in his advancd Age , loaded 
with my Father s and my Favours, and the mofi 
ancient of all my Friends , is the chief Leader in 
this detejiable Enterprise, and Philotas has been his 
Injlrument to corrupt Peucolaus, Demetrius, and 
Dymnus (yjhofe Body lies there before you) a?id fe- 
veral others equally mad, to be Partners with him 
in taking away my Life. At thefe Words the 
whole Camp was in an Uproar, complaining with 
the utmoft Indignation , againft the deteftable 
Plot, after the manner of Soldiers when they are 
either mov'd by Affection or Anger. Then Ni- 
chomachus, Metron, and Cebalinus were produe'd, 
and each declar'd to the Army their refpe&ive In- 
formations. But not one of them in his Evidence, 
eharg'd Philotas to have any Hand in the Con- 
fpiracy ; fo that the Anger of the AfTembly being 
appeas'd, they remain'd lilent after the Informers 
Declaration. But the King immediately ailed 'em,. 
What his Defign could be, who could fupprefs an 
Q 6 ^formation. 

348 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

Information of this Nature ? That it was not ill 
grounded, appear d fufficiently from Dy minis'* kil- 
ling him [elf : And Cebalinus as uncertain as he 
11' as of the Truth of the matter, did not refufe, be- 
ing torturd to verify he had receivd fuch an Account 
from his Brother ; and Metron did not delay one Mo- 
ment to difcharge himjelf of the Truft repos d in him, 
infomuch that he broke into the Place where I was 
bathing. Philotas was the only Perfon amongfi 'em 
all that feard nothing, nor believ'd any thing. What 
a Hero is this ! Had he been touched tvith the Dan- 
ger of his Sovereign, would he have heard it un- 
movd, without the leaf: Token of Concern ? Would 
b-e not have lent an attentive Ear to an Accufation 
of that Importance ? The Matter is this, his Crime 
lay lurking under his Silence, and the greedy Hopes 
cf a Kingdom, drove him headlong, on the worfl of 
Villanies.. His Father commands in Media, and he 
himfelf is in that powerful Station v/ith me, that 
relying o?i his Interefl with my Officers, he afpired 
to greater Things than he was capable of. I fup- 
pofe my having no JfJ'ue, made him defpife me. But 
Philotas is mifaken, for you your felves are my 
Children, Parents, and Relations: While you are 
fafe, I cannot be dejiitute of either. After this, he 
read to 'em an intercepted Letter of Parmenio's 
to his Sons Nicanor and Philotas, which certainly 
did not contain in exprefs Terms, any cnminal 
Matter: For the Subftance of it was this: Tirft 
take Care of your felves, and then of thofe under 
you : By thefe Means we flail ccmpafs our Dejires. 
Here the King took notice, That he writ after this 
obfeure manner,, that if it came fafe to his Sons, it 
might be under food by their Accomplices , and m 
cafe it was intercepted, it might deceive the igno- 
rant. But it may be objected, that Dymnus in his 
Vifcovery of the Confpirators, made no mention of 
Philotas ; Tet this it felf is not Jo much an Argu- 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 349 

ment of his Innocency, as of his Power; for it ftjezvs 
he was fo much fear d even by thofe he might have 
betray' d, that at the fame time they confefs them- 
felves guilty, they don't fo much as dare to name 
him. However Fliilotas's Life fufficiently detects 
him. For when Amyntas my Kinfman, confpird 
againft me in Macedonia, he was not only privy to 
it, but alfo a Confederate. Moreover, he marry d 
his Sifter to Attalus, than whom I have not had a 
greater Enemy : And when I writ to him, out of 
Familiarity and Friendjhip, to acquaint him with 
the Report of the Oracle of Jupiter Hammon, he 
made no Scruple to return me this Anfiver, That 
he rejoicd I w'a* received into the Number of the 
Gods, yet he could not but pity thofe who were to 
live under a Prince that exceeded the Condition of 
Man. Thefe are plain Indications , that his Mind 
has been long ftnee. alienated from me, and that he 
envied my Glory. Notwithftanding all thefe Pro- 
vocations, Soldiers, I have endeavour d to put a good 
■ Ccnftruclion upon 'em as long as I could. For I 
thought itzvas rending fome part of my Bovoels from 
me, to difcard thofe I had heafd fo many Favours 
upon. . But the Cafe is alter d, it is no longer Wordr 
me ha ve to refent : The Temerity of the Tcngue has 
proceeded to the. Execution of the Siuord r which if 
you dare believe mc , Philotas has been fharpening 
againft me. If he. has, been guilty of the fe Things, 
Whither /hall j fly* Soldiers .? Whom fhall I intruft 
with my Life? I made him General of my Cavalry , 
which is the chiefeft part of my Army, and plac'd 
him at the Head of the noble ft Youth in Europe : I 
committed to his Cuftody my Safety, Hopes, and Vi- 
ctories. Befides ail which, I have advancd. his Far- 
ther to the fa?ne pitch of Grandure almoft to zvhich 
you have rais'd my felf ': I have made him Gover- 
nor of Media, than ivhich there is not a richer 
Countrey, and have mtrufted him with the Com- 

3 jo Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

mand of fo many considerable Cities, fo many thou- 
fands of our AJJ'ociates : From whence I expetted up- 
on Occafion, my chiefeft Support, Soldiers, I have 
found the greateft Danger. HOw much happier had 
I been, had I fallen in Battel a Prey to my Enemies, 
rather than the Vittim of a Citizen ! But I have 
efcap'd thofe Bangers which I only fear d, and have 
fallen into thofe I did not in the leaft fufpecl. Tou 
have frequently exhorted me, Soldiers, to take Care 
of my Safety : It lies in your Power now to fecure 
it, zvhatever you advife me to Til do. It is to your 
felves, and your Arms, I have recourfe for my Pro- 
tettion ; I would not be fafe againft your Wills, and 
if you defire I fhould, 1 cannot be fo unlefs you vin- 
dicate my Caufe. 

Hereupon he order'd Philotas to be brought 
forth, he had his Hands ty'd behind him, and his 
Head cover'd with an old Veil. It was eafily per- 
ceivable they were mov'd at fo lamentable a Dif- 
guife, tho' heretofore they us'd to behold him with. 
Envy. They had feen him the Day before, Ge- 
neral of the Horfe, they knew he had fupp'd with 
the King, and now on the fudden, they faw him 
not only accus'd, but condemn'd and bound. They 
alfo reflected on the hard Fortune of Parmenio, 
who was not only a great Captain, but an illuftri- 
ous Citizen, and had not only the Misfortune to 
lofe two of his Sons lately, viz.. Heclor and Nica- 
nar t but now flood accus'd in his Abfence, with 
the only Son he had left. 

Amyntas therefore perceiving the Multitude in- 
clin'd to Pity, endeavour'd to exafperate 'em again,, 
telling them, They were all betray d to the Barbari- 
ans ; that none of 'em would return to their Wives, 
their Countrey, or their Friends : That they fhould 
be like the Body without a Head, zvithout Life or 
Name, a mere Sport in a ft range Countrey, to their 
Enemies, This Speech was not fo acceptable to the 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 3^1 

King, as Amyntas expected ; becaufe, by putting 
them in Mind of their Wives and Countrey, it 
cool'd their Courage to after Expeditions. Then 
C&nus, notwithstanding he had marry'd Philotas s 
Sifter, inveigh'd againit him more than any Body, 
and declar'd him to be the Parricide of his King, 
Countrey, and of the zvhole Army, and taking up a 
Stone that lay at his Feet, was going to fling it at 
his Head, deiiring thereby as fome thought, to fe- 
cure him from future Torments; but the King 
laying hold of his Hand, hinder'd him, telling him, 
he ought to have the Liberty to plead, xvithout zvhich 
he would not fujfer him to be judgd. Philotas be- 
ing accordingly order'd to fpeak for himfelf, was 
fo ftupify'd, either from the Guilt of his Confer- 
ence, or the Greatnefs of the Danger he was in, 
that he could neither lift up his Eyes, nor fo much 
as utter the leaft Syllable, butburft out into Tears, 
and fainting away, fell into the Arms of him that 
held him. Afterwards having recover'd his Spi- 
rits and Speech, he wip'd away his Tears, and 
feem'd to prepare himfelf to fpeak. Then the 
King turning to him, faid, The Macedonians are to 
be your Judges : I defire to know, whether you de- 
fign to fpeak to 'em in your Countrey Language or 
not. To which Philotas reply'd, There are a great 
many others here befides the Macedonians, who l 
believe will underjiand me better, if I ufe the fame 
Tongue you your felf fpoke in> for no other Reafon> 
as I fuppofe, than that you might be underfiood by 
the greater Number. The King then bid 'em take 
notice, how he even hated his Countrey s Tongue, 
which no Body dtfdamd but himfelf. But let him 
ufe what Language he pleafes, fo you do but remem- 
ber that he equally abhors our Manners and our 
Speech. Which faid, he withdrew. 



35* Quintus Curtius. BookVI. 


THEN Philotas began. It is an eafie matter 
for the Innocent to find Words, but it is very 
hard for a Alan in Diftrefi to be moderate therein. 
So that betzueen the Innocence of my Confcience, and 
the Severity of my Fortune, I am at a jiand how to 
fuit my Difcourfe both to my Mind and Circum- 
fiances. He that is my properefl and beft Judge, has 
withdrazvn himfelf; why he zvould not hear what 
I had to fay, I cannot imagine, fince after he had 
heard both Parties , he had it JIM in his Power as 
zvell to condemn as abfolve me; whereas if he does 
not hear what I fay in my Defence, 1 cannot hope 
to be difchargd by him in his Abfence, who con- 
demn d me zvhile prefent. But notzuithjlanding 
the Defence of a Man in Chains, is not only fuper- 
fiuous, but alfo odious, fince it does not fo much in- 
form as feem to reprove his Judge. Yet in zvhat 
manner foever I am obligd to fpeak, I ft all. not de- 
fcrt my own Caufe, neither ftall I give any Body 
leave to fay, that I condemn d my felf What my 
Crime is I cannot tell, not one of the Confpirators 
fo much as names me : Nichomachus has given no 
Information againfi me, and Cebalinus could not know 
more than he had- been told. All which, notwithflan, - 
ing the King believes me to be the Contriver and 
chief Manager of the Confpiracy. Is it likely Dy na- 
nus zvould pafs over him, zvhofe Directions he fol- 
lozvd '■? More efpecially when being afk'd, who the 
Confederates were, I ought {tho falfly) to have been 
nam d, for the greater Encouragement of him who 
feemd to be afraid. . lor having difcover d the Plot, 
it cannot be thought he emitted my Name, that he 
might fpare an Accomplice ; For when he confefsd 

Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 35:3 

the matter to Nichomachus, zvho he thought would 
not divulge Secrets relating to himfeLf, he namd all 
the reft without making the leaft Mention of me. 
Pray, Brother Soldiers, if Cebalinus had not ad- 
drcfsd him f elf to me, and had had -no Mind I ftjould 
know' any thing of the Matter , Jhould I to Bay be 
making my Defence, without having been fo much 
as namd by any of the Informers? It is a very 
likely matter, that he that does not conceal himfelf, 
Jhould fpare me ! Calamity is fpightful, and moft 
com?nonly he that fujfers for his own Guilt, is well 
enough pleas' d that others fhcuid /hare the fame Tate. 
Shall fo many guilty Perfons , when put upon the 
Rack, refufe to tell the Truth ? It is obfervd, that 
no Body fpares him thai is to die, and for my party 
I believe he that is to die, fpares no Body. I mufi 
therefore come to my true Crime, and the only thing 
I. can be chargd with. Why did you then conceal 
the Treafon? Why did you hear it without any Con- 
cern ? Of vjhat Force foever this may be, you par- 
don d it, Alexander, upon my Confajjion , zvherever 
you are, and having given me your Right-hand as a 
Pledge of your Reconciliation, I was one of them that 
fupp'd with you that Night. If you believd zuhat 
if aid, I am clear d; if you pardon d me, I am dif- 
chargd. Stand at leaft to your ovjn judgment* 
What Crime have I committed fince lafl Night that I 
left your Table ? What new Crime have you been in- 
form d of to make you alter your Mind ? I was in 
a profound Sleep, not dreaming of my Misfortunes y 
zvhen my Enemies by their binding of me, wak'd me. 
Hozv came it to pafs, pray, that a Parricide and a 
Traitor, flept fo quietly ? For a guilty Confcience will 
not fuffer its zvicked Ozvners to be at reft. The Fu- 
ries diftracl their Minds, not only while they are 
contriving the Parricide, but even after they have, 
put it in Execution. My Security was grounded x 
firft upon my Innocency, and next on your Right- 

3?4 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

hand. I was not afraid other Peoples Cruelty fliould 
have mire Power with you than your ozvn Clemen- 
cy. Hozuever, that you may have no Keafon to re- 
pent you believed me, do but reflect that the Inform 
mation was brought to me by a Youth, zuho could 
bring no Witnefs, nor Security of the Truth of what 
he faidy and yet zvould have fill d the Palace with 
Apprehenfions had he been heard. Unhappy Man 
that I am ! I thought my Ears had been imposd up- 
on by a trifling Quarrel between the Lover and Lis 
Catamite ; and I diflrufled the Truth of the Infor- 
mation, becanfe he did not give it in himfelf, but 
fent it by his Brother. Befides, I could not tell but 
he might difozvn having fent Cebalinus on any f.ich 
Account, and then I fiould have been fufpetled to 
have contriv d it on purpofe to bring feveral of the 
King s Friends into Trouble. Thus although I have 
offended no Body, I have found Enemies that wifh 
my Ruine, rather than my Safety. How much ill 
Will fhould I have procurd my felf, had I provok'd 
fo many innocent Perfons ? But Dymnus killd him- 
felf ; it is true, hozvever I could not divine that he 
would do fo. From hence Vz; plain, that the only 
thing that gives Credit to the Information , was 
what I could not any way be tnovd with, when 
Cebalinus com?nunicated it to me. Again, had I 
been concern d with Dymnus in the abominable Trea- 
fon, I ought not to have dijfembld the Matter for 
two Days, when I knew zve zvere betray'd. It had 
been the eafiefl thing in the World to have difpatch'd 
Cebalinus out of the way. Bejides, after the Dif- 
covery of the Plot, I enter d into the Kings Cham- 
ber alone, and zvith my Szvord by my fide, Whtit 
then 'could be my Motive, not to put it in Execu- 
tion ? Did not I dare to go about it without Dym- 
nus ? At this rate, he muft be the chief Confpirator, 
find Philotas, who afpir d to the Kingdom of Ma- 
cedonia, depended on him. Noiv pray tell me your 


Book VI. Quintus Curtius. 35-5- 

/elves, which of you have 1 endeavour d to bring 
over to my Interefi ? What Leader or Command- 
er have I chiefly courted ? It has been objected to 
me, that I defpisd my native Language, and the 
Manners of the Macedonians. This I cannot but 
own would have been a ready way to have ob- 
tain d the Crown I am [aid to have thirfled after : 
You are all fenfible , that our own Language is al- 
moft out of ufe, by the long Converfation we have 
had with Foreigners, and the Conquerors, as well 
as the Vauquijh'd, have been obligd to learn a new 
Exprcjfion. Thefe Charges do not affect me any 
more than Amyntas'.? treafonable Practices againft 
the King , with whom I do not difown to have 
had a Friendfoip, but I cannot think my felf guil- 
ty on that Account, unlefi it be a Crime for us to 
love the Kings Brother : But if, on the contrary, 
we were obligd to refpett a Man in that high Sta- 
tion, pray tell me how I am guilty, fmce I could 
not divine it was flagitious ? Mufl the innocent 
Friends of the guilty be involvd in their Ruin ? 
If that be reafonable, why have I liv'd fo long ? 
If it be unreasonable, why mufl I now at lafl fuffer 
for it ? Oh! but I vjrit in my Letter, that I pi- 
ty d thofe who were to live under him, who be- 
liev'd himfelf Jupiter'* Son. It is true, and you 
'your felves forcd me not to conceal my Thoughts, 
1 do not deny that I writ thus to the King, but I 
did not write fo to any Body elfe of the King ; I 
therefore did not feek to create him ill Will, but on 
the contrary, I had a tender Care for him. I thought 
it was more worthy Alexander to be fatisfyd with- 
in himfelf of his divine Extraction, than to boafl 
of it publickly : And becaufe the Oracle is infal- 
lible, ill willingly rely on the Teflimony of the God. 
Let me be a Prifoner till Hammon is confulted a-r 
bout the fecret and myflerious Crime. Certainly he 
that has acknowledg'd our King for his Son, will 


$}6 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

not fujfer any that have cmfp'ird againft his Off- 
spring to remain undetected ; but if you look upon 
Torments to be more certain in this Cafe than the 
Oracle, I do not even refufe that Teftimony of my 
Innocency. It is ufual for thofe who are accus'd of 
capital Crimes to exhibit their Parents or next Re- 
lations as Pledges for them, but I have loft my two 
Brothers lately, and I cannot at this di fiance pro- 
duce my Father, neither dare I name him, ft nee he 
is equally accused with me ; for it feems it is not 
enough for him to be deprivd of fo many Children 
as he had, and to have but one left to comfort him 
in his eld Age, unlefs that be alfo taken from him, 
and he him f elf perijh with him in the fame Pile. 
Mufl you then , my dear Father, not only dye for 
me, but alfo with me ? I am the unhappy Wretch 
that take away your Life, and put a period to your 
eld Age ! Why did you beget me in the difpleafure 
cf the Gods ? I cannot determine whether my Youth 
be more miferable , or your gray Hairs : I am 
fnatch'd azvay in the bloom of my Tears, and the 
Executioner mufl put an end to your Days, whom 
the Courfe cf Nature would have taken out of the 
way, had Fortune had but a little patience. The 
mention I make of my Father puts me in mind hozv 
cautious I ought to have been in communicating 
Cebalinus'^ Injormation ; for Parmenio being ad- 
vis'd that Philip zvas brib'd to pcifon the King, writ 
a Letter on purpofe to diJJ'uade him from taking the 
Medicine he prepard for him ; was there any Cre- 
dit given to my Father in this Cafe ? Had his Let- 
ters any Authority zvith the King ? Nay , how 
many times have I my felf been ridiculd for my 
Credulity, when I have imparted what I heard t 
Now if we muft be odious vjhen tve inform, and 
fufpecled when we conceal, becaufe we dont give 
credit to the difcovery, what muft we do ? Here 
one of- the fhnders by cry'd out by the way of 


Book VI. Quiktus Curtius. 357 

anfwer, Not Plot againfl thofe who have deferv'd 
well of us. To which Philotas reply'd, Thou fay'fl 
welly whoever thou art. If it therefore appears that 
J have confpird, Idorit refufe to fuffer, and fo fljall 
conclude my defence, fince 1 find my lafl Words dif- 
agreeablc to you. This laid, they who had him in 
Cuftody took him away. 


THere was amongft the Captains one named 
Belon, a very brave but unpoliftYd Man ; he 
had been a long time in Arms, and from a private 
Centinel, had rais'd hijrifelf to the Foil he was 
then in. This brutilhly audacious Officer percei- 
ving the AiTembly flood mute, repreiented to it, 
That they had frequently been thruft out of their 
Quarters to make room for the very fcutn of Philo- 
tas'* Servants ; that the Streets were full of his Wag- 
gins laden with Gold and Silver , and that he 
would not fo much as fujfer any of his fellow Sol- 
diers to be lodgd near his Quarters, hut kept them at 
a diftance for fear of being diflarb" d in his Refl, not 
allowing them even to whifper, much lefs make any 
noife ; that they had been always the fubjeci of his 
ridicule, and were fometimes called by him Phry- 
gians, fometimes Paphlagonians ; and that he wm 
fo haughty as to hear his own Countrey-men by an 
Interpreter. What can be his Keafon to haveW'xm- 
mon confulted, he that did not fcruple to tax the 
Oracle with Lying, when it acknowledged Alexan- 
der for Jupiter'* Son ; for he had great Keafon to 
fear the King ffiould contract ill Will by zvhat the 
Gods themfelves beflozv 'd upon him. He did not con- 
fult the Oracle zvhcn be confpird againfl the Life 
of his Sovereign and Uriend, but he would now 


35B Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

have it confulted, that in the mean time his Father, 
who commands in Media , might be folicited, and 
with the Money he has in his Cuftody procure other 
Defperadoes to ajfociate themfelves with him in his 
Villany. That it was their Bufinefs to [end to the 
Oracle, not to be inform d of what the King had 
told them himfelf but to give Thanks to the Gods, 
and offer up their Vows for their Sovereign s Pre- 

This incens'd the whole Aflemby, and the Guards 
cry'd out, that it belong'd to them to take Satis- 
faction of the Parricide , and that they ought to 
.tear him in pieces. Philotas, who was afraid of 
greater Torments, was well enough pleas'd with 
this faying. The King returning now to the Af- 
fembly, adjourn'd the Council to the next Day, 
either that Philotas might be tormented inPrifon, 
or that he might in the mean time get better In- 
formation of the Confpiracy ; and notwithstand- 
ing the Night drew on, he fummon'd his Friends 
to come to him , the reft of 'em were for ha- 
ving Philotas llon'd to Death, according to the 
Macedonian Cuftom, but Heph&ftion, Craterus and 
Coenus were of opinion, That the Truth ought to 
be forcd from him by Tortures ; and then thofe 
who had been of another Sentiment came over 
to their Advice. The Council being therefore dif- 
mifs'd, Heph&flion, Craterus and Coenus got up in 
order to have Philotas tortur'd, and the King cal- 
ling Craterus, had fome private Difcourfe with 
him, the Subftance whereof was never known, 
and thenretir'd into his Clofet, and there remain'd 
alone a conHderable part of the Night , expecting 
the Event of the Tortures. The Executioner- 
brought now before Philotas all the Inftruments of 
Cruelty, and he of his own accord afle'd 'em , 
Why they delay d killing the King's Enemy and Mur- 
therer, who confefi'd the Fad? IV hat occafion is 


Book VI. Qjjintus Curtius. 359 

there for Torments ? I own I contrivd the Mifchief 
and would have executed it. Then Craterus re- 
quired he mould make the fame Confeffion upon 
the Rack. While they laid hold of him , and 
were ftripping him and binding his Eyes, he to 
no purpofe call'd upon the Gods of the Countrey, 
and the Laws of Nations. They made him pafs 
thro' the fevereft Torments, as if he had been actu- 
ally condemn'd, and out of their Zeal for the 
Kings fafety, moft miferably tore his Body. And 
notwithstanding they made ufe both of Fire and 
Scourges, rather by the way of Punifhment than 
Examination, he was fo far from crying out, that 
he did not fo much as yield a Groan ; but when 
his Body fwell'd with Ulcers, and the Scourges 
cut to the Bones , not being any longer able to 
contain himfelf, he promis'd them // they would 
leave off tormenting him, he would difcover to them 
what they defird to know ; But he requir'd they 
mould fwear by the Kings fafety, that they would 
torture him no more, and that the Executioners 
mould be fent away, both which being granted 
hin>, he aik'd Craterus, What he zvould have him 
tell him ? Craterus was very much incens'd hereat, 
thinking he mock'dhim, and call'd back the Exe- 
cutioners. Then Philotas defird a little time to re- 
cover his Spirits, and promts' d to tell 'em all that 
he knezu. In the mean time the chief Officers of 
the Cavalry, and they who were nearly related to 
Parmenio (hearing tint Philotas was put upon the 
Rack, and dreading the Macedonian Laws, which 
ordain , that the near Relations of thofe that con- 
fpire againft the King, (hall dye with them) fome 
kill'd themfelves, and others fled to the Mountains 
and Defarts ; the whole Camp was in a Confter- 
nation , which the King being inform'd of, he 
caus'd Proclamation to be made, That he remitted 
the Law relating to the kindred of Tray tors. Phi- 

360 Quintus Curtius. Book VI. 

lotas in the mean time made the following Con- 
feffion, that he might not be any more torment- 
ed, but whether what he faid was true or falfe is 
hard to determine. 

You are not ignorant, faid he, how familiar my 
Father was zvith Hegelochus, / mean that Hege- 
lochus that was kiVSd in Battel ; he was the caufe 
of all our Misfortunes, for when the King order d 
himjflf to be fainted Jupiter' s Son, this Man took it 
fo heinoujly, that he faid. Shall we acknowledge him 
for King, zvho is afoamd to own Philip for his Fa- 
ther ? We are undone if we fujfer this , for he not 
only defpifes Men but the Gods themfelves, who de- 
fires to be thought a God. We have /^Alexander, 
we have loft our King ; he is fallen into that infuf- 
ferable Pride that makes him odious, both to the 
Gods, to whom he equals himfelf, and to Mankind 
that he defpifes. Have we fpilt our Blood to ?nake 
him a God, who now difdains us ? Believe me, if 
we will but ftjew our felves Men, we may be alfo 
adopted ' by the Gods. Who revengd the Death of 
Alexander, great Grandfather of our Alexander, or 
that of Archclaus, or Perdiccas ? Nay, has not he 
himfelf pardon d thofe that kill'd Philip ? This is 
what Hegelochus faid at Supper, and the next 
Day, early in the Morning, my Father fent for me ; 
he was melancholy, and faw that I was alfo [ad, 
for vjhat we had heard made us very uneafie ; that 
therefore we might know whether ivhat he faid was 
the ejfecl of Wine or Premeditation, we fent for him, 
and being come, he of his own Motion repeated what 
he had faid before, and added, that if we dard to 
he Leaders in the Enterprise, he claim d the next 
Place to us ; if we did not approve of it, he would 
faithfully keep our Court f el. Parmenio did not think 
it proper, zvhile Darius was alive, fince the Ene- 
my would reap the Adva?itage of Alexander * Death, 
and not we ; but Darius being dead, Alia and all 
2 the 

BookX. QyiNxus Curtiu5. 360 

the Eaft would fall as a Reward to thofe that 
jJiould kill the King. The Advice zvas approv'd, 
and Faith mutually promisd between the Parties. 
As for what relates to Dymnus, I know nothing 
of it ; and after this Confejfwn, what will it avail 
me that I am altogether innocent of this lafi Plot g 
Then they tormented him afrefh, and ftruck him 
themfelves in the Face and Eyes with their Darts, 
and at laft extorted from him a Confeffion of 
that Crime likewife. As they requir'd him to give 
an orderly Account of the whole Contrivance : 
He anfwer'd, That as it fcemd probable that the 
King would remain a confiderable time in Baclxi- 
ana , he was afraid his Father , who zuas feventy 
Tears of Age, and at the head of a great Ar- 
my , and had the Cujlody of a vaft Treafure , 
might dye in the mean time, and then being depri- 
ved of fuch Supports it would be to no purpofe for 
him to kill the King ; he therefore defignd to hajlen 
the Execution while the reward of it was ftill in 
his own Hands. This he faid was the whole Hi- 
ftory of the Matter, and if they did not believe his 
Father to be the Author of it, he was ready to un- 
dergo the Tortures again, tho' he was too weak to 
bear 'e?n. Hereupon they conferr'd together, and 
having concluded they had made fufficient enquiry, 
they return'd to the King. 

The next Day the King order'd his Confeffion 
to be read to the AfTembly, and becaufe Philotas 
was not able to go, he caus'd him to be brought 
before it : Here he again own'd it all to be true. 
They proceeded next to the Examination of De- 
metrius, who was accus'd to be one of the Con- 
federates in the laft Confpiracy ; but he made great 
Proteftations, and with an undaunted Mind and 
Countenance deny'd that he had ever intended any 
thing againfi the King, and for his greater Juftifi- 
cation he defird to be torturd. Then Philotas caft- 
Vol I. R ing 

360 Quintus Curtius. Book X 

ing his Eyes about, fpy'd a certain Perfon nam'd 
Calls, not far from him, and bid him come nearer. 
But Calh in the utmoft Confufion refus'd to do it ; fa 
that Philotas faid to him, Will you fuffer Demetrius 
to lie, and caufe me to be torturd again ? At thefe 
Words Calls became fpeechlefs , and turn'd as pale 
as if he had no Blood left in his Body. The Ma- 
cedonians now began to fufpect Philotas malicioufly 
accus'd thofe that were innocent; becaufe neither 
Michomachus , nor Philotas in his Tortures , had 
nam'd the Youth. However, when he found him- 
felf furrounded by the Kings Officers, he confefs'd 
that both be and Demetrius were guilty. Hereup- 
on all thofe who were nam'd by Nichomackm , 
were according to the Macedonian Laws (upon a 
Signal given) fton'd to Death. 

It is certain the King here run a great Rift, both 
as to his Safety and his Life; for Parmemo and 
Philotas were fo powerful and fo well belov'd, 
that unlefs it appear'd plain they were guilty, they 
could never have been condemn'd, without the 
Indignation of the whole Army. For while Phi- 
lotas deny'd the Fa6t, he was look'd upon to be 
very cruelly handled; but after his Confeffion, 
there was not any of his Friends that pity'd him. 

The End of the firfi Volume. 

Quintus Curtius 

H I s 



Wars of Alexander. 

Vol. II. 
Tranflated by John Digby, Efq ; 


Printed by W. B. for Bernard Lintott, at 
the Crofs Keys between the two Temple 
Gates, 1714. 




S the Soldiers thought I'hilotas duly 
punihYd while his Crime was firefli 
in their Memory, fo after the Ob- 
ject of their Hatred was remov'd, 
their Malice tum'-d to Pity. They 
were now touch'd with the Rank 
and Dignity of the Youth, as well as with his 
Father's Old Age and Defolation , in being de- 
finite of lime. He had open'd the King a Paf- 
iage into Apa 9 and had fhar'd in all his Dan- 
gers ; moreover he always ns'd to command 
one of the Wings of the Army in a general 
Engagement. He had been Philips chiefeft Fa- 
vourite, and had ihewn himfelf lb faithful to A- 
hxamicr, that he made ufe of no other Perfon in 
the taking off of Attains. Thefe Thoughts came 
into the Minds of the Army, and their feditioas 
Expreffions were brought to the King, who vyzs 
not in the leaft mov'd thereat, as knowing very 
well that the Vices of Idlenefs were eafiiy cur ci 
by A&ion. He therefore gave Orders for a ge- 
Vol. II. B nerai 

% Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

neral Appearance before his Palace. Here Apha- 
rias (no doubt as it had been before concerted) 
dehYd that Lynceftcs Alexander (who flood accus'd 
of having had a Defign to kill the King, a conii- 
derable time before Philotas) might be brought to 
Judgment. Two Perfons had inform'd againft him, 
and it was now the third Year of his Imprifon- 
ment on that Account. It was alfo certain he had 
confpir'd with Paufanias , againft Philip j but he 
having been the firft that faluted Alexander King , 
his Punishment had rather been fufpended than he 
clear'd. Belides, the King had had lb me Defe- 
rence to the Intercefiion of Antipater, his Father- 
in-law. But now the Refentment that had lain 
dormant , was reviv'd , and the Solicitude for 
the prclent Danger, had renew'd the Memory of 
the paft. Alexander was therefore brought forth, 
and commanded to make his Defence, which he 
had been three Years preparing ; but being in the 
utmoil Confuhon , he with Difficulty pronounc'd 
fome part of what he had fo long meditated, till 
at laft both his Memory and Mind fail'd him. 
All were of Opinion, that this Diforder proceeded 
from his guilty Conference, and not from any De- 
fect of Memory ; whereupon fome of thofe that 
ftood next him, run him through as he was ftill 
labouring with his Forgetfulnefs. His Body being 
carry'd off, the King commanded Amyntas and Sim- 
mias to be likewife brought forth ; for Polemon the 
youngelt of the Brothers, was fled, upon Philotas's 
being put to the Torture. Thefe had been Phi- 
lot as' s moft intimate Friends, having by his lnte- 
refr. been advane'd to honourable Employments ; 
and the King now call'd to mind how zealous 
Philotas had been in promoting them, and there- 
fore did not doubt, but they uere alfo privy to this 
lafl Plot. So that he told the Affembly, that his 
Mother had long fince ivarnd him by Letters, to 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 3 

have a fpecial Care of 'em. But as he was not in 
his Nature prone to put the* w or ft Conftruclion upon 
things, he had fufpended his Jealoufie till now that 
he was convinced by Overt- Acls ; upon ivhich he 
had order d them to be bound. For it was certain 
they had had private Conferences with Philotas the 
Day before his Treafon was difcoverd. That his 
Brother s making his Efcape when Philotas vjas tor- 
turd, was a fufficient Detection of the Caufe of his 
Flight. Moreover, they had lately (contrary to Cu- 
ftom, under the Pretext of Officioufnefs) remov'd the 
reft at a greater Diftance , and placd themfelves 
near his Perfon, without any probable Ground for 
fuch Proceeding : So that being furprizd at this 
their Behaviour (cfpecially out of their Time of 
Waiting) and alarm d at their unufual Diligence, he 
had thought fit to retire to his Guards. To all which 
may be added, that when Antiphanes, Agent of the 
Horfe, requir d Amyntas (the Day before Philotas V 
Plot came to light) to fupply with fome of his Horfes 
(as is ufual) fuch as had loft theirs, he made him 
this haughty Anfwer : That if he did not deiiil 
from his Demands, he mould in a little time know 
who he had to deal with. Beftdes the Intemperance 
of their Tongues , and the rafh undecent Expreffions 
they usd concerning him, vjere fo many plain Indi- 
cations of their inveterate Malice againft him- t all 
ivhich Charges, if true, they deferve the fame Pu- 
niftjment that Philotas had. If they are not true^ 
he required they ftjould clear themfelves. 

The King having finifli'd his Speech, Antiphanes 
gave an Account of Amyntas % refuftng of the Horfes, 
and of his haughty menacing Anfwer. After which, 
Amyntas being allow'd to fpeak for himfelf, faid, 
If the King be not prcjudic'd thereby, I deft re, that 
while I plead, I may be unbound : Which the King 
immediately granted to them both ; and Amyntas 
begging alfo that he might al'fo be allow'd the 
B i ufual 

4 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

ufual Marks of his Office, the King order'd his Pike 
to be rcjlord him. Ttten having taken the fame 
in his Left-hand, and removing to fome Diftance 
from the Place where Alexanders Body had lain a 
little before, he fpoke to this effect : Be our Lot what 
it will, Sir, we muft now confefs, that if it be pro- 
fperous , we ftand indebted to your Bounty for it ; if 
it be fatal, we fhall impute it zuholly to Fortune. 
You allow us to make our Defence without the leaji 
Prejudice; our Bodies are at Liberty, as zvell eus 
our Minds s You have moreover reftord to m, the 
Tokens we us'd to bear when we attended you in 
our refpettive Pofis. We cannot fear our Caufe, nor 
fhall we any longer difirufi Fortune. But I beg 
your leave to anfwer firjl, what you objefled laft. 
We are not, Sir, confciotis to our felves, of having 
faid any thing againfi your Majefiy. I would fay, that 
you have long ago overcome all Envy and' ill-will, if 
J did not apprehend you would fu fpetl I endeavoured 
by Flattery , to excufe other malicious Expreffions. 
However, if it has happen d that we have let flip 
any unbecoming Words, when we have been either 
faint or fatigud ; while we zvere hazarding our 
Lives, or fick in our Tents, and dr effing our Wounds, 
I hope we may be allow d to have defervd by our 
Bravery and gallant Behaviour, that thefe Sayings 
Jhould be imputed to that particular Circumjlance of 
Time, rather than to any Difaffeclion. in our Minds. 
In great Misfortunes all are guilty. For we fome- 
times lay violent Hands upon our felves, tho zve 
cannot be faid to hate our Bodies. In thefe difmal 
Conjunctures^ the very Sight of our own Parents are 
not only ungrateful, but odiom to us. Again, when 
we are profperom, and are nobly rewarded for our 
Service ; or zvhen we return laden with Spoils, Who 
can bear tts ? Who can in that Circumjlance mode- 
rate h'ts Joy ? A Soldier s Anger or Alacrity, never 
keeps within due Bounds, they are always exceffive. 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. f 

We are tranfported in all our Affeciions. We blame, 
praife, pity, or are angry, according as the prefent 
Objecl moves us. Sometimes uue are for going to 
Inciia and the Ocean ; and fometimes again, the 
Thought of our Wives, our Children, and Countrey 
fills our Mind. But thefe Reflections, thefe Dif- 
ceurfes are all at an End , -whenever the Signal is 
given to march : Then every one runs to h't6 Poft r 
and whatever Anger was conceiv'd in our Tents, is 
all difchargd upon the Enemy. Would to G^Philo- 
tas had only offended in Words. Now I mufi come 
to that for which we are looked upon as guilty, viz.. 
Our Friendfhip with Phi Iotas ; and I am fo far 
from difowning it, that I freely confefs, we fought 
and cultivated it. Can you zuonder, Sir, that we 
fl)ould endeavour to infinuate our felves into the Fa- 
vour of the Son of Parmenio, to whom you have 
given the next Rank to your felf, preferring him to 
all the reft of your Friends ? if your Majefty zvilL 
hear the Truth, it is your felf, Sir, that have 
brought us into this Prsemunire ; For zuho elfe was 
the Caufe that all thofe who endeavoured' to pleafe 
y"ou, courted Philotas'* friendfhip ? It was he that 
prefented us to you, and procur d us our prefent In- 
ter eft ivith you. In a Word, he was fo much in your 
Favour, that zve had both Reafon to feek his Friend- 
fhip and fear his Difpleafure. Have we not all obligd 
our felves by Oach to efieem the Perfons our Friends 
and Enemies, that you declard to be yours in either 
Capacity ? Being bound by this Oath, could zve in 
Confcience hate him you fhew'd the greateft kind- 
nefs to ? If loving him while we faw you lov d him 
were a Crime, in reality your Majefty has but few 
Subjects that are not guilty, nay, I dare be bold to 
fay, none at all ; for there is ?io Body but zvould 
have been glad of Philotas'^ Friendftjip, rho every 
Body could not obtain it. if therefore all that were 
his Friends are guilty, your Majefty mufi think them 
B }. fi. 

6 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

Jo too who would have- been his Friends; but what 
Indication is there that we were conscious of his 
Treafon ? This I fuppofe, that we were privately 
with him the Day before ; this would undeniably 
hold goody and be beyond Purgation, if I did that 
Day any thing I had not usd to do. Now if 
we did no more that Day which is fufpecled, than 
what we were us 'd to do every Day, the very Cu- 
jhm will clear us of any Guilt. Oh! hut we re- 
fund Horfes to Antiphanes ! and this Contefi with 
him happen d the Day before Pliilotas was dif cover- 
ed ; // that be a fuffcient Ground to be fufpettcd 
that ive did not that Day deliver em , he cannot 
clear himfelf neither for having requir'd them. The 
Crime is doubtful between the Exaclor and the Re- 
tainer, only with this difference, that the caufe of 
him that keeps his ow-n, is better than his thai re- 
quires another Body's. However, Sir, out of ten 
Horfes which I had, Antiphanes had already di- 
fiributed eight to fuch as had lojl theirs, fo that I 
had but two left me for my own Ufe, which when 
he very haughtily and unjujily vjould have taken 
away zlfo, I was obligd *to refufe them , urdcfs- 1 
would ferve on Foot my felf. I cannot deny but I fpoke 
to him as became a Man of Spirit to fpeak to a for- 
ry Fellow, who is no otherv/ife employ d in the Ar- 
my than to difiribute other People s Horfes to thofe 
who are to fight. I cannot but think my felf very 
unhappy that at the fame time I excufe my felf 
to Alexander , / feem alfo to do it to Antiphanes. 
But here is another thing, your Mother in her Let- 
ters caution d you to have an Eye upon us, as being 
your Enemies. I could wifi flje had been more wife- 
ly felicitous for her Sons Safety, than to fill his Head 
with vain and groundlefs Sujpicions. Why dees floe 
not at the fame time ajfign the caufe of her Fear ? 
She neither tells her Author, nor alledges any Act or 
Saying, by which fie was movd to write fuch 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 7 

frightful Letters. What an unhappy Circumftanc* 
am I tn, ta.iv/yom perhaps it is equally dangerous 
to j)eak or to hold my Tongue ; but be it as it ivdU 
I had rather my Defence fhouUl difpieafe you than my 
Caufe. You may, if you pleafe remember, that when 
you fent me to Macedonia to raife Recruits, you 
told me there were a great many young Men hid in 
your Mother s Houfe ; and you gave me particular 
Inftruclions to have no regard for any Body befides 
your felj, but to bring by force thofe that would 
not ferve voluntarily. I executed your Orders ac- 
cordingly, and indeed more punctually than was ex- 
pedient to my own Intereft ; for I brought you from 
thence Gorgias, Hecateus/miGorgatas, who do you 
very good Service. Nozu tvhat can be more unjufi 
than for me ( who Jhould have defervingly fujferd 
if I had not obeyd your Commands ) to perifli now 
for having duly put the fame in Execution ? For 
your Mother had no other caufe to perfecute us than 
that we preferrd your Good to her Favour. I 
brought you fix thoufand Macedonian Toot, and 
fix hundred Horfe, a great many of which would 
not have come if I had not compell'd them. Now 
as your Mother is incens d againft us on this Ac- 
count, it feems unreafonable you jhould reconcile us 
to her, who have been the caufe of our having in- 
curred her Difpleafure. 


WHile Amyntcvs was thus pleading his Caufe, 
they who had been fent in purfuit of Po- 
lemon (whom we before mention'd) having o- 
vertaken him, brought him bound before the Af- 
femkly. The AfTembly were fo incens'd againft 
him, that they could fcarce be reftrain'd from their 
& 4 ufuali 

8 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

ufual Cuftom of Honing him to Death without 
hearing his Defence, when he, not at all dejected, 
told 'em, He did not dejire the leaft Favour to him- 
felf, provided hi* Flight were not interpreted to his 
Brother s prejudice. If I cannot clear my felf, at 
haft let my Crime be Perfonal, for their Caufe is by 
fo much the better ', that I am fufpetled only for ha- 
ving fed. 

The whole Aflembly was pleas'd. with what he 
laid , and fell a weeping, fo fuddenly were they 
chang'd ; and what before had chiefly provok'd 
their Anger , was the only thing that now recon- 
cil'd them to him. He was a Youth in the flow- 
er of his Age, and had been terrify 'd by the Di- 
tturbance lie obferv'd in others, when Philotas was 
tormented, and fo fled along with them , but find- 
ing hunfelf forfaken by his Companions, he was 
deliberating whether he fliould purfue his Flight, 
or return to the Camp, when they who had been 
lent after him overtook him ; he now wept bit- 
terly, and beat himfelf about the Face, not much 
concern'd on His own Account, but overwhelmed 
wi-:h Grief at the Danger he few his Brothers in. 
The King himfelf was mov'd with his Behaviour, 
as well as the Aflembly; his Brother was the only 
Perfon that feem'd implacable, who looking at him 
with a furious Countenance faid, Fool as thou art, 
thou fjouldft then have ivept when thou clapp'djl Spurs 
to thy Horfe, thou deferter of thy Brothers, and Com- 
panion of Deferters, thou miferable Wretch , vjhither, 
and from whence didft thou fly. Thou art the caufe 
that I am thought deferving of Death, and that I am 
now fore d to ufe thefe Terms of Accufation. To 
this he reply'd, That he own A he was very much 
to blame, and defervd worfe for the trouble he had 
brought his Brothers int:, than for any thing he had 
done b'wfelf. At thefe Words the whole Affem- 
b|y could no longer command their Tears, and 

BookVII'. Quintus Curtius. 9^ 

Acclamations, the ufual tokens by which the Mul- 
titude declares its Favour. It feem'd to be but 
one Voice ilTu'd forth by an universal Confent, 
intreating the King to pardon thefe innocent and 
brave Men. The chief of his Friends alfo laid 
hold of this Opportunity, and implor'd his Mercy. 
Then Alexander having commanded filence faid, 
And I my [elf difcharge Amy ntas and hit Brothers ; 
and as for yon, young Gentlemen (addrefling him- 
felf to the Prifoners ) I had rather you fliould for- 
get the Favour you now receive from me, than re?- 
member the Danger you were in. Be as fmcere in* 
your Reconciliation to me as lam in mine to you. if 
I had not examined into the Information, my Dif- 
fimulation might have been dijirufied, and it is bet- 
ter for youf felves that you have provd your In- 
nocency, than to remain fufpetled. Reflect that no 
Body can be clear d of any- Crime till he be try d • 
As for you, Amyntas , forgive your Brother, and' 
■1 (hall accept of that as a Pledge of your fincere 
Reconciliation to my felf. Then having difmifs'd' 
the Affembly, he fent for Polydamas, who was a., 
particular Friend of Parmenws, and us'd. to be 
.nextto him in time of Battel ; andnotwithftanding 
■he immediately came, relying on his Innocence, 
yet being commanded to fetch his Brothers, who 
.were very young, and on that account unknown 
to the King , his AlTurance turn'd into a deep- 
Concern, and he began rather to reflect on what 
could be laid to his Charge, than how to confute 
the fame. The Guards who had them in Cufto- 
dy, now . brought 'em forth, and the King com- 
manded Polydamas (who was. almoft dead wirh 
Fear ) to come nearer him, and having order'd the 
reft of the Company to withdraw , he fpoke to 
him in thefe Terms, We. are all at tad: d by Par- 
menio'5 Crime , but efpecialiy my felf and you^ 
whom. he. has dueiv'd under the colour . of Friend* 
B 5 jtffc 

io Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

fnip. Now I defegn to make ufe of you to puniflj 
his Perfidioufnefi , fee zvhat a Confidence I have in 
your Fidelity. Tour Brothers fljall remain with me 
as Hojiages till you have acquitted your felf of this 
Trufl ; you fljall go therefore into Media, and car- 
ry thefe Letters, writ zvith my own Hand, to my 
Governors there. You mufl be fo expeditious as to 
prevent even Fame. I zvould have you arrive there 
in the Night, and the next Day you foall deliver 
the Letters I charge you with. You jhall alfo carry 
Letters to Parmenio, one from my felf, and another 
from Philotas , w hofe Seal I have by me ; by this 
?neans the Father feeing a Letter from his Son, zvill 
have no manner of Apprehenfion. 

Polydamas being thus deliver'd from his Fears, 
promils'd more than was requir'd of him. A- 
lexander having hereupon very much commended 
him, and made him large Promifes, Polydamas 
pull'd off the Drefs he had on, and cloth'd him- 
felf after the Arabian manner, and had two Ara- 
bians (whofe Wives and Children remain'd with 
the King as Pledges for their Fidelity ) appointed 
him for Companions in his Journey. As they rid 
upon Camels they pafs'd through the dry barren 
Countreys commodioufly enough, and came on 
the eleventh Day to their Journeys end. Here 
Polydamas re-aflum'd the Macedonian Habit , and 
before any Body knew of his Arrival, he repair'd 
to Cleanders Tent ( who was the King's Prastor 
in this Province ) about the fourth Watch ; and 
having deliver'd his Letters, it was agreed between 
'em to go as foon as it was light to Parmenio s 
Quarters, where the reft of thofe to whom the 
King had writ were to meet them. By this time 
Parmenio was acquainted with the Arrival of Po- 
lydamas, and being overjoy'd at the coming of 
his Friend, and eager to know what the King was 
doing ( for by reafon of the great diftajice he had 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. , 

receiv'd no Letters from him of a conliderable 
time) he fent to inquire after Polydamas. The. 
Inns in this Countrey have large ReceiTes back- 
wards, which are well planted with Trees that 
render 'em very pleafant. This kind of Groves, 
is what the Kings and Nobility take great delight 
in. Parmenio walk'd therefore into the Wood in 
the middle of thofe Officers who had receiv'd Or- 
ders from the King to kill him. The time fix'd 
upon to execute their Defign,was when he mould 
be reading the Letters Polydamas was to deliver 
to him. Polydamas, at a great diftance, no fooner 
perceiv'd by Parmenio % cheerful Countenance that 
he faw him, than he ran to embrace him ; and af- 
ter their mutual CarerTes, Polydamas deliver'd him 
the Kings Letters. While he was opening it, he 
afk'd Polydamas, ivhat the King was doing? who 
told him, his Letter would inform him. Parmenio 
therefore having read the Letter, faid, the King 
is preparing to march againfi the Aracholians : He is 
a Prince indefatigably laborious, and ne'ver idle / 
But I fbould think it tvere high, time for him noiv 
to fpare his Perfon^having acquird fo much Glory^ 
Then he took the other Letter writ in Philotass 
Name, and feem'd by his Countenance to be plea- 
fed with the Contents of it; while he was thus 
employ'd, Cleander ftabb'd him in the Side, and af- 
wards ftuck him in the Throat, the reft running 
him through as he lay dead on the Ground. The, 
Guards, who ftood at the entrance into the Wood, 
understanding he was murder'd, without knowing 
for what Reafon, repair'd to the Camp, and with, 
the furprizing Ty dings put it all in a Confulion. 
Hereupon the Soldiers arm'd themfelves, and ran 
to the Wood where their General's Body lay > 
and threaten to break down the Wails of the 
Place , and facrifice all they found in it, to the 
Manes of their Commander, if Polydamas and the 
B 6 refb 

iz Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

refl concern ' d in his Murder, -were not immediately 
deliver d up to them. Cleander therefore order'd 
the chief Officers to be admitted, and read to them 
the King s Letters, that contain d Parmenio'* Trea- 
son, and Alexander j Requcjl to them to vindicate 
bis Caufe. Thus being fatisfy'd that it was done 
by the King's Directions, the Sedition was quiet- 
ed, tho' their Indignation was not appeas'd. The 
greateft part of the Soldiers being gone, the few 
that remain' d begg'd, That they might at leafi be 
alloiud to bury his Corps, which was a long time 
refus'd, Cleander fearing he fhould by that Allow- 
ance incur the King's Difpleafure. But as they 
periifted obftinately in their Demand, to avoid the 
ill Confequences that might enfue, he caus'd the 
Head to be cut off, and allow'd 'em to bury his 
Body : The Head he fent to the King. Such was 
Parmenios end, a Man of an eftabhth'd Reputa- 
tion, both at home and in the Army; he had 
done feveral great Exploits without the King, but 
the King had done nothing of Moment without 
fyim: He had been able to fatisfie the Expectation 
-Of a profperous Prince, who requir'd Performances 
anfwerable to his own extraonfinary fortune ; he 
was fevcnty Years of Age when he was kiil'd, and 
would often ( notwithstanding the Burthen of his 
Years) do the part ofayoung General, andfome- 
limes that of a private Soldier. He was wife in 
Council, brave in Action , belov'd by the chief 
Officers, but frill more dear to the common Sol- 
diers. Whether thefe Qualifications mipir'd" him 
with the Thoughts of Reigning, or only made 
him- fufpedted, may be doubted; becaufe it is un- 
certain whether Philotass Declaration was true, 
or only forc'd from him by the violence of his* 
Tortures, iince when the thing was frefh, and lb 
molt likely, to be clear 'd, it remain'd ftill doubt- 
ful. Alexander thought it advifable to feparate 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 13 

from the reft of the Army, thofe who had com- 
plain'd of Parmenios hard Fate, he therefore in- 
corporated them into a Body by themfelves, and 
gave Leonids (who had himfelf formerly been 
very intimate with Parme?iio) the command of 
'em. They happen'd to be the very Men he had 
a private Pique againft on another Account. For 
one Day revolving to found the Minds of his Sol- 
diers, he gave the whole Army to underiland, 
That if they had any Letters to fend into Macedo- 
nia to their Friends, they might give' em to his Mef- 
fengers, xuho zvould be fure to deliver 'em faithfully. 
Hereupon every one writ his Thoughts frankly, 
fome were quite weary of the War, however, 
the major part lik'd it well enough. The Letters 
being all brought to the King, he thereby difco- 
ver'd who had writ favourably of him, and who 
had complain'd of his Proceedings ; he therefore 
now order'd them to encamp feparately, by way 
of Infamy, intending to make ufe of their Ser- 
vice in the War, and yet prevent their infecting 
the reft of the Army with their licentious Dif- 
courfe. The Kings Conduct might here be caJl'd 
in queftion , (lince he thereby exafperated the 
Minds of a great many brave young Men ) yet his 
ufual Happinefs turn d this, as well as all other 
things, to his Advantage j for in the fubfequent 
Wars, none were readier on all Occafions than 
they, their Courage fpurring them on to fignalize 
the_mfelves, as well to wipe off their Difgrace, as 
becaufe in fo fmall a Number their gallant Belur 
viour could not he undilcover'd... 



14 Quintus Curtius. BookVn. 


THings being fettled after this manner, Alexan- 
der appointed a Satrap or Governor over the 
Arians, and then gave notice of his Expedition 
againft the Agriafpians, who at this time (having 
chang'd their Appellation) were call'd Euerget*, 
for their having formerly reliev'd Cyrus's Army, 
when it was afflicted with Hunger and Cold. The 
fifth Day after he arriv'd in this Countrey, he re- 
ceiv'd Intelligence , that Satibarzanes ( who had 
revolted to Befius) was march" d with a Body of 
Horfe to make an Irruption into the Countrey of 
the Arians. Hereupon he detach'd againft him fix 
thoufand of the Grecian Infantry, and fix hundred 
Horfe under the command of Cananus, Erigyim y 
Artabazus and Andronicu6\ and remain'd himfelf 
fixty Days with Euergeta, during which time he 
regulated that State, and beftow'd a great Sum of 
Money on them for their eminent Service and 
Fidelity to Cyrus ; after which he conftituted 
Amenides Governor over them, and then march'd 
and fubdu'd the Arachofians, whofe Countrey ex- 
tends it felf as far as the Pontick Sea. Here he was 
join'd by the Army Parmcnio had commanded, 
which confifted of fix thoufand Macedonians, two 
hundred of the Nobility, and five thoufand Greeks, 
with two hundred Horfe ; it was, beyond difpute, 
the main ftrength of the Kings Forces : He ap- 
pointed Menon Governor over the Arachofians in 
the Quality of Prcetor ; then he enter'd into a 
Countrey hardly known to thofe that border up- 
on it, for the Inhabitants admit of no manner of 
Communication with their Neighbours. They 
are call'd Parapamifada, and are a very rude unpo- 
lled. People, even to that degree that they may- 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 1$" 

be reckon'd the moft unciviliz'd of all the Barba- 
rians ; the roughnefs of the Countrey, feems to 
have contributed to that of their Minds. They 
lie very far northward, and border upon Battrl- 
ana on the Weil, looking towards the Indian Sea 
on the South. Their Cottages are built of Brick 
from the bottom to the top, the Countrey afford- 
ing no Wood, not fo much as on the Mountains. 
Their Structure is broad, and by degrees grows 
narrower as itrifes, tiil at laft it clofes in the form 
of the Keel of a Ship, there being a hole left in 
the middle to tranfmit the Light. If they find any 
Vines or Trees any where, not deftroy'd by the 
rigor of the Climate, they cover them with Earth 
during the Winter, and when the Snow is quite 
diilblv'd they reftore 'em to the Air and the Sun ; 
but the Snows are here fo deep, and fo congeal'd 
with the Froft , that no Footfteps or Traces of 
Beaft or Bird appear in all the Countrey. The 
Light is fo obfeure, that it may be compar'd to 
the dimnefs of the Night, fo that thofe things that 
are neareft at Hand are hardly difcernible. In this 
wretched Countrey, deftitute of all manner of Cul- 
ture, the Army fuffer'd all kinds of Evils, Hun- 
ger, Cold, Wearinefs and Defpair. The exceffive 
coldnefs of the Snow kill' d a great many, it de- 
ftroy'd the Feet of others, but it was generally 
very pernicious to their Eyes. If, being tir'd, they 
laid themfelves down upon the frozen Snow, their 
Bodies, for want of Motion, were fo penetrated 
by the piercing rigor of the Air, that they could 
not rife again, till help'd up by their Companions, 
who found no better Expedient to unbenumb their 
ftiff Limbs, than that of compelling 'em to walk; 
by which means the vital Heat being put into 
Motion, they recover'd fome part of their former 
Vigor : Such of 'em as could get into any of the 
Cottages were foon reftor'd, but then the Dark- 


i6 Qcintus Curtius. Book VIE 

nefs was fo great, that thefe Cottages were only 
difcoverable by the Smoke : As the Inhabitants 
had never feen any Strangers before in their Ter- 
ritories, when they perceiv'd the arm'd Soldiers 
they were ready to die with Fear, and very wilr 
lingly brought to 'em what their Huts afforded* 
deiiring only they would fpare their Lives. 

The King walk'd on foot round his Forces, rai- 
fingfudi as were bid down, and fupporting others 
that could not walk ; fometimes in the Front, 
fometimes in the Middle, and fometimes in the 
Rear, (paring no Pains to exprefs his Care for his 
Men. At length they came to a better Coun- 
trey, where he refrefh'd his Army with plenty of 
Viduals, and waited till thofe that could not keep 
up with him had rejoin'd him. 

From hence he mov'd towards Mount Caucaftu, 
which with its long ridge of Hills ftretches it felt 
thro' Afia, ; having on one fide of it the Cilician 
Sea, and on the other the Cafpian Sea, the River 
Araxes, and the Deferts of Scythia: Mount law- 
rm , which holds the fecond Rank for bignefs , 
joins to Mount Caucafus ; it takes its Rife from 
Cappadacia, and running acrofs Cilicia joins it felf 
io the Mountains of Armenia, fo that all, thefe 
.Mountains being united from one continu'd ridge* 
out of which almoft all the Rivers of Afia. flow, 
fome emptying tnemfelves into the Red Sea, o- 
thers difcharging themfelves into the Cafpian Sea, 
while others again fall into the Hyrcanian and 
Pontuk Sea. The Army pafs'd over Mount Caur 
cafus in feventeen Days ; there is a Rock in it ten 
Furlongs in compafs, and above four in highth, to 
which (as Antiquity relates) Prometheus was bound. 
At the foot of this Montain, Alexander made 
choice of a Place to build a City, which he peo- 
pled with feven thoufand of the oldeft Macedoni- 
ans \ and fuch other Soldiers as . were of no fax- 

Book VII. Quintvs Curtius. 17 

ther ufe to him. The Inhabitants gave it the Name 
of Alexandria. 


BU T Beffits being alarm'd at Alexanders Ex- 
pedition, offer d a Sacrifice to the Gods of 
tae Countrey ; and then according to the Cullom 
of thole People , at an Entertainment which, he 
gave his Friends , he deliberated with them con- 
cerning the War. As they were well loaded with 
Wine, they extoll'd their own Strength, and de- 
ipis'd the Enemy, one while for their Raftmefs, 
. and then again for their fmall Number : BeJJ'us par- 
ticularly was very furious in his Expreffions, and 
being elated on the account of the Kingdom, he had 
lately procur'd by his Treafon, he told 'em, it was 
Darius'* Folly, that bad given the Enemies Arms 
fo great a Reputation, for he muft needs go and 
meet them in the Straits of Cilicia, when at the 
fame time by retiring, he might have drawn 'em in- 
fenfibly into Places impracticable even by their na- 
tural Situation, cajling fo many Rivers and Moun- 
tains in their Way, that they might have been fur- 
friz d in thofe lonefome Retreats, and hinder d from 
all Poffibility of flying, ivithout having it in their 
Power to make any Refiflance. It -was his Refla- 
tion therefore to repair to the Sogdians, and fo leave 
the River Oxus as a Wall betzveen him and the //- 
nemy, till he had gGt together a powerful Army from, 
the neighbouring Nations. The Chorafmians, the 
Dahx, the Sacx, and the Indians as well as the 
Scythians that inhabit beyond the River Tanais , 
would not fail to join him, who are none of them 
fo low in Stature, but that their Shoulders are up- 
on the level zv'nh the Macedonians Heads. They 


18 Quintus Curtius. BookVII. 

unanimoufly (in their drunken Humour) agreed, 
that that was the wifeft Courfe he could take. 
Hereupon Be/Jus caus'd the Wine to he flll'd about 
plentifully, and routed Alexander Hone and Foot 
at Table. There happen'd to be at the Feaft, a- 
mongft the reft, a Median namd Cobares, more 
renowned for his Profeffion of the Magical Art, 
(if it may be call'd an Art, and not rather an Illu- 
sion upon fuperftitious Tempers) than for any great 
Knowledge he had therein ; but otherwife he was 
a moderate good Man enough. This Man (by the 
way of Preface) told BeJJks, he was fcnfible it was 
fafer for a Servant to obey blindly, than to give 
Advice ; fmce they who obey are fure of the fame 
Lot with the refl : Whereas they that venture to 
perfuade or give Counfel , run a particular Rifk. 
Upon thefe Words, BeJJ'us gave him the Cup he 
had in his Hand ; which Cobares having receiv'd, 
he exprefs'd himfelf in the following manner: 
Mankind is in this refpecl very unhappy, that every 
one is of a clearer Sight in other Peop les Affairs , 
than in his ozvn. There is a Confufion of Thoughts 
in him that advifes with himfelf ; Fear, Tie fire, and 
an overweening to our ozvn Conceptions, are fo ma- 
ny Objlacles : As for Pride, it cannot be thought to 
fall into your Nature. You have found by Experi- 
ence, however, that every one flatters himfelf fo far> 
as to think his ozvn Counfel the only falutary and 
proper Expedient. Now you ought to refleel, that 
you bear a great Burden on your Head in the Crown ; 
you mufl carry it with Wifdom and Moderation, or 
it will (J fpeak it with Horror) crujh you. It is Con- 
duel and Prudence that are re^uifite in the prefent 
Juncture ; RaJJmeJS and Violence are altogether ufc- 
ietf. Then he took notice of a Proverb among 
the Baclrians; That the fearful Dog barks furioufly, 
tho he dares not bite ; and the deepejl Rivers glide 
along with the leajl Noife. Which Sayings I take 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. * 19 

i notice of, to (hew, that even among the Barbari- 
I ans, there were fome Sparks of Wifdom worthy 
' Observation. This awaken'd the Attention of the 
whole AfTembly, who were in mighty Expectation 
of the main Drift of his Difcourfe. After which, 
lie fpoke his Opinion, which would have prov'd 
more ufeful to Befits, than it was agreeable. You- 
have, fays he, almofi at the Gates of your Palace, 
an expeditions indefatigable Prince, zvho zuill fooner 
move his whole Army, than you remove this Table. 
Is this a time to call for Troops from the River Ta- 
nais, or to think of oppofing Rivers to the Enemy f 
Can you imagine, that you can fly where he cannot 
■follozv you ? The Way is in common to you both, 
but indeed, is fafeji to the Victor. And if you look 
upon Year to be nimble and fwift, you ought to con- 
fider , that Hope is ftill fwifier. Why dont you 
therefore court the favour of the flronger, and lay 
your felf at his Mercy ? Be the Event what it zvill, it 
cannot but be more advantageous to you to furren- 
der your felf, than to remain his Enemy. The Crown 
you wear, is not your own, and therefore you may 
the more zvilUngly part with it ; be fides, you may 
then perhaps zuith Reafon think your felf a lawful 
King, when he has made you fuch, who can either 
give or take away your Kingdom. Tou have here a 
faithful Counfel, which to be long in excuting, is fo 
much Time lofl. The Horfe of Spirit is governed by 
the very Shadow of the Switch, zvhereas the dull 
Jade is not quicken d even by the Spur. 

Befits who was cholerick in his Nature, and at 
this time heated with Wine, could hardly be kept 
by his Friends from killing him, for he drew his 
Sword in order to it, and in a Rage left the Com- 
pany, and Cobares during the Tumult, fled to A- 
lexander. Befius% Army confifted of eight thou- 
fand Baclrians, who (while they believ'd the Ri- 
gor of their Climate would came the Macedonians 


20 Quintus Curtius. Book VII 

to march into India) remain 'd faithful to him; bu 
when they had certain Advice of Alexanders co- 
ining againft them, they all deferted Beffus, every- 
one repairing to his own Habitation. As for Bef- 
fus\ he with a fmall Number of fuch as had an 
immediate Dependence on him, and therefore ad- 
her'd firmly to him, pafs'd the River Oxus, burn- 
ing afterwards their Boats, that the Enemy might 
not make ufe of 'em, and then endeavour' d to 
raife a frefti Army among the Sodgians. 

Alexander, as we faid before, had pafs'd over 
Mount Caucafus ; but there was fuch a Scarcity of 
Corn in his Camp, that it was not far from a'Fa- 
mine. They exprefs'd the Juice of Sefama, and" 
therewith anointed their Limbs, as if it had been 
Oil; but this it felf was fo dear, that each Mea- 
fure call'd Amphora, fold for two hundred and for- 
ty Denary; the fame Meafure of Honey, colt three 
hundred and ninety ; and that of Wine, three hun- 
dred ; as for Wheat, there was none at all, or a 
very fmall Quantity. Thefe Barbarians ufe fub- 
terranean Granaries, which they call Sift, and co- 
ver them fo artfully, that none but thofe that are 
privy to 'em, can find 'em out. In thefe they had 
fcury'd all their Corn, fo that the Soldiers for want 
thereof, were forc'd to live upon Herbs, and fuch 
Fifh as the Rivers afforded : When this Food faiFd 
'em like wife, they were commanded to kill their 
Carriage Cattle, by which means they made a,fhift 
to fubfift till they came into Battrlana. This Coun- 
trey has great Variety of Soils ; fome Places a- 
bound with Trees and Vines, and afford Plenty 
of very good Fruits, the Soil being fat and well 
water'd. That Ground that is fit for Corn, they 
fow with Wheat, and the reft ferves as Palturage 
for their Cattle. At the fame time a great Part 
of this Countrey, is nothing but barren Sands, 
whofe exceffive Sterility and Drynefs , affords no 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 21 

Nounfhment neither for Man, nor Fruit; and 
! when the Winds blow from the pontick Sea, they 
fweep thefe fandy Plains into great Heaps , which 
at a ditlance have the Appearance of Hills, and 
thereby quite deftroy all the Marks of former Roads. 
They therefore that travel this way, are oblig'd to 
obferve the Stars in the Night, like Mariners, and 
by their means direct their Courfe ; and indeed 
the nocturnal Shade, is rather more luminous than 
the Day-light; fo that there is no travelling here 
in the Day-time, there being no Track or Foot- 
ftep to follow, and the Stars being intercepted by 
thick Mills. Now if any Perfons are travelling, 
while the aforefaid Winds blow, they are fure to 
be overwhelm'd with this flying Sand. On the 
other fide, where the Countrey affords a better 
Soil, it is crowded With Inhabitants, and well 
ftock'd with Horfes. Battra which is the capi- 
tal City of this Countrey, is fituate under a Hill 
call'd Parapamijfus ; the River Baffrus runs by its 
Wa.lls, and gives its Name both to the Town and 

While the King lay here encamp'd, he receiv'd 
an Account out of Greece, That the Peloponnefi- 
ans and Lacedemonians had revolted; for they 
were not yet reduc'd, when the MefTengers firft fet 
out to acquaint 4 Alexander with their Defection. 
This ill News was attended by another more im- 
mediate Danger from the Scythians, who inhabit 
beyond the River Tanais, and were [aid to be co- 
ming to ajpft Belfus. He like wife receiv'd at this 
time, an Account of what had pafsd in the Coun- 
trey of the Arians , under the Condxtl of Caranus 
and Erigyins. The Macedonians and Ariam be- 
ing engag'd, Satib arcane s who commanded the lat- 
ter, feeing the Men did not fight with that Vigor 
he defir'd they mould (both Armies feeming to 
have equal Advantage) rid up to the firft Rank, 


Quintus Curtius. BookVII. 

and caus'd a Ceffation of Arms; then taking off 
his Helmet, he challengd any one of the Macedo- 
nians to a fingle Combat, and at the fame time de- 
clard he would fight bare-headed. Erigyius could 
not brook the Infolence of the Barbarian , and 
notwithstanding he was advanc'd in Years, yet he 
was not inferior to any of the young Men in point 
of Courage or Strength of Body : He therefore 
took off his- Helmet, and (hewing his grey Hairs, 
faid, The Day is come in which I will either by a 
Vitlory, or an honourable Death, demonfrate to the 
World vjhat Friends and Soldiers Alexander has. 
And without any farther Speech, he rid up to the 
. Enemy. One would have thought both Armies 
; had receiv'd Orders to hold their Hands, and for- 
bear fighting; for they immediately drew back and 
gave the Combatants room, both fides being intent 
upon the I flue of this Duel, which was not only 
to decide the matter between the two Generals, 
but alfo between both Armies. The Barbarian 
call his Javelin firft, which Erigyius avoided by a 
fmall Declination of his Head, and clapping Spurs 
to his Horfe, run his Spear into his Adverfary's 
Throat, fo that it came out behind his Neck. The 
Barbarian hereupon fell from his Horfe, but yet 
ftruggl'd, which made Erigyius draw his Spear out 
of his Throat, and run it into his Mouth. And 
Satibarzanes to rid himfeif the fooner of his Pain, 
dap'd his Hand to the Spear, and further'd his 
Enemy's Stroke. 

The Barbarians having loft their General, whom 
they had follow'd, more out of Neceffity than 
Good-will , and calling to Mind Alexanders Fa- 
vours to 'em, deliver'd up their Arms to Erigyius. 
The King was pleas' d with this Succefs, but was a 
little unealieat the Lacedemonians Defection ; how- 
ever, he bore it with great Magnanimity, and faid, 
They did not dare to difcover their Intentions, till 

gookVI. Quintus Curtius. 23 

they underjlood he was advancd to the remotefi part 
of India. Then decamping, he continu'd his Pur- 
fuit of Be fus, and was met by Erigy'ms, who (hew'd 
him the Spoils of his Enemy, as an Ornament of 
•his glorious Victory. 


AUsander having committed the Coimtrey 
of Battriana to the Care of Artabazus , left 
there his Baggage, under a fufficient Guard; 
while he with a flying Camp enter'd into the 
Defarts of the Sodgians , marching his Army by 
Night. The great Want of Water here (as we 
before took notice) inflam'd the Soldiers Drought 
(by the Defpair of getting any) . before they had 
any real Occalion to drink. For the Space of four 
hundred Furlongs, there is not a Drop of Water to 
be found, and the Heat of the Sun in Summer, 
being very vehement, it kindles fuch a Fire in the 
Sands, that they burn whatever they touch. Be- 
fides, there arifes fuch a Mill: (occafion'd by this ex- 
ceffive Heat of the Sand) that the Light is much 
obfeur'd thereby , and the Plains carry the Appea- 
rance of a vaft and deep Sea. Notwithstanding all 
which, it was tolerable gooc ; travelling there in the 
Night, by reafon of the Dews and the Frelhnefs 
of the Mornings. However, as the Heat begins 
with the very Light , it foon parches up all the 
Mohture of the Air, fo that not only the outward 
Parts, but even the Bowels, are quite burn'd up 
with it. In thefe Extremities therefore, their Hearts 
fail'd them firft, and then their Bodies became faint, 
and they were as unwilling to ftand ftill, as to go 
forward. Some few amongft 'em, by the Advice 
of fuch as knew the Countrey, had provided them- 
2. felves 

24 Quintus Curtius. BookVII. 

ielves with Water; this ferv'd them a little while, 
but as the Heat increas'd, fo did the Defire of Li- 
quor to quench their Thnih This made it a Ne- 
ceility to diftributc among them, what Wine and 
Oil there was. The Pleafure they found in drink- 
ing, was fo great, that they did not reflect they 
fhould be dry any more, and therefore drank fo 
largely, that they were no longer able to carry 
their Arms, nor to march; fo that they feem'd 
happier when they wanted Water, than after they 
were fupply'd with Wine and Oil , lince by their 
immoderate Ufe of it, they were forc'd to vomit 
it up again. As the King was thoroughly griev'd 
"at all thefe Calamities, his Friends came about him, 
and deiir'd him to reflect, that his great Soul was 
the only Remedy in the prefent Misfortune. It hap- 
pen'd at this Juncture of Time, that two of thofe 
that were fent before to mark out a Camp, came 
and met him, bringing along with them fome Bot- 
tles of Water, which they intended for their Sons, 
who were in the Army, and were ready toperiih 
with Thirft. When they faw the King, one of em 
opening a Bottle, pour'd out a Cup full, and pre- 
fented it to his Majefty. He took it from him, and 
afVdhim, who they intended the Water for ? To 
which they anfwer'd, for their Sons. Whereupon 
the King returning the Cup full as it was, faid , t 
cannot find in my Heart to drink alone, and this 
[mail Quantity will not afford every one fome, 
tuherefore carry it to your Sons for whom you firfi 
defig?ied it. 

At length he came to the River Oxus, about the 
Beginning of the Night ; but a great part of. the 
Army not having been able to keep up with him; 
He causd Fires to be made on the Tops of Hills, that 
they that were behind, might thereby knozv they were 
not far from the Camp. Then he order'd them 
that were with him, to refrefi themfelves with Vi- 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. %f 

finals and Drink as faft as they could, and then 
take Water in Skins and other VejJ'els, and carry them 
to their Fellow Soldiers. They who drank immo- 
derately, immediately dy'd ; and he loft more Men 
this way, than he had ever loft in any Battel As 
for himfeif, he kept on his Armour, and without 
either eating or drinking, plac'd himfelf on the 
Way the Army was to come , without any Re- 
freshment at all, till all thofe that .lagg'd behind, 
had pafs'd by him ; and afterwards he pafs'd all that 
Night without Sleep, in great Anxiety of Mind. 

The next Day he was not lefs uneafie, becaufe 
he had no Boats, and there was no Poffibility of 
building a Bridge, there being no Timber there- 
about. He therefore had recourfe to the only Ex- 
pedient Neceffity fuggefted to him ; which w r as to 
caufe a great Number of Skins to be fill'd with 
Straw, and diftributed to the Soldiers, upon which 
they- laid themfelves, and fo pafs'd the River: 
They that got over flrft, put themfelves in Order 
of Battel, till the reft fwam over to them. Thus 
in fix Days he pafs'd his whole Army to the other 
fide, and was refolv'd now to continue his Purfuit 
of Bejfus, when he'receiv'd Information of what 
had happen'd among the Sodgians. 

There was one Spitatnenes, who was particular- 
ly in Bejfus his Favour, and had receiv'd great 
Honours from him. But a perfidious Nature is 
not to be prevail'd upon by Merit, or Kindnefs ; 
however, it was lefs odious in him, by reafon no- 
thing could be reckon'd criminal that was done 
againft Bejfus, who had fo bafely murder'd his So- 
vereign. Belides, this Sj>itamenes put a fair Glofs 
upon his Treachery , pretending he did it to re- 
venge Darius ; whereas in truth , it was BeJJ'us's 
Fortune they envy'd, more than they hated his 



x6 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

When this Man-underftood that Alexander had 
pafs'd the River Oxus, he communicated his De- 
fign to Dataphernes and Catenes (in whom ^j^w 
had the greateft Confidence) who very readily en- 
ter'd into his Meamres, and taking with them eight 
lufty young Fellows, they refolv'd upon this Wile. 
Spitamenes goes to BeJJ'us, and privately tells him, 
he underjlood Dataphernes and Catenes had con- 
Cpfr.d to fcize him, and deliver him up alive- to A- 
lexander; that therefore he had fecurd 'em, and 
fut them in Bonds. Hereupon BeJJ'us thinking him- 
lelf very much oblig'd to him, return'd him many 
Thanks, and being eager to take Satisfaction of 
them, order'd 'em to be brought before him. They 
having their Hands ty'd by Concert, fuffer'd them- 
felves to be led by their Accomplices; and BeJJ'us 
no fooner law them , but looking at them with a 
Hern Countenance , he role up with a Defign to 
wreak his Revenge upon 'em. But they laying 
alide the Difguile, furrounded him immediate- 
ly, and bound him, pulling the Diadem from 
his Head, and tearing his Garment, which was part 
of the Spoils he had taken from the murder'd 
King. He then confefs'd, That the avenging Gods 
were at hand-, and added, that they were not un- 
jujl to Darius, -whom they revengd after this man- 
ner-, but -were over propitious to Alexander, whofe 
Victories were always promoted by his Enemies. It 
is a doubtful thing, whether the Majority of the 
Bactrians would have tamely fufter'dthis Ulage of 
him, had not the Confpirators given out, that they 
did it by Alexanders Orders, and lb terrify'd thofe 
whofe Thoughts were, at Uncertainty. Having 
therefore fet him on Horfeback, they brought him 
away, in order to deliver him up to the King, who 
in the mean time had made a Draft of nine hun- 
dred Men, whofe Service deferv'd they fhould be 
jdifmifs'd. He therefore gave to every Trooper 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 27 

two Talents, and to every Foot -Soldier, three 
thouland Denary, and having enjoin'd 'em to mar- 
ry and get Children, he fent them home. At the 
fame time, he thank'dthe reft for their Willingnefs to 
fetve him in the remaining fart of the War. While 
Be/Jus was bringing to him, he came to a little 
Town, whofe Inhabitants were call'd Branchids.. 
They were by Xerxes % Order (when he return'd 
from Greece) tranfplanted from Miletum, and af- 
fign*d this Settlement in coniideration of their ha- 
ving pillag'd the Temple of Apollo Didymtus, in 
his Favour. They had not quite forfaken the Cu- 
ftoms of their ancient Countrey, but their Lan- 
guage was a fort of Medley, made up of their own 
and that of the Countrey they now inhabited. 
They e^prefs'd a great deal of Joy at the Kings 
Arrival, and readily furrender'd both themfelves 
and their -Town to him. Hereupon Alexander 
call'd together the Milefians that ferv'd in his Ar- 
my. Now we mult obferve , that the Milefians 
bore an old Grudge to the Branchid*. The King 
therefore referr'd it to them, whether they would 
coniider their Extraction, or revenge their former 
Injury'; and as they vary'd in their Opinions, he 
told 'em, he would advife vj'ith himfelf zvhat was 
left to be done in the matter. The next Day, when 
the Deputies from the BranchidA came to meet 
him , he commanded them to attend him , and 
being come to the Town, he enter'd the Gates 
thereof with part of his Army , and order'd the 
Phalanx to furround the Place, and upon the Sig- 
nal given, to pillage that Receptacle of Traitors, and. 
put them all to the Sword. Theie poor Wretches 
being in a defencelefs Condition, were everywhere 
butcher'd, and neither Conformity of Language, 
the humble Pofture of Suppliants, nor the moft 
fervent Intreaty, could put a Stop to this authoriz'd 
Cruelty. The very Foundations of the Walls were 
' C 1 dug 

28- Quintus Curtius. Book VII- 

dug up, that there might not be the leaft Foot- 
iteps left of the Town. Their Fury did not ftop 
here, for they not only cut down the confecrated 
Woods, but alfo grubb'd up the very Roots there- 
of, that there might be nothing left but a barren 
wafte Solitude. Now. had this Cruelty been pra- 
clis'd on the firft TranfgrefTors, it might have been 
thought a juft Punifhment of their Crime; but here 
Pofterity is punith'd for the Sins of its Forefathers, 
without ever having lb much as feen Miletum, far 
from being able to betray it to Xerxes. 

From hence he advanc'd to the River Tanais; 
Here Bejfus was brought to him, not only bound, 
but ftrip'd of all his Cloaths. Spitamenes led him 
by a Chain that went about his Neck ; a Sight no 
lefs agreeable to the Barbarians, than to t]ie Ma- 
cedonians. Then Spitamenes addreffing himfelf to 
Alexander, faid, / have revengd the Caufe of Da- 
rius, and you, Sir, both my Sovereigns, and have 
brought to you the bafe Murderer of his King, ha- 
ving taken him after the fame manner as he gave 
the Example. O that Darius could open his Eyes 
to view this Speflacle ! That he could arife from the 
Dead, ivho defervd not that Puniftjment, but well 
deferves this Comfort! 

Alexander having commended Spitamenes, turn- 
ed to BefJ'us, and alk'd him, What beaftly Rage had 
prompted him, firft to bind, and then to murder a 
Prince who had loaded him with fo many Favours ? 
But, laid he, the ufurpd Title of King was the Re- 
ward of thy Parricide. To which Bejfus not da- 
ring to excufe his Crime, anfwer'd; That it was 
true he had taken upon him the Regal Dignity, but 
it was only that he might thereby be able to pre- 
ferve it for him, fince if he had not done fo, fome 
Body elfe would not have fail ' d to feiz.e it. But 
Alexander without having any Regard to this 
Speech, call'd for Oxathres Darius' $ Brother, (who 
* was 

BbokVIL Quintus Curtius. 29 

was one of his Body Guards) and order'd Beffus 
to be deliver d up to him, that being faflend to a 
Crofs, having hvs Ears and Nofe cut off, he might 
ferve for a mark for the Barbarians to (lioot at with 
their Boivs, without fuffering the very Birds to im- 
pair his Body. Oxathres readily took upon him 
to fee all the reft perform'd , but as for the keep- 
ing off the Birds, none could do that beiides Ca- 
tenes, which he faid out of a defire to (hew his 
unparallell'd Dexterity 5 for he (hot with fo exact 
an aim, that the very Birds flying could not efcape 
him : And notwithftanding the common practice 
of Shooting with Bows and Arrows, render' d this 
Art lefs admirable, yet thofe that beheld the Per- 
formance were furpriz'd, and Catenes was highly 
efteem'd for it ; afterwards the King made Pre- 
fents to all thofe who had brought Beffus to him, 
but delay'd his Execution till they came to the 
fame Place where he had kill'd Darius. 

CHAP. VI. « 

IN the mean time the Macedonians going out 
to Forage, without obferving their ufual Dif- 
cipline, were attack'd and worfted by the Barba- 
rians, who came upon them from the neighbour- 
ing Mountains, and took a great many more of 
them Prifoners than they kill'd ; fo that driving 
the Captives before them, they return'd again to 
the Hills. They were about twenty thoufand 
that lurk'd here, and were accuftom'd to live by 
Plunder. Their Arms were Slings and Bows. 
The King therefore came and befieg'd them, and 
as he was fighting amongft the foremoit , , was 
wounded with an Arrow in the middle of the 
Leg* where the head of the Arrow ftuck ; here- 
C 3 upon 

30 Quintus Curtius. BookVII. 

upon the Macedonians were in the greateft Af- 
fliction, and carry'd him back to the Camp. The 
Barbarians were not unfenfible of the Kings be- 
ing' carry'd off from the Place of Action, for they 
could difcover every thing from the top of the 
HilL They therefore lent the next Day Depu- 
ties to the King, whom he immediately order'd to 
be introduced ; and taking off the Bandage from 
his Leg, he ftiew'd it to them, diffembling the 
Danger of his Wound; then having commanded 
'em to lit down, they told him, The Macedoni- 
ans themfelves were not more afflitted at his being 
wounded than they were , and that if they knew the 
Author of it, they would prefently deliver him in- 
to his Hands ; for it belong d only to the Sacnlc?i- 
■ ous to fight with the Gods, and therefore they Jab- 
mitt ed to him, being overcome by his Virtue and 
Bravery. 1 he King hereupon having receiv'd his 
Captives, took them into his Protection. 

After this he decamp'd, being carry'd in a mili- 
tary Litter, both Horfe and Foot ftriving for the 
Honour of being his Bearers ; the Horfe alledg'd 
in<fuftification-of their Pretentions, That the King 
ufually fought amongfl 'em. On the other fide, 
the Foot thought it their right, becaiife they were 
usd to carry their fellow Soldiers when wounded, 
and therefore look' d upon it as an Injuflice done 'em to 
be deprivd of their Office in the Perfon of their King. 
Wherefore the King taking into Confideration 
their mutual Strife, and reflecting how hard it 
was to make a Choice in the prefent Cafe, lince 
they who were rejected would think themfelves 
injur'd, commanded 'em to take him by Turns. 

From hence they came the fourth Day to a 
Town call'd Maracanda, the Walls whereof were 
rhreefcore and ten Furlongs in compai?, but the 
Caftle had no Walls ; leaving therefore a Garri- 
fon in the Town, he burnt and pillag'd the Neigh- 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 31 

bouring Villages. Here he receiv'd Ambafladors 
from the Abian Scythians, who had maintain'd 
their Liberty ever iince the deceafe of Cyrus, but 
now readily offer d to labmit to his Commands. 
It is certain they were the juftelt of all the Bar- 
barians, never having recourfe to Arms but when 
provok'd ; and were belides fo righteous in their 
moderate and fair Ufe of their Liberty, that the 
Meaneft among 'em were upon the level with the 
Greateft. The King having receiv'd 'em graci- 
oufly, fent Penidas, who was of the Band of his 
Priends, to thofe Scythians who inhabit Europe, to 
forbid them to pafi the River Tanais -without his 
Leave. He likewife order'd him, to make the beft 
"difcovery he could of the Situation of the Countrey ; 
and alfo to vifit thofe Scythians that border on the 
Bofphorus. He had made choice of a Place to 
build a City on, upon the Bank of the Tanais, 
which might ferve as a Curb to thofe Nations he 
had already fubdud, as well as t$ thofe he fliould 
hereafter conquer : But this Deiign wasdelay'd by 
the Revolt of the Sogdians, which was follow'd by 
that of the Baflrians. They were about feven 
thoufand Horfe, whofe Authority influenc'd the 
reft ; Alexander therefore fent for Spitamenes and 
Catenes who had deliver'd Befits to him, no wife 
doubting but by their Intereft the Infurretfion 
might be fupprcfs'd, and the Ringleaders fecur'd. 
But as they were themfelves the Authors of the 
Commotions they were fent to quiet, they fpread 
a Rumor, That the King had fent for the Bactrian 
Cavalry for no other End but to be cut to pieces, and 
that this was their Commifion, but they zuere far 
from being capable of executing fo abominable a Be- 
fign againfl their oivn Cou?2trey-men; for which 
they detefted Alexander'* Cruelty as much as they 
hated Belfus's Parricide. As they were of them- 
felves -irrcHh'ti to 1 rife, it was no difficult matter 
C 4 by 

3x Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

by fuch Infmuations as thefe , to make 'em take 
to their Arms. The King being inform'd of the 
Defe&ion of thefe Traytors, commanded Crate- 
rm to befiege Cyropclis, while he himfelf took an- 
other Town in the fame Countrey by a general 
Afiault; upon the Signal given they kill'd all that 
were at Man's Eftate, the reft were a prey to the 
Viclors : The Town was demolim'd for an Ex- 
ample to others. 

This did not hinder the Memacenians (who 
were a valiant People ) from refolving to iuftain a 
Siege, as being not only the molt honourable but 
fafeft courfe. The King therefore fent before 
him fifty Troopers with Inftructions to make the 
Inhabitants fenfble of his great Clemency and Good- 
nefi to thofe that fubmitted to him ; and at the fame 
time hozv inexorable he was to thofe that held out 
againfthim. To which they made anfwer, That they 
did not doubt either cf the King's Honour or Power : 
However, they defir'd them to pitch their Tents 
•without the Walls of the Town, where they enter- 
tain'd 'em very courteoufly; and at Midnight, 
when they were in a profound Sleep, being loaded 
with Wine, they fet upon them and cut all their 
Throats. Alexander was no lefs mov'd at this 
Ufage than the barbarity of the Act requir'd, and 
immediately march'd and inverted the City, which 
was too ftrongly fortified to be taken at the firft 
A (fault : So that he left Meleager and Per dice as to 
carry on this Siege, and with the reft of the Forces 
hejoin'd Craterut, who, as we faid before, was 
befieging Cyropolts. 

The King had a great defire to fpare this Town, 
in favour of Cyrm , its Founder, for whofe Me- 
mory, and that of Semiramis, he had a great Ve- 
neration , on the account of their extraordina- 
ry Vertue , Magnanimity , and memorable Ex- 
ploits ; but finding the Befieg'd remain'd obftinate, 


Book VII. QyiNTus Curtius. 33 

it fo incens'd him againft them, that having taken 
the Town, he abandon'd it to the Macedonians to 
be pillag'd, who were not without Caufe very fe- 
vere to them. After this he return'd to Mdeazer 
and Perdiccas, who were left to carry on the 
Siege of the Memacenians. No Town ever de- 
fended it felf better ; here he loft his braveft Men, 
and was in the greateft Danger himfelf, for he re- 
ceiv'd fo furious a blow on the Neck with a Stone, 
that it took away his Sight, and the prefent ufe of 
hisReafon: The Army was in the greateft Con- 
fternation now, as thinking he could hardly reco- 
ver ; but he was invincible to thofe things that 
terrifie others, and therefore without waiting till 
his Wound was cur'd, he carry'd on the Siege 
with greater Vigour, his Anger quickening his na- 
tural Difpatch. and Expedition. Having therefore 
undermin'd the Wall, and made thereby a conii- 
rable Breach, he carry'd the Place by Storm, and 
caus!d it to be demolifh'd. This done, he de- 
tach'd Menedemm with three thoufand Foot, and 
eight hundred Horfe to the City of Maracanda,- 
from whence Spitamenes had driven the Macedo- 
nian Garrilbn, (hutting himfelf up therein , as in 
a Place of fafety. The Inhabitants did not much- 
approve of his Proceeding, yet they feem'd to 
confent to it, not being able to oppofe him. In 
the mean time Alexander return'd to the River 
Tana'i6 y where he inclos'd with a Wall as much 
Ground as his Camp had taken up , which was 
threescore . Furlongs in compafs , and caus'd the 
Town he built therein to be alfo call'd Alexandria, 
The Work was carry'd on with fo much Celerity, 
that in feventeen Days both the Walls and Hou- 
fes were finiflfd. There was a mighty Strife a- 
mong the Soldiers, who mould fooneft perform 
their Tails, (for the Work was divided amongft 
'em) fo that the whole being foon perfected, he 
C 5 peopled 

34 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

peopled it with the Captives, whofe Ranfoins he 
paid to their refpective Owners ; and their Pofte- 
rity ( notwithltanding the many Ages that are 
fince elaps'd) are ftill in Confideration, out of re- 
fpedt to Alexanders Memory. 


THE King of thofe Scythians whofe Empire 
lies beyond the Tanais, looking on the new 
built Town as a Yoke the Macedonians had put 
about their Necks ; fent his Brother with a great 
Body of Horfe to demolijh it, and remove the Ma- 
cedonian Forces from it. The Tanais divides the 
Baclrians from the European Scythians, and like- 
wife ferves for the Bounds of Afia and Europe r 
The Scythian Nation not being far diftant from 
Thrace, extends it felf from the Eaft to the North- 
ward, and are not, as fome have thought, borderers 
on the Sarmatians, but are a part of that People. 
They alfo inhabit that Countrey that lies beyond the 
Jficr, and touches upon Badrtana, which is in the 
extreme parts of Afia, Northward, where there are 
vaft Forefts, and unbounded Waftes ; but that part 
of the Countrey that lies near the Tanais , and 
looks towards Ba5lriana, does not differ much in 
Culture from other improv'd Territories. 

Alexander finding him felf oblig'd to enter upon 
an unforefeen War with thefe People, and obfer- 
ving with what Infolence they rid up and down 
within his Sight ; altho' he was not yet recover'd 
of his Wound, and his Voice particularly fail'd him 
by reafon of his (lender Diet, and the violent Pain 
in his Neck, fummond his Friends to Council. He 
was not afraid of the Enemy, but uneafie at the 
unhappy Juncture of Affairs. The Eaclrians were 
i in 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 35 

in open Rebellion, the Scythians infulted him when 
lie was neither able to ftandnor ride, and To could 
neither give neceftary Orders , nor encourage his 
Men. In this double perplexity he could not for- 
bear complaining of the Gods, -who fcrc'd him to 
lie idle , whofe Diligence heretofore none could e- 
fcape ■ but now hi* own Soldiers had much ado to 
Relieve he did not counterfeit being III. ' This made 
Alexander, who lince Dariws Overthrow , had 
never consulted the Soothfayers^, return again to 
that Superftition, or jather Delullon of Mankind ; 
he therefore commanded Arijiander, in whom he 
had the greateft Confidence, to offer Sacrifice, in. 
order thereby to penetrate into the Event of Things. 
Now it was the Cuftom of thefe Soothfayers to 
infpecl: the Intrails of Beafts without the King, and 
make a Report to him of their Obfervations; 
While thefe means were tiling to find out the hid- 
den IiTue of Affairs, he order'd his Friends He- 
phaeftion, Craterus and Erigyius, with his Body 
Guards to draw near him , that he might not, by 
firaining his Voice, break the Cicatrix of his Wound, 
vjhich ivas yet but tender. After which he fpoke to 
them in the-following manner. The Danger I haz e 
to encounter tvith comes upon me at a Juncture more 
favourable to my Enemy than my felf ; but tfecef- 
Jity takes pLice of Reafon, and more efpecially in 
War., where it very rarely happens that we can 
chufe our own Times. The Bactrians have revolted 
when vje werejuft ready to put our Yoke upon 'em, and 
they fliall find by others Experience what we are 
able to do. It is plain, that if we leave the Scy- 
thians, vuho attack ta of their ovm Choice, wefnall' 
appear defpicable to tho fe who ha ve rebeWd ; but if 
on the contrary we pafi the Tanais, and fhew our 
fives invincible at the Scythians Cofl, there is no 
doubt to be made, but Europe will alfo lie open to- 
our vitlorious Arms, He is deceivd who pretends 
C 6 to 

3 6 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

to fet bounds to our Glory. We have only one River 
to pafi to carry our Arms into Europe , and what 
an Honour will it be to m at the fame time that 
tue are fubduing Afia , to erecl Trophies of our 
Conquejls, as it were in a new World, by uniting 
with one Viclory what Nature feparated at fo 
great a diftance ? But on the. other fide , if we 
make the leajl Delay, we (hall infallibly have the 
Scythians upon our Backs. Are we the only Men 
that can pafi Rivers f A great many things by the 
means whereof we have hitherto been fuccefifulivill 
turn againfi us. Rortune will teach the vanquijh'd 
the Art of War. We have lately /hewn the way 
to pa/3 Rivers upon Skins, which admit the Scythi- 
ans to be yet ignorant of, the Bactrians zvill foon 
teach 'em the way. Befides, there is yet but the 
Army of one of thefe Nations arrivd, there are o- 
thers daily expected ; fo that by declining the War 
we foment it : And whereas we can now carry the 
War where we pleafe, by our neglecl we Jha.ll be 
forcd to be upon the defenfive. What I fay is felf- 
evident, but whether the Macedonians will fuffer 
me to atl after my own way I cannot tell, becaufe 
fince my lafi wound I have not been able to ride on 
Horfeback, or to go on Root : However, if you are 
willing to follow me, my Rriends, I am well. 1 
think my [elf firong enough to bear the Ratigue, and 
tf the period of my Life be at hand, "which way can 
J die more glorioufly ? 

He utter'd thefe things with fo weak a Voice, 
that they who were next to him could hardly hear 
him, fo that they unanimoufiy endeavour' d to di- 
vert r>im from fo raQi an Enterprize, efpecially 
ErigyittSy who (finding he could not prevail up- 
on his Obftinacy by his Intereft with him ) had 
recourfe to Superftition, which the King was very 
much addicted to, and therefore told him, That . 
the Gods themfelves oppoid his Defign, and threa- 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 37 

tend him with fome extraordinary Misfortune if 
he pafs'd the River. Erigyim, as he was entring 
the Kings Tent, had met Ariftander , who had 
inform'd him , That the Entrails of the Beajis 
appear d unlucky. Hereupon Alexander filenc'd 
him , reddening with Anger as well as Shame , 
that his Superftition, which he thought to conceal, 
was thus made publick, and fent for Ariftander ; 
who being come, he told him (a little tranfport- 
ed ) That he fuppos'd he was no longer his King , 
but a private Perfon ; did not I command you to 
cjfer a Sacrifice f Why then did you difclofe to any 
but my felf what the fame portended? Erigyius, by 
your Treachery has penetrated into my Secrets', but 
I am confident he covers his own Fear by that In- 
terpretation. I therefore command you to tell me 
your felf what you learn d by your Obfervation of 
the Viclims , that you may not have it in your 
Power to deny what you ft) all have faid. Ariftan- 
der at thefe Words flood like one aftonifh'd, turning 
pale almoit fpeechlefs thro' Fear ; but then again, 
the fame Fear prompted him to fpeak, left he 
(hould provoke the King ftill more by his long fi- 
lence: He therefore faid, Iforetlod that yourprefent 
Undertaking would be both perillous and full of Dif- 
ficulties , but not unfuccefsful ; neither is it any dif- 
covery from my Art, but the ftncerity of my duti- 
ful Ajfeffion for you, that makes me uneafie. I fee 
how weak you are, and am fenfible. how much de- 
fends on your Perfon alone. In fine , I fear you 
have not ftrength enough to help out your Fortune 
as heretofore. • 
The King bidding him not diftruft his Happi- 
nefs (fince the Gods intended him ftill a larger por- 
tion of Glory) difmifs'd him. Afterwards, while 
the King was deliberating with the fame Perfons, 
how he fhould pafs the River, Ariftander return'd 
and aflur'd him, he had facrificd again , and had 


38 Quintus Curtius. BookVII. 

never obfervd more promifing Omens , they bemg 
very different from the firft, in which there was 
fome ground for Solicitude : whereas now the Gods 
feemd to be altogether propitious. 

However, the News that was brought Alexan- 
der foon after feem'd to break the Chain of his 
uninterrupted Profperity. We took notice before 
that he had detach'd Menedemus to beftege Spita- 
menes, the Author of the Batlrian Infurrecftion ; 
who upon Advice of the Enemy's approach, to 
avoid being pent up within the Walls of a Town, 
and conceiving withal fome hopes of trepanning 
him, had plac'd himfelf in Ambufcade on the Way 
he knew he was to come. There was a Wood thro' 
which Menedemus was to pafs, and by reafon of 
Us covert, very fit for Spitameness purpofe ; here 
he plac'd the Bah a, whofe Horfes carry each two 
arm'd Soldiers, who by turns, as occafion ferves, 
fuddenly difmount, and put the beft order'd Ca- 
valry in Confufion, for the Men are as fwift as 
the Horfes. 

Spitamenes order'd therefore thefe Troops to 
furround the Wood, and upon the Signal given 
to attack the Enemy in Front, Flank and Rear ; 
at the fame time Menedemus finding himfeT 
thus hemm'd in on all fides, and much inferior 
in Number, refolv'd to make the beft Reiiftanco 
he could , and lb told his Men , That the only 
Comfort they could now propofe to themfelves was 
to dye well revengd. He was himfelf mounted 
on a ftrongHorfe, with which he had often broke 
down the Enemies Ranks, and put them to Flight 
with great lofs ; but being at prefent attack'd on 
all fides, andalmoft bloodlefs by the many wounds 
he had receiv'd, he defir'd a certain Friend of his, 
nam'd Hypfides, to get upon his Horfe, and try to 
fave him ; but while this was doing he dy'd, and 
fell to the Ground. However, Hypfides might 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 39 

have got off, if he had had a mind , but having 
loft his Friend he fcorn'd to live. His only Care 
was to fell his Life as dear as he could; clapping 
therefore Spurs to his Horfe , he rode in among 
the thickeft of the Enemy, and having made a 
gTeat Slaughter at laft was kill'd. They that ftill 
remain'd perceiving this, retir'd to an Eminence 
hard by, and were at laft reduc'd by Famine. In 
this Action there periftVd two thoufand Foot, and 
three hundred Horfe, which lofs Alexander wifely 
conceal'd by threatening with Death thofe that 
return' d from the Defeat, if they divulg'd it. 


BUT as he could no longer carry on his Dif- 
fimulation, he repair'd to his Tent, which he 
had caus'd on purpofe to be pitch'd upon the Bank 
of the River ; there he pafs'd the Night alone 
without Sleep, calling in his Mind what was beft 
to be done in the prefent Juncture, and frequent- 
ly lifting up the Skins of his Tent to behold the 
Enemies Fires, and be able to guefs at their Num- 
ber. As foon as it was Day, he put on his Ar- 
mour and ihew'd himfelf to the Army now the 
firft time fince he receiv'd his laft wound. They 
had fo great a Veneration for their King, that his 
preience foon difiipated their Fears ; they there- 
fore , with Tears of Joy in their Eyes , faluted 
him, and now prefs'd him hard to enter upon the 
War, which they had before refus'd. Upon this 
he told them, He would pafs the Horfe , and the 
Phalanx in flote Boats, and the light arm d part of 
the Army on ftujf'd Shins, as he had done hereto- 
fore. There was no occafion for his faying more, 
neither could he, by reafon of his Infirmity. 


40 Quintus Curtius, BookVII; 

The Soldiers immediately fell to work with fo 
much cheerfulnefs, that in three Days time they 
made twelve thoufand of thefe Boats. Every 
thing was now in readinefs-for their Pafiage, when 
there came twenty AuiDaiTadors from the Scythi-, 
tms , according to the Cuftom of that Nation , 
and riding about the Camp , defir'd the King 
might be inform'd they had a Meffage to him : 
They being introduc'd accordingly, and order'd by 
his Majefty to fit down, look'd very earneftly at 
him : I iuppofe for this reafon, that they make an 
Eftimate of the Mind from the fize of the Bo- 
dy, and as he was but of a moderate Stature they 
did not think him proportionabie to his migh- 
ty Character. The Scythians are not a dull, 
heavy People, .like the reft of the Barbarians ; 
nay, fome of them are faid to attain to as much 
Knowledge as is confident with any Nation that 
is conftantly in Arms. It is faid, they addrefs'd 
themfelves to the King in the following Terms ; 
which, tho' perhaps different from our Manners, 
who live in a politer Age, and have our Parts bet- 
ter improv'd, yet fuch as it is, we (hall faithfully 
relate, hoping that if their Speech be defpis'd, our 
Integrity will not be fufpecled. The 'em 
therefore faid, If the Gods had given you a Body 
fuitable to the infatiable. Greedinefs of your Mind, 
the World ivould not be able to contain you > you 
would fir etch one Arm out to the far theft Extremities 
of the Eaft, and the other to the remoteft Bounds of 
the Weft ; and not content thereivith, would be for 
examining where the glorious Body of the Sun hid 
it felf ; but even as you are, your Ambition at- 
tempts what you are not capable of You pafs out 
of Europe into Ana, and from. AHa you return 
again to Europe ; and when you have overcome all 
Mankind, rather than be quiet, you'll quarrel with 
the Woods and the Mountains, the Rivers and wild 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 41 

Beafis. Can you be ignorant, that large Trees are 
a long Time a growing, tho an Hoar be fufficient 
to cut them down ? He is a Fool that coveteth their 
Fruit, without duly confidering their height. Take 
heed that while you Jlrive to climb up to the Top, 
you do not fall headlong with thofe Branches you 
have grafp'd. A Lion has fome time been the Prey 
of the fmallefl Birds ; and Iron it [elf is confumd 
by Ruft. In fine, there is nothing fo firm and firong, 
but is in Danger of perijhing by what is weaker. 
What have you to do with us ? We never fo mueif 
as fet foot in your Countrey. Shall not we vjho 
pafs our Lives in the Woods, be allow 'd to be igno- 
rant who you are, and whence you come? Know 
that as we are not greedy of Empire, fo neither can 
we fubmit to be Slaves. N-ow that you may be fen- 
fible what fort of People the Scythians are? Hea- 
ven has prefented us with a Yoke of Oxen, a Plough, 
an Arrozv, and a Bowl; thefe things we either 
■communicate with our Friends, or make ufe of 'em 
to defend our felves againfi our Enemies : We im- 
part to our Friends the Corn which is producd by 
the Labour of the Oxen, and zuith them alfo we 
facrifice to the Gods out of the Botvl : Our Arroivs 
ferve us againfi our Enemies at a difiance, and we 
ufe our Spears in a clofer Engagement. By thefe 
means we overcame the King of Syria, and fince, 
the Kings of Perfia, and of the Medes, and open d 
our felves a Way even into Egypt. And whereas you 
are pleas d to give out, that you come to punifh 
Thieves and Robbers ; it is plain you have play d the 
Part of a Robber in all the Nations you have yet 
invaded. You feizJd Lydia, made your felf Mafier 
of Syria, and are in prefent Pofieffion alfo of Perfia ; 
the Ba<5trians are in your Power, and you have pe- 
netrated into India ; and after all this, you cannot be 
fatisfyd, unlefs you extend your ravenous Hands to 
our harmlefs Flocks. What Occafion have you for 



Riches, fince they only ferve to tncreafe your Appe- 
tite ? You are the firji who by Satiety fljarpen your 
Hunger, as if all your Acquifitions only fervd to 
make you thirfl after what you have not. Don't 
you refie5l hozv long the Batftrians have employ d 
you ? And that while they kept you in Play, the 
Sodgians rebelld : So that your very Vitlories feem 
to afford you frefh matter of War. Now admitting 
that you are greater and ftronger than any, yet you 
ought to confider, that no Body can ^ndurriong-a 
foreign Government. Do but pafs the Tanais, and 
yon may indeed learn the Extent of our Countrey y 
but can never hope to overtake the Scythians; our 
Poverty w-ll /till be too nimble for your Army that 
is laden with the Spoils effo many Nations. Again, 
when you think us the farthefi from you, you fhall 
find us within your Camp. We are equally fivift 
either to fly or purfue. I am inform d, that our 
Defarts and Wafles, are become Proverbs of Scorn 
among the- Greeks. But for our parts , we make 
choice of Wilds, and thofe Places that are void of 
human Culture rather than of Cities and fruitful 
Soils. Hold therefore your "Fortune as clofe as you 
can, for fhe is flippery and will not be held againfi 
her Will. Wholfome Advice is better difcover'd by 
the Confequences than the prefent. Put a Curb 
therefore to your Profperity, and you 11 govern it the 
better. We have a Saying amongft us, That For- 
tune is without Feet, and has only Hands and Wings, 
and that when fhe reaches out her Hands, fhe xvill 
not fuffer her V/'mgs to be touched. To be fhort, if 
you are a God, you ought to be beneficent to Mor- 
tals, and not deprive 'em of what they have ; and 
if you are a Man, always remember your felf to be 
Ifhat you are. It is Folly to be mindful of thofe 
things ivhich make you forget your felf. You may 
make good ufe of the Friendship of thofe you do not 
exafperate by War : for the firmefi Union is vmongfh 

Equals ; 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 4j 

Equals ; and thofe feem to be Equals, who have not 
yet tryd their Strength. Do not imagine thofe you 
conquer, can be your Friends; there's no Friendfliip % 
betiveen the Sovereign and the Slave, for even in 
time of Peace, the Decrees of War do fill obtain. The 
Scythians in their Alliances , do not make ufe of 
Oaths to ratify the fame, but their Integrity an- 
fwers all the Ends of Oaths. It is a Precaution of 
the Greeks indeed, to confirm their Tranfattions 
with the Invocation of the Gods ; but as for our 
felves, we make it part of our Religion faithfully to 
obferve our Prom'ifes. They who have no Reve- 
rence for Men, will not' fcruple to deceive the Gods 
the m felves. Befides, you have no Occafion for Friends, 
of whofe Benevclence you doubt now. In us you will 
have incorruptible Guardians both of Alia and Eu- 
rope : There is only the Tanais between us and Ba- 
driana ; and beyond the Tanais, zve extend our felves 
as far as Thrace, and Thrace is [aid to border up- 
on Macedonia. Thus you fee we are your Neigh- 
bours in both your Empires, Conftder therefore, 
whether you will have us far your Friends or your 


THE Barbarian having finifli'd his Speeeh, the 
King made him this Anfwer ; That he would 
depend upon his own Fortune, and the Coufel of his 
Friends : On his Fortune, becaufe he had Confidence in 
if ; and he would confult the Opinion of his Friends, 
that he might undertake nothing rafirty, and with 
too great a Confidence of Succefs. After which, he 
difmifs'd the Ambaiiadors, and imbark'd his Army 
on the Boats he had prepar'd for that purpofe. In 
the fore-part of the Boats , he plac'd thofe who 


44 Qjjintus Curtius. Book VII. 

had Bucklers, commanding them to kneel down that 
they might be leJ3 expos d to the Enemies Arrows. 
Next to thefe were the Directors of the Machines, 
having on each fide of them , as well as before, 
Soldiers compleatly arm'd. The reft ftanding be- 
hind the Engines, form'd a Tortoife with their 
Bucklers, and fo protected the Rowers, who had 
alfo Armour on. The fame Difpofition was ob- 
ferv'd in thofe Boats that tranfported the Horfe, 
of whom the major part held their Horfes by the 
Reins of their Bridles, and fo drew them along 
fwimming at the Stern ; as for them that were 
carry 'd over on Skins ftuff'd with Straw, they 
were fhelter'd by the flote Boats. 

The King , with fuch as he had chofen to ac- 
company him, put off firft, and directed his Courfe 
to the other fide of the River, where the Scythi- 
ans had drawn up fome Horfe along the Bank to 
oppofe his landing ; but befides the appearance of 
an Army on the Shore, the Macedonians met with 
another Danger in their PafTage , for they that 
fteer'd the Boats were not able to maintain their 
Courfe crofs the River, by reafon of the rapidity 
of its Current; and the Soldiers tottering up and 
down, and apprehenfive of being call over board, 
difturb'd the Watermen in their Bufinefs. In this 
Condition it was impoffible for them to deliver 
their Darts with any force, being more folicitous 
how to ftand fecurely, than to attack the Enemy. 
It is true, their Engines did them great Service, 
feldom failing to do Execution, the Enemy ftand- 
ing thick upon the Shore, and raflily expofing 
themfelves. The Barbarians alfo on their fide,, 
poured in Clouds of Arrows amongfl: the Boats, 
fo that there was hardly a Buckler that had not 
feveral Heads (licking in it. At length the Boats 
hegan to gain the Land, and thofe that were 
arm'd with Shields,, rifing all at one Motion, caft 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 4f 

their Darts with a more certain Aim, as having 
greater Liberty and furer Footing. Thus the 
Scythian Horfe being terrify'd and forc'd to give 
back, the Macedonians encouraging each other, 
leap'd out of their Boats, and with great Alacrity 
and Fury, bore down upon the Enemy already in 
Confuiion. By this time Alexanders Horfe had 
fcrm'd themfelves into Troops, and broke in alfo 
.upon the Barbarians diforderxl Pranks. While thefe 
things were doing, the reft of the Macedonian 
Army being cover'd by thofe that were engag'd, 
had time to prepare likewife for Battel. The King 
fupply'd the Weaknefs of his Body with the Vi- 
gor of his Mind ; and although his Voice was not 
yet ftrong enough to make his Encouragement 
heard, {his Wound not being quite heal'd) yet the 
the whole Army could fee how gallantly he fought. 
This made 'em all discharge the Generals part, and 
animate each other with fo good an Effect , that 
they fell furioully on the Enemy, regardlefs of 
their own Safety. Whereupon the Scythians no 
lender able to fuftain the Arms, Shouts, and Coun- 
tenance of the Macedonian Army, clapp'd Spurs to 
their Horfes and made the belt of their Way. The 
King (notwithstanding his infirm Body could not 
y&X endure any great Fatigue) purfu'd the Enemy 
for the Space of fourfcore Furlongs; then finding 
himfelf faint, he order' d his Men to continue their 
Purfuiras long as they had Day Light ; after which, 
he repair'd to his Camp, expecting the Return of his 

They had already pafs'd the Bounds of Bacchus, 
in Commemoration of whom there were a great 
many Stones erected at a dilhnce from each other, 
and ieveral tall Trees, whole Boles were cover'd 
over with Ivy. But the Macedonians Rage carry '.d 
them Hill farther, fo that they did not return to 
the Camp till-Midnight. They kiU'd a great many, 


46 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

took feveral Prifoners, and brought away eighteen 
hundred Horfes. In this Aclion the Macedonians 
loft iixty Troopers, and aim oft one hundred Foot, 
and had one thoufand wounded. This feafonable 
Victory fettled the Minds of the Afiaticks (who 
were at this time wavering) for they look'd upon 
the Scythians, to be invincible, and finding them 
defeated too, they concluded, no Nation was able 
to zvithftand the Macedonian Power. 

The SacA hereupon fent AmbafTadors to Alex- 
ander, to afiure him, that their Nation [ubmitted 
to him. They were mov'd to this, not only by 
the Kings Bravery, but alfo by his Clemency to- 

• wards the Scythians, to whom he fent back all their 
Prifoners without Ranfom, that that fierce Nation 
might be fenftble he did not fight with 'em out of 
Haired or Anger, but for Reputation and Glory. 
Having therefore receiv'd the Sacans AmbafTadors 
graciouily, he gave them Excipinus for a Compa- 
nion home; who being in the Flower of his 
Youth, was very much in Alexanders Favour; 
but altho' he was as handfome in Perfon as He- 

phAfiion, yet he was far from having his agreeable 

Then the King leaving the major Part of the 
Army under the Command of Craterus, with Or- 
ders to follow him at eafie Marches, went himfelf 
with the reft to Maracanda. Spitamenes being in- 
form'd of his Approach, left that City and fled to 
Battra. Alexander therefore having travel'd a great 
deal of Ground in four Days, came at laft to the 
Place were Menedemus had loft the two thoufand 
Foot, and three hundred Horfe, whofe Bones he 
order'd to be bury'd with the ufual Rites of their 
Countrey. Here Craierus, who had been com- 
manded to follow, join'd the King. That there- 
fore he might chaftife at once all thofe who had 
revolted from him* he divided his Army into fe- 

Book VII. Quintus Cxjrtius. 47 

v.eral Bodies, and order'd them to burn the Corify- 
trey, and kill all that xv$re able to bear Arms. 


THE Countrey of Sogdiana, is for the moll 
part a Defatt; the Wilds and Waftes taking 
up almoft eight hundred Furlongs in Breadth. It 
is of a vail Extent in Length, and is water'd by a 
River cail'd by the Inhabitant? Polytimetm, which 
runs with a rapid Stream. This River is jconfin'd 
within a narrow Channel, and is at laft receiv'd in- 
to a fubterranean Cavity. The Noiie it makes , 
as it palies under Ground, is a fufficient Indication of 
its hidden Courfe ; yet the Territory under which 
this confiderable River runs, mews no fign Ofvit 
from the leaft Evaporation of Water , thro' any 
Part of its Paflage. 

Among the captive Sogdians, there were thirty 
.of the chiefeft Nobility of the Countrey, who were 
remarkable for their prodigious Strength of Body. 
Thefe being brought before the King, and under- 
standing by the Interpreter, that his Majeily had 
order'd 'em to be executed, they began to fing and 
dance, and by other wanton Motions of their Body 
endeavoured to exprefs the Chearfulnefs of their 
Mind. Alexander being amaz'd at their unuiual 
Alacrity on fuch an Occafion, commanded 'em to 
be brought back, and aJk'd 'em the Caafe of their 
xxceffive Joy, when they beheld death before their 
Eyes. To which they anfwer'd ; That if any other 
than himfelf had fentenced them to die, they ftould . 
have been concern 'd; but fince they were to be re- 
jlord to their Anceftors by fo great a King who had 
.conquer' d all the World ; they look'd upon their Death 
to be fo honourable, as even to defervs the Envy of 


48 Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

aft brave Men, which made them fo tranfported when 
they underftood his Pleafure. The King then afk'd 
them, if they would be his friends hereafter, if he 
Jhould give them their Lives? They reply'd, That 
they had never been his Enemies, but had only de- 
fended themfelves when they were attack' d in a hc- 
fide manner by him. And that if any Body would 
make Trial of them, by good Offices, infiead of In- 
juries, they would vjillingly contend in the generous 
Strife, and ufe their utmoft Endeavours not to be 
overcome. He afking them afterwards, What Pledge 
they would give him for their Fidelity ? They an- 
fwer'd, Their Lives, which they receiv d through his 
Bounty, and which they would at all Times be ready to 
refiore to him, whenever he requird 'em. Nor were 
they worfe than their Words. For thofe of em, who 
were fent home, kept their Countrey People in 
due Subjection to Alexander; and four of them 
being receiv'd into his Body Guards, were infe- 
rior to none of the Macedonians in their finccre 
Affection to the King. Alexander having left 
P.eucolaus among the Sogdians with a Garrifon of 
three thoufand Men , he march'd to Baclra , from 
whence £e commanded Befjus to be conducted taEc- 
batana, thereto fuffer Death for murderingDzrius. 

About the lame time Ptolemy and Menidas 
brought him three thoufand Foot, and one thou- 
fand Horfe, to ferve in the War as Mercenaries. 
Alexander likewife came to him with the fame 
Number of Foot, and five hundred Horfe, out of 
Lycia. The like Number had follow'd Afclepia- 
dorus from Syria. Antipater had alfo fent eight 
thoufand Greeks, amongft whom were five hun- 
dred Horfe. 

Being therefore reinforcd by thefe Recruits, he 
proceeded to compofe the Dilturbances in the re- 
volted Provinces; and having put to Death the 
Promoters, >e came the fourth Day -to the River 


Book VII. .Quintus Curtius. 49 

Oxus. This River, by reafon of the Mud it carries 
along with its Stream, is always turbid and un- 
wholefome to drink. The Soldiers therefore fell 
to finking of Wells, and notwithstanding they had 
dug a great way into the Ground, could find no 
Water. At laft there was a Spring found in the 
King's Tent, which becaufe it was difcover'd but 
late, they imagin'd it fprung up on the fudden, 
and the King himfelf was not againft its being 
thought a prefent from Heaven. 

Having afterwards pafs'd the Rivers Ochus and 
Oxus, he came to a Town call'd Marginia, near to 
which he made choice of Places to build fix Cities 
in. Two of them were to be towards the South, and 
four towards the Eaft. They were to ftand at a 
moderate Diftance from each other, that neither 
might have far to feek for Succour upon Occafion. 
They were all built upon pretty high Eminences, 
and intended as fo many Curbs to the conquer' d Na- 
tions ; but having now forgot their Origin, they are 
fubjecl: to thofe whom they formerly commanded. 


AL L Troubles were, now quieted ; there was 
only one Rock which a Scgdi-an, 
had poffefs'd himfelf of, w^ith thirty thoufand Men 
all arm'd, having provided it with all manner 
of Necefiaries for lb great a Multitude for two 
Years. The Rock is thirty Furlongs in Highrh, and 
one hundred and fifty in Circumference, being on 
aii fides Iteep and craggy, and is accelTible only by 
a very narrow Path. In the Midway to the Top, 
it has a Cave whofe Entrance is itrait and dark, 
but by degrees grows wider, and farther on, has 
large Receffes. This Cave was full of Springs, 
Vol. II. D whofe 

/ jo Qlintus Curtius. Book VII. 

-whofe Waters being united as they run down the 
Rock, form a River. The King having confider'd 
the Difficulty of the Enterprize, had refolv'd to 
leave it ; but afterwards was feiz'd with a violent 
Defire to get the better even of Nature. However, 
before he undertook the Siege thereof, he fent Ce- 
phas, Artabazus's Son, to endeavour to perfuade 
the Barbarians to furrender the Rock. But Arima- 
sj:s confiding in the Strength of the Place, gave ve- 
ry haughty Anfwers, and at laft, auVd, Whether 
Alexander could fly ? Which being related to the 
King, fo inflam'd his Anger, that having call'd a 
Council, he communicated to it, how infolent the 
Barbarians were to them, becaufe they had no Wings, 
Jet he did not doubt, he faid, but by the next Night, 
to convince 'em, that the Macedonians could upon 
Occafion fly. And therefore order'd 'em to bring him 
three hundred of the nimble jl and mo ft aclive young 
Men they each had in their icfpeclive Troops, and 
fuch as had been accuftomd at home to drive Sheep 
amongfl the Rocks, and almoft impajjable Ways in the 
Mountains. Accordingly they brought him fuch as 
excelld the reft, both in Agility and Lightnefs of 
Body, as well as in Boldnefs and Courage. Whom 
the King beholding, faid, It is with you, generous 
Youths, who are of my own Age, that I have taken 
Toivns which w-£re before thought impregnable, and 
pafi'd over the Tops of thofe Hills which are conti- 
nually cover d with Snow ; with you I enter d the 
Straits of Cilicia , and endurd without Wearinefs 
the violent Colds of India. / have given you Proof 
of my felf, and have h*id it of you. The Rock you fee 
has but one way to it^ which is guarded by the Bar- 
barians, the r.eft of it is negletted by 'em. They keep 
no Watch but tovjards our Camp. If you feek dili- 
gently, you tvillnot fail of finding fome zvay or other 
that will bring you to the Top. There is nothing fo 
inaccejfible by Nature, but your Vertue will make 

Book VII. Quintus Curtius. st 

(ome fliift or other to get to it. It is by underta- 
king what others defpaird of that zve have Afia in 
our Power , work therefore your way up to the top of 
the Hill, and when you have made your felvcs Ma- 
ftersof it, hang out white Clothes for a fignal tome', 
and I fhall then take care to advance towards the E- 
nemy, and by a powerful Diverfion hinder their fal- 
ling upon you : The firft that gets up fliall have ten 
Talents for his Reward, the next fJ?all have one lejS, 
and fo downward in the fame Proportion for ten. I 
am very certain, that it is not fo much my Liberality 
as the Satisfaction to pleafe me, that you will look at 
in this bold Attempt. They heard the King's 
Speech with fo much alacrity, that one would 
have thought they had already gain'd the top of 
the Mountain, and being difmifs'd they provided 
themfelves with Wedges to fix in the Clefts of the 
Rock , and alfo with ftrong Ropes. The King 
rid round the Rock with them, and order'd 'em 
to fet about their Work at the fecond Watch, be- 
ginning where the Rock was moft practicable, and 
wifh'd the Gods to favour their Undertaking : 
They having furniflfd themfelves with Provifions 
for two Days, and arm'd only with their Swords 
and Spears, let forwards without any great diffi- A 
culty at firft, but when they came to the fteep 
part , fome laid hold of the broken Crags to lift 
themfelves up ; others made ufe of Ropes with 
Hiding Knots , having fix'd their Wedges in the 
Clefts to fliift their Footing. Thus they fpent 
the whole Day in Fear and Labour, and having 
furmounted great Difficulties, there remain'd ftill 
greater to overcome, and the Rock feem'd to 
grow in highth. It was a di final Spectacle to be- 
hold thofe whofe footing fail'd them, tumbling 
headlong down the Precipice, and by their Ex- 
ample mewing others what they were to expect. 
All thefe Difficulties notwithstanding, they made 
D 2. a fliift 

Quintus Curtius. Book VII. 

a (Lift to get up to the top, being all very much 
fatigu'd with the continual Labour ; fome were 
hurt and maim'd in their Limbs , yet were with 
the reft furpriz'd with the Night and Sleep. How- 
ever , diiperling themfelves up and down , they 
laid their wearied Bodies upon the rough craggy 
Stones, altogether unmindful of the prefent Dan- 
ger, and flept till it was light. At laft they awak'd 
eutof their profound Sleep, and looking cu.rioully a- 
bout'to difcover where fo great a Number of People 
could hide themfelves, they perceiv'd fome iirioke 
beneath 'em, which detected the Place of their Re- 
treat. They therefore, according to their Orders, 
ereded the Signal, agreed upon, and found that of 
their whole Number there were miffing thirty two. 
The King being no lefs defirous to make himfclf 
Mailer of the Place, than folicitous .for thole be 
had expos'd to manifeft Danger, flood, all Day 
■gazing at the top of the Hill, and: did not depart 
to take his natural reft, till the darknefs of the 
Night hinder'd all Profpcct of the Eyes. The next 
Day early in the Morning he feft perceiv'd the 
white Clothes, which were the Signal that his 
Men had gain'd the top. However, he was un- 
y certain whether his Eyes did not deceive him, by 
reafon of the variety of the Light of the riling 
Sun, which fometimes lhin'd out, and fometimes 
was hid in a Cloud ; but the clearer Light put it 
beyond all doubt. He therefore call'd for Cophxt 
(whom he had fent before to. the 'Barbarians) 
and difpatch'd him to them again, to try to bring 
them to a fafer Refoiutjon; and if he found they 
perfifted in their Obltinacy ( relying on the ftrength 
of the Place) he commanded him, t» fiew thefh 
his Soldiers who had taken PoJJ'ejfion of the top of 
the Mountain. Cophas being admitted, did all he 
could to perfuade to furrender the Rock, 
alluring him, he would very much ingratiate him- 


Book VII. Quintus Curtius. 53 

hi/ with the King, if he did not (hy the Siege of 
a fingle Rock) Hop him in the Career of his no- 
bier Defigns. The Barbarians were now more info- 
lent: than before, and commanded Cophas to be gone. 
'Then Coph as taking by the Hand, defied 
him to go out of the Cave with him, which having 
obtain'd, he (hew'dhim thofe who were iu PoiTeffion 
of the top of the Rock ; and by way of ridicule told 
him, That Alexander'* Soldiers had Wings. At the 
fame time the Trumpets were founding m the 
Macedonians Camp , and the Soldiers ' fill'd the 
Air with their Shouts and joyfu} [Conclainations. 
•This ( as it often happens in War , where trivia l 
Accidents have many times great Influence ) made 
the Barbarians refolve to furrender ; for , being 
feiz'd with Fear, they could not make an Eftimate 
of the fmall Number of thofe who were behind 
them. They therefore call'd back Cophas in all 
hafte, and fent along with him thirty of the raoft 
conliderable amongft them, to deliver up the Rock 
if they, might retire with their Lives ; but the 
King was fo incens'd at his haughty An- 
fwers, that notwithstanding he very much dreaded 
left the Barbarians, discovering the fmall Num- 
ber of thofe above, mould caft them headlong 
down the Precipice, and fo fruftrate his Attempt ; 
yet confiding at the fame time in his Fortune, he 
deny'd them any manner of Conditions. Here- 
upon ( being more afraid than hurt ) de- 
fcended into the Camp with his Relations, and 
.the chiefeftMen of the Nation; all whom Alexan- 
der caus'd to be whifd fir ft, and then crucify' d at 
the foot of the Rock. The reft of the Multitude 
were given to the Inhabitants of the new Towns, 
as alfo what Money was found amongft them ; 
and Artakaz.m was appointed Governour of the 
Rock, and the adjacent Countrey round it. 




Lexander having made himfelf Ma- 
iler of the Rock with greater Fame 
than real Glory, obferving his E- 
nemies were difpers'd here and 
there, divided his Army into three 
Bodies ; Hephaftion had the com- 
mand of the one, Ccenonoi the other, and he him- 
felf led the third. However, his Enemies were 
not all of the fame Mind, for fome were fubdu'd 
by force of Arms, tho' the greater Number fub- 
mitted without rifquing an Engagement : To 
thefe he therefore difiributed the Towns and Lands 
of thofe who perfijied objiinately in their Rebellion ; 
but the banim'd Baclrians , with eight hundred 
Majfagetan Horfe, plunder'd the neighbouring Vil- 
lages, and AttineK (who was Governor of that 
Province) march'd out with three hundred Horfe 
ro fupprefs thefe Diforders, not dreaming in the 
leaft of the Mifchief that was prepar'd him ; for 
the Enemy had plac'd a Body of Soldiers in the 
Woods that are contiguous to the Plains, leaving 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 55- 

fome few only to drive before them Flocks of 
Sheep, that the defire of the Booty might entice- 
him into the Ambufcade they had laid for him * 
accordingly Attinas no fooner difcover'd the fame, 
but he made all the hafte he could to fecure his 
Prey, without obferving the leaft Order ; fo that 
he was no fooner pafs'd thro' the Wood, than they 
who lay in Ambufcade fell upon him at unawares,, 
and kill'd him and all his Men. This difafter 
quickly came to Craterms Ears, who immediate- 
ly repair'd thither with all his Horfe, but the Maf- 
fagau were already fled ; however, he flew a 
thoufand of the Dah& , by whofe defeat the Re- 
bellion was quell'd throughout all the Countrey. 

Alexander likewife having again fubdu'd the 
Sogdians , return'd to Maracanda. Here Berdes 
( whom he had fent to the Scythians who inhabit 
the Countrey near the Bofphorus) came to him 
with the AmbaiTadors of that Nation. Phrata- 
phernes alfo (who had the Government of the 
Chorafmians , who border'd on the MaJJ'aget* and 
the Dah&) fent MefTengers to acquaint him, he 
fubmitted himfelf to his royal Will and Pteafure. 
The Scythians defir'd, That he would marry the 
Daughter of their King, but if he did not approve 
cf the Alliance , at leafi that he would permit the 
Macedonian Nobility to intermarry with the mofi 
confiderable Perfons of their Nation ; they ajfrtrd 
him alfo, that their King would come in Perfon and 
pay him a Vifit. 

Alexander receiv'd both thefe Embaflys very 
gracioufly, and remain d encamp'd in the fame Place 
till he was join'd by Heph^ftton and Artabaaus , 
after which he march'd into the Countrey call'd 

The chiefeft marks of the barbarous Opulency 
of this Nation confift in having large Herds of 
wild Beafts, fliut up in great Forefts and Woods, 

D 4 well 

S6 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

well fupply'd with perennial Springs , which ren- 
der them very delightful. Thefe Forefts are m- 
cios'd with Walls, and have Towers alfo for the 
Reception of the Hunters ; among the reft of 
thefe immur'd Woods, there was one which had 
not been hunted in for the fpace of four Ages, 
which Alexander enter'd with his whole Army, 
giving Orders to hunt and deflroy all the Game 
they could. Among the reft there was a Lyon of 
an unufual lize, which made towards the King, 
and Lyfimachus (who reign'd afterwards) being 
next to Alexander, and obferving the Danger he 
was in, began to put himfelf into a pollute to re- 
ceive the Beaft with his hunting Spear ; but Alexan- 
der retus'd his A Alliance, and commanded him to 
be gone, adding, That he was as able to kill a Ly- 
on Jingle as Lylimachus. We muft here take no- 
tice, that Lylimachus had formerly (as he was hunt- 
ing in Syria) kill'd a very large Lyon iingle, but 
endanger'd his Life in the Adtion, it having torn 
his left Shoulder to the Bone : This made the 
King upbraid him as he did, and at the fame time 
behave himfelf with more bravery than he had 
fpoke ; for he not only receiv'd the Beaft with an un- 
daunted Courage, but alfo kill'd it with one ftroke. 
I am apt to believe the fabulous Account of Lylima- 
chus being exposed to a Lyon by Alexander'* com- 
mand, had its rife from this Accident which we 
have mentioned. 

However, notwithftanding the King fucceeded 
fo well in this bold Attempt, yet the Macedonians, 
according to theCuftom of their Countrey, made 
an Ordinance, That for the future the King fljould 
■ not hunt any more on Toot, nor without being at- 
tended by the chiefejl of his Nobility and Friends. 
Alexander having kill'd four thoufand wild Beaits 
in this W r ood, feafted his whole Army there; af- 
ter which he return'd ro Maracanda, where, up- 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 57 

on Artabazus his excufing himfelf on the Account 
of his old Age , he beftow'd his Government on. 
Clitus. This was he who at the River Granicus , 
when Alexander was fighting bare-headed, cover'd 
him with his Buckler, and cut off Rhofaces's Hand,, 
as he was ready to difcharge a great blow on the 
Kings Head. He had ferv'd a long time under 
Philip, and was remarkable for a great many noble: 
Exploits during the War. His Sifter Hellanice had. 
nurs'd Alexander, and was no lefs belov'd by him 
on that fcore than his own Mother ; this made him 
commit to his Care and Truft, the braveft and; 
moll warlike Province of his Empire. He there- 
fore order'd him to be ready to fet out the Day foU 
lowing, to take upon him his new Commijfton, and 
invited him to afiift at the folemn Feaft he gave 
his Friends that Night. During the Entertainment, 
the King being heated with Wine, and an immo- 
derate extoller of his own Performances, began 
to enlarge upon the great Things he had done, to 
fuch a degree as to betroublefometo the Ears even 
of them who were fenfible of the Truth of what 
he faid. The eldeft amongft 'em neverthelefs 
heard him with an attentive filence, till he began 
to difparage Philip'*. Achievements, and boaft that 
the celebrated Viclory near Chseronea, tvas owing 
to himfelf; and that he was deprivd of the Glory 
of it thro his Fathers Malice and Envy, whom, 
{in the Sedition that arofe between the Macedonians 
and the mercenary Greeks, when he counterfeited* 
being dead of the wound he receivd therein) he pro* 
tecled zuith his Buckler, killing with his ovmHand 
thofe who offer d to infult. him : Yet his lather wo* 
never willing^ to acknowledge this piece of Service, 
at being loath to confefs he ow"d his Life to his Son> r 
That therefore after his Expedition againfi the. Illy- 
rians, he writ to his Father that the Enemy wat 
•vanquijh'd without Philip'* Alftflancc Thofe h& 
D 5 ' faid 

y3 Quintxjs Curtius. BookVIII. 

faid defcrvd Commendation who did not flop at the 
Borders of Samothracia , when Afia ought to be 
burnt and laid wafle, but who by their great A6li* 
ens furpafi'd all belief. 

Thefe and the like Sayings were grateful e- 
nough to the young Men, but the Seniors did not 
at all like 'cm, efpecially on Philip's Account, un- 
der whom they had ferv'd a longer time than un- 
der him. Hereupon Clitus, who was not very 
fober himfelf, turning to thofe who fate below 
him, recited fomeVerfes out of Euripides, yet af- 
ter fuch a manner that the found was rather heard 
than the Words diftinguUh'd by the King. They 
were to this effect., That rt was an ill Cuflom a- 
mmg the Greeks to inferibe only the Names of their 
Rtng-s cn the Trophies ; by which means they run 
away with the Glory that was acquir'd by other 
Penles Blood. The King therefore iufpecting what 
he laid had fomething malicious in it, afk'd thofe 
who were next him, What Clitus had faid ? But 
as they remain d filent, Clitus began to fpeak in a 
lowder Tone of Philip'/ Aclions , and concerning 
the Wars in Greece, preferring them to what war 
now done. This caus'd a Difpute between the 
young Men and the Veterans, yet the King feem'd 
patiently to hear Clitus's Allegations (whereby he 
endeavour'd to lefien his Praife) tho' at the fame 
time he was inwardly inrag'd ; notwithstanding 
which he appeared inclin'd to bridle his Paflion, 
if Clitus would have let drop his indifcreet Dif- 
courfe ; but finding he Hill ran on, after the fame 
manner, it exafperated him very much. Clitus at 
laft proceeded to that degree of Iijfolence as to 
dare to defend Parmenio, and preferr'd Philip's Vi- 
ctory over the Athenians, to the Deftru&ion of 
Thebes, and feem'd to be now prompted by a fpite- 
ful difpofition of Mind to Contention, as well as 
by the Wine ; fo that he did not fcruple to fay, 

Book VIII. Quintus Cvrtws. 59 

If it be requifite to die for you, Clitus is fare to be 
the firft in your Thoughts ; but thofe fl)all reap the 
greateft Rewards of your Victories, who after the 
moft fhameful manner infult your Father s Memory. 
Tou have beftowd on me the Countrey of Sogdiana, 
which has fo often rebel? d, and is ftill not only un- 
fubdu'd, but impofftble to be brought under Subjefti- 
on y that is to fay, I am fent amongfi wild Beafts, 
headftrong and raft) by Nature. However, I fiall 
wave what relates to my felf, and take notice of 
your Contempt for Philip'* Soldiers, while you for- 
get, that if it had not been for old Atharias here pre- 
fent (who rallied the young Men, and brought 'em 
back to the Fight they had declind) we might have 
been ftill before Halicarnaflus. Hozv then can you 
be faid to have conquer d Afia with this Youth ? As 
for my part , 1 believe what your Unkle faid in 
Italy to be true, that he had to do with Men , and 
you with Women. Of all the rafh and indifcreet 
things utter'd by Clitus, nothing more provok'd 
the King than the honourable mention he made of 
Parmenio; yet for all that, he fupprefs'd his Grief, 
and was contented to bid him be gone from the Feaft, 
without adding any thing more than that he. 
had continud to talk on, he fupposd he would have 
upbraided him with the having favd his Life, which 
was a thing he would often brag of with too much 
Vanity. But as Clitus made no hafte to obey the 
Kings Orders, they who were next to him laid 
hold of him, and endeavour'd to carry him off, 
blaming him, and at the fame time reminding him 
of his Duty. When Clitus found they were ta- 
king him away by force, Anger mingling it feJf 
with his excefs of Wine, he cry'd out , that it 
was his Breaft that had defended the King s Back^ 
but the time of fo fignal a Service being elaps'd, the 
memory of it was become odious. He alfo reproach- 
ed him with the Death of Attalut? and at laft tt# 
D 6 die tiling 

6o Quintus Curtius. BookVIII. 

diculing the Oracle of Jupiter, whom Alexander 
claim'd as his Father , he faid he told him greater 
Truths than his Parent. By this time the King's 
Anger was fo increas'd, that had he been perfect- 
ly fober he could hardiy have govern'd it ; he 
therefore leap'd on the fudden from the Table, to 
the great Amazement of his Friends, who there- 
upon did not take time to fet down their Cups , 
but caft them away, expecting what would be the 
iiTue of fo furious a Tranfport : And Alexander 
laying hold of the Spear of one of the Guards, 
was for killing Clitus (who frill continu'd talking 
with the fame Intemperance of Tongue as before) 
had he not been held by Ptolemy and Perdiccas, 
and as he perfifted to ftruggle with them , Ly- 
fimachus and Leonnatus took the Lance from him. 
This made Alexander implore the AlTiftance of 
his Soldiers, and cry out, That he was feizd (as 
Darius had been) by his mofi intimate Friends, and 
commanded the Signal to be given for them to re- 
fair to his Palace with their Arms. At thele 
Words Ptolemy and Perdiccas caft themfelves at 
his Feet, and begg'd he would moderate his Anger, 
and give himfelf time to refiecl, fince he might the 
next Day execute with a greater regard to Juftice, 
what the Nature of the Thing mould require ; but 
his Anger had (hut his Ears to all Counfel, fo that 
in his rage he run to the Porch of the Palace , 
and taking a Spear from the Centinel that was 
there upon Duty, he plac'd himfelf in the en- 
try thro' which thofe who had fupp'd with him 
were oblig'd to pafs. Now all the reft being gone, 
clitus came laft of all without any Light, and the 
King afk'd, who he was ? But after fuch a man- 
ner as fufficiently declar'd the Cruelty of his In- 
tention. Clitus, who was no longer mindful of 
his own Pafrion, but only of the Kings, made an- 
fwer, That it was Clitus* who was retiring from 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 61 

the Banquet ; as he fpoke thefe Words Alexander 
run him through, and all befmear'd with his Blood 
faid to him, Get thee gone to Philip, Parmenio and 


TH E Mind of Man is in this but indifferently 
provided for by Nature, that he for the moft 
part does not fo much reflect on the Confequences 
of Things till they are tranfadted. Thus the King 
when his Anger was over , and the heat of his 
Wine abated, too late perceiv'd the Enormity of 
his Crime. Then he faw he had kill'd a Man who 
indeed had taken too great a Liberty with his 
Tongue, but at the fame time was very deferving 
on the Account of his Bravery, and who if he 
was not afham'd to own the Truth, had fav'd his 
Life ; he now reflected how unworthily he had 
fuliy'd the Splendor of the Royal Dignity, by dis- 
charging in Perfon the odious Office of an Execu- 
tioner, and that he had by an abominable Murther 
cruelly punifti'd the liberty of a few licentious 
Words, which might reafonably have been impur 
ted to the Wine. He with horror beheld the En- 
try of his Palace ftain'd with the Blood of a Per- 
fon, who but a little before had been thought 
worthy to fup with him. The Guards in the fright 
they were in flood like Men ftupify'd at a diftance, 
fo that his folitude afforded him a greater freedom 
to repent of what he had done. He therefore drew 
the Spear out of the dead Body that lay extended 
on the Floor, and would have plung'd it into his 
own, had not the Guards flown in to Affiftance, 
and wrelted it out of his Hands, and carry'd him 
into his Tent ; here he flung himfelf on the Ground* 


6z Quintus Curtius. Book VIII; 

and fuTd the Place with his Lamentations and 
Cries. Then finding he could do nothing elfe, he 
tore his Face with his Nails ,. and intreated the 
ftanders by, not to let him furvive- fo foameful an 
Aclion. After this manner he fpent the whole 
Night, and as he was examining himtelf, Whether 
he had done any thing to deferve the Deity's Anger 
to that degree as to be abandon d to tht Commijjion 
of fo foul a Crime ? He recollected, That the anni- 
verfary Sacrifice to Bacchus, had not been perform d 
at the time appointed for that purpofe : He therefore 
concluded, That the Murther he had committed in 
his Wine and good Cheer, was a manifeft difcovery 
of the Anger of that God. But what molt griev'd 
him was to fee all his Friends Hand like Men ftu- 
pify'd, and that none of 'em would for the future 
dare to converfe with him ; fo that he (hould for 
the future be fore d to live like the wild Beafts , 
which are fometimes a Terror to others, andfome- 
times afraid themfelves. 

As foon as it was Day he order'd the Corps, all 
bloody as it was, to be brought into his Tent, and 
when it was plac'd before rum, he with Tears in 
his Eyes faid, Is this the grateful return I make my 
Nurfe, whofe two Sons loft their Lives for my Glory 
at Miletum ? This Brother was the only Comfort 
fl)e had left, and I have barbaroujly murther d him 
at my own Table : What will this unfortunate Wo- 
man do ? Of all that belong d to her, I am the only 
left, whom alone JJje for the future will never be 
able to fee with any Satisfaclton. How wretched is 
my Tate, that I muft thus Jhew my felf the Butcher 
of thofe who have preferv'd my Life ! How can I 
think of returning to my own Countrey, where I 
fhall not be able to hold out my right Hand to my 
Nurfe without refreflnng her Memory with the caufe 
of her Calamity ? His Friends finding there was no 
end of his Tears and Complaints, order'd the Bo- 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 63 

dy to be taken away; notwithstanding , which he 
remain'd three Days (hut up, bewailing himfelf af- 
ter this manner, till at laft the Guards of his Per- 
fon (perceiving he was determin'd to dye) broke 
ipto his Chamber all together, and^ith much ado 
prevail'd with him to eat ; antf that the King 
might have the lefs Confufion for what he had 
done, the Macedonians refolv'd, That Clitus zvas 
juJllykiWd, and were for depriving him of the Ho- 
nour of Sepulture had not the King order'd him 
to be bury'd. 

Having therefore (laid ten Days at Maracanda, 
to re-affume his Modefty, he fent Hephtflion with 
part of the Army into Baclriana , to lay up Pro- 
vifions for the Winter, and gave to Amyntas that 
Province which he had before beftow'd on Clitus ; 
after which he came to Xcnippa y which is a Coun- 
trey bordering on Scythia , and is full of Towns 
and Villages, the Soil thereof being fo fruitful, that 
it not only detains thofe who are born there, but 
alfo invites Strangers to come and fettle there. 
The banilh'd Batlrians, who had revolted from 
Alexander, were retifd hither ; but upon certain 
Advice of the King's coming, they were expell'd 
by the Inhabitants, fo that about two thoufand 
two hundred of them were got together in a Bo- 
dy : They were all Horfe, and accuftom'd, even 
in time of Peace, to live by Rapine and Theft; 
but their fierce Natures were by the War, and 
defpair of being forgiven, render'd ftill more bru- 
tifli. They therefore unexpectedly attack'd A- 
tnyntas, Alexander's Praetor, and the Victory was 
doubtful for a confiderable time, till at laft ha- 
ving loft feven hundred of their Men (of which 
three hundred were taken Prifoners by the Ene- 
my) they fled ; they were not altogether unre- 
veng'd , for they kill'd fourfcore of the Macedo- 
nians > and wounded about three hundred and 


64 Quintus Curtius. BookVIIL 

fifty. However, tho' this was the fecond time 
they had rebell'd, they obtain'd their Pardon. 

The King having taken them into his Prote- 
ction, came with his whole Army into a Coim- 
trey call'd Nawa; Sifimithres , who was Gover- 
nor thereof, ra|d two Sons by his own Mother r , 
(for amongft them it is lawful for Parents to have 
carnal Knowledge of their Children) he had with 
two thoufand of the Militia, built a ftrong Wail 
at the narrow entrance into the Countrey, before 
which there run a rapid River ; the back part was 
fecur'd by a Rock, thro' which the Inhabitants had 
made a Way by dint of Labour. The entry in- 
to this hollow Way is lightfome, but farther on. 
it is dark, unlefs fome artificial light be made ufe 
of ; this hidden Paffage runs quite thro' the Rock 
into the Plains, and is only known to the In- 

But Alexander (notwithftanding the Barbarians 
guarded this Place, which was fo ftrong both by 
its natural Situation and Art) with his battering. 
Rams, quickly beat down thefe manual Fortifica- 
tions , and with Slings and Arrows, drove away 
thofe that defended them; then palling over the 
ruin'd Works, he brought his Army to the Rock,, 
which was ftrengthen'd by a River that run before, 
it, and was form'd by the united Streams that fell 
from the Top of it into the Valley. It feem'd to 
be a vaft Undertaking to fill up fo deep and large 
a Channel. However, he order'd Trees to be cut 
down, and great Heaps of Stones to be brought 
thither. The Barbarians, who were altogether un- 
acquainted with fuch fort of Works, were feiz'd 
with the utmoft Horror, when they faw fo vaft a 
Pile erected in fo little Time. Hereupon the King 
imagining they might be brought to a Surrender thro' 
Fear, fent Oxartes (who was of the fame Nation, 
but in his Intereft) to them, to perfuade the Go- 

Book VIII. QuiNTtJS Curtius. 65 

vernor to deliver up the Rock. In the mean time, 
to augment their Terror, be order'd the Towers 
to be advancd, and caus'd feveral Engines to play 
upon 'em at that dirtance ; which had fo good an 
Effeel, that the Barbarians not thinking themfelves 
fecure any other way, betook themfelves to the 
Top of the Rock. Oxartes therefore prefs'd Syfi- 
mithres (who now began to diftruft his Affairs) 
to fling himfelf on the Honour of the Macedonians, 
rather than withfland their Power ; advifing him 
not to flop the Career of a victorious Army that 
was marching into India; and zvhich, whoever 
fiould dare to oppofe, would only bring others Cala- 
mities on their czvn Heads. As for Syfmithres, he 
was not againft furrendring ; but his Mother (who 
was alfo his Wife) declar'd me would fuffer Death, 
rather than fubmit to the Power of any Enemy , 
-and fo put the Barbarian upon more honourable 
than fafe Meafures; he being amam'd that Wo- 
men mould fet a greater Value upon Liberty than 
Men. He therefore difmifs'd the Meffenger of 
Peace, and refolv'd to undergo the Siege. But 
then upon due weighing of his own and the Ene- 
mies Strength, he began to repent again, for ha- 
ving hearken'd to a Woman's Counfel, which was 
rather ram than fuitable to the prefent Juncture 
of Affairs. Wherefore he immediately call'd back 
Oxartes, and told him, he would lay himfelf at the 
King's Mercy, and begg'd of him, not to fay any 
thing of his Mother s Obflinacy , that her Pardon 
might alfo be more eafily obtain d. As foon as he 
had difpatch'd Oxartes with this his Refolution, he 
follow'd himfelf, with his Mother and Children, 
and a great Crowd of his Relations, without fo 
much as waiting for any farther Security from 
the King , though Oxartes had alfo promis'd him 
that Alexander being inform'd of this , fent a 
Trooper to order them to go back, and expecl his 

ioming ; 

66 Quintus Curtius. BookVIIT. 

coming ; where he no fooner urriv'd, than he of- 
fer'd Sacrifice to Minerva and Victory , and then 
confirm'd Syfimithres in his Authority, promiiing 
to enlarge his Province, if he remain d faithful to 
him. He had two Sons which he deliver'd up to 
the King, who order'd them to follow him in his- 

Alexander leaving here his Phalanx, advanc'd 
with his Cavalry to fubdue the Rebels. The Way- 
was rough and craggy; however, they endur'd it 
pretty well at firft, but after fome time, the Horfes 
Hoofs were not only worn away , but their Bo- 
dies alfo tir'd; befides which, the Riders them- 
felves were lb harrafs'd with the immoderate La- 
bour, that a great many were not able to keep up 
with him, fo that the Troops began to grow thin, 
the extraordinary Fatigue overcoming the Shame 
they had to be left behind. Neverthelefs, as the 
King chang'd Horfes frequently, he continu'd pur- 
fuing the flying Enemy ; but the young Noblemen 
who us'd to accompany him, were all forc'd to 
give out , except Philip , who was Lyftmathuss 
Brother, and was then in the Flower of his Age, 
and as it plainly appear'd, a Perfon of a Genius 
capable of the greateft Things. This Youth (which 
will hardly be believ'd) tho' on Foot, kept up with 
the King (who was on Horfeback) for the Space 
of five hundred Furlongs. Lyfimachus offer'd him 
his Horfe feveral Times, but nothing could pre- 
vail with him to leave the King; tho' at the fame 
time he was loaded with his Breaft-plate , and his 
other Arms. He afterwards behav'd himfelf glo- 
rioufly in a Wood where the Enemy had hid 
themfelves, and protected the King's Perfon, who 
was clofely engag'd. But after the Barbarians were 
put to Flight that great Soul which had fo brave- 
ly fupported his Body during the Heat of the En- 
gagement, at laft flagg'd, and a cold Sweat ifTuing 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 67 

out of all the Parts of his Body, he was forc'd to 
plant himfelf againft a Tree, but that proving too 
weak a Relief in his prefent Circumftances, the 
Kmg took him up, and he expir'd in his Arms.* 
This Misfortune was fucceeded by another, which 
alfo did not a little arUid Alexander ; for as he was 
returning to his Camp, he was inform'd of the 
Death of Erigyita, one of the braveft of his Ca- 
ptains. The King order'd both their Funerals to 
be perform'd with all the Pomp and Magnificence 


THE T>ah& were the next he intended to march 
againft, for he underitood Spitamenes was a- 
mongft 'em. But Fortune who never tir'd in heap- 
ing her Favours on him, affifted him here, as {he 
had done on many other Occafions, and fav'd him 
the Trouble of this Expedition, spitamenes had 
a Wife on whom he doated, and as the Fatigues 
and Dangers (he was expos'd to in accompanying 
him wherever his Misfortunes drove him, were 
-become troublefome to her, ihe employ'd all her 
Charms to prevail with him to defift from flying 
any farther ; and as he had already experience! 
Alexanders Clemency, to try to appeafe the An- 
ger of an Enemy he could not otherwife hope to 
efcape. She had three Sons by him, which were 
pretty well grown up, thefe (he brought to his 
Embraces, and begg'd heroould at leaft take Pity of 
them; and to enforce her-Prayers, (he told him, 
Alexander was not far off. But he thinking he 
was betray'd, and not advis'd, and that it jtvas ;he 
Confidence /he had in her Beauty , which m^de 
her not care how foon fhe came in Alexanders 


68 Quintus Curtius. BookVIIt. 

Power, drew his Sword, and would have kill'd 
her if her Brothers had not happily interposd. 
However, he commanded her to be gone out of his 
Sight, threatning tier with Death, // jhe offer d to 
come into his Prefence ; and that he might not be 
fenfible of her Abfence, he pafs'd the Nights with 
his Concubines. Yet as his Paffion for her was 
great, it was the more infhm'd by the Diftafte he 
took to their Company. He therefore gave him- 
felf intirely again to her, conjuring her never to 
fpeak to him more on that account, but willingly 
undergo with him vjhatever Fortune did alot them ; 
fince for his ozvn Part, he had rather die than fur- 
render himfelf. Hereupon fhe excus'd her felf, tel- 
ling him, That fie had advit'd him only to what (he 
thought xvas mofi for his Interefl, and admitting fhe 
had taWd like a Woman, yet it zuas with a faithful 
Intention ; however, for the future foe would con- 
form to his Pleafure. 

Spitamenes won by this counterfeit Complaifance, 
gave a great Entertainment on the account of 
their Reconciliation, where having loaded himfelf 
with Wine and good Chear, he was brought half 
afleep into his Apartment. As foon as his Wife 
pefceiv'd he was in a found Sleep, (lie drew a 
Sword (he had under her Garment for that pur- 
pofe, and cut off his Head, and all befmear'd with 
the Blood, gave it to a Servant who was privy to 
her Crime, and being attended by him, came in 
this bloody Condition to the Macedonian Camp, 
where fhe fent Word to Alexander, Jhe had fome- 
thing of Importance to communicate to him, and 
which he mujl hear from her own Mouth. The 
King immediately order'd her to be introduc'd, 
and obferving her to be ftain'd with Blood, ima- 
gin'd fhe came to complain of fome Affront of- 
fered her, he therefore afk'd her what fhe had to 
fay ? Hereupon (he - cali'd for the Servant that 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 69 

waited in the Entry, who having Spitamenes his 
Head under his Garment, gave the Guards a Sus- 
picion, and upon their fearcnirig him, he pull'd otlt 
the Head and (hew'd it. But the iloodlefs Pale- 
nefs had fo disflgur'd its Features, that it was a 
hard Matter to diitinguifh whoSe it was. Alexan- 
der being inform'd, it was a Man's Head that he 
brought, went out of his Tent, and enquir'd into, 
the matter, which he accordingly told him. The 
kings Mind was now perplex'd with Variety of 
Ttfpugnts ; for on the one hand, he look'd upon 
it as a confiderable Piece of Service, that he who 
was firft a Refugee, and afterwards had prov'd a 
Traitor, and was like to have delay'd the Execu- 
tion of his great Defigns was kill'd; but then again 
he deteited the barbarous Action, of her having 
thus treacherously murther'd her HuSband, who 
had deferv'd well of her, and by whom (he had had 
Several Children. At {aft the FoulneSs of the Fact 
got the better of the Service it did him, So that he 
Sent her Word to be gone from the Camp, left the 
Greeks more human Minds, and gentler Manner s 9 
fliould be corrupted by the Example of fo barbarous 
a Licenfe. The Dahd understanding Spitamenes 
was flain, Seiz'd Dataphemes (who had been his 
Partner in the Conspiracy) and brought frim bound 
to Alexander , and at the Same Time yielded 
themSelves to him. Being now deliver'd from the 
chiefeil Part of his prefent Cares, turn'd his Mind 
to the revenging Such as had by his Pr&tors been 
opprefs'a and ill us'd. He therefore conferr'd the 
Government of Hyrcania, the Mardi and Tapuri- 
ans, to Phr'ataph ernes, with Orders to Secure Phra- 
dates, whom he Succeeded, and Send him to him 
under a Sufficient Guard. Stafanor was fubftituted 
in the place of Arfanes, Governor of the Branca. 
Arfac£s was Sent into Media to Succeed Oxydates, 
2. " ■ • and 

70 Quintus Curtius. BookVIII. 

and Babylon (Maz&us being dead) was committed 
to the Care of Deditamenet. 


HAVING made thefe Regulations, he drew 
his Army out of their Winter Quarters, 
where they had been almoft three Months, and 
march'd towards a Countrey call'd Gabaza. The 
firft Day's March was eafie and calm , the next 
. was not ftormy and difmal, yet more gloomy than 
the preceding, and did not end without fome 
' threatning of a growing Evil ; but on the third, it 
lighten'd from all Parts of the Heavens, and not 
only dazl'd the Eyes of the Army, but alfo terri- 
fy a their Minds. The Thunder was almoft con- 
tinual, and the frequent Lightnings feem'd to fall 
from the Heavens before 'em, fo that the Army 
was ftruck with fuch a Dread, that it neither dar'd 
to advance nor ftand ftill. Soon after, there fell 
fuch a Storm of Rain , accompany'd with Hail, 
that it feem'd to partake of the Violence of a 
Torrent. At firft they protected their Bodies, by 
covering themfelves with their Bucklers, but after 
fome Time, their Hands (which were wet with 
the Rain, and benumb'd with the exceiTive Cold) 
were no longer able to hold them, and they knew 
not which way to direct their Courfe, fince the 
Violence Of the Tempeft feem'd to encreafe on 
which fide foever they tum'd. Breaking therefore 
their Ranks, they wander'd up and down the 
Woods, and many of them, rather overcome with 
Fear than tir'd with the Fatigue, caft their Bodies 
on the Ground, notwithftanding the Intenfenefs of 
the Cold had frozen the new fallen Rain. Others 
3 liad 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 71 

had plac'd themfelvcs againft the Stocks of Trees, 
which ferv'd them both for Shelter and Support. At 
the fame time, they were not ignorant they only 
chofe a Place to die in, iince for want of Motion 
their vital Heat would forfake them. However, 
the very Thoughts of Reft was fo agreeable to 
their weary'd Bodies, that they did not grudge to 
die in an eafie Pofhire. The Storm was not on- 
ly furious, but obftinate in its Duration , and the 
Shade occafion'd by the Trees, concurr'd with the 
Darknefs from the Tempeft, to deprive 'em of the 
Light, which is a natural Comfort in Affliction. 
Trre King was the only Perfon could bear thefe 
Calamities ; he therefore went about, and rallied 
kit fcatter'd Soldiers, railing them up who were 
laid down, fhewing them at a Diftance the Smoak 
that came out of the Cottages, and encouraging 
them to lay hold of the firft Refuge they could 
come at. Nothing contributed more to their Safe- 
ty in this Cafe, than the Shame they had to for- 
fake the King, who they faw was indefatigable, 
and able to hold out agajnft thofe Evils their weak- 
er Natures funk under. At laft Neceility, which in 
Adverfity is more efficacious than Reafon, fupply'd 
'em with a Remedy againft the Cold : And they fell 
to cutting down the Wood, then laying it in Heaps 
and Piles, they fet it on Fire. One would have 
thought the whole Forreft had made but one con- 
tinu'd Blaze, there being hardly room left for the 
.Soldiers to ftand between the Flames. The Heat 
now began to work upon their benumb'd Limbs, 
and by Degrees, the Spirits (whofe Operation had 
been intercepted by the Rigor of the Cold) gain'd 
a freer PafTage. Some of them got into the Cot- 
tages of the Barbarians, which NecelTity had made 
them feek out, tho' hid in the utmoft Part of the 
Wood; others repaired to the Camp, which was 
pitch'd indeed in a wet Ground, but then the Storm 


yi Quintus Curtius. BookVIII. 

was over. This Plague conium'd about a thoufand 
Soldiers, Followers of the Camp, and Servants. It 
is faid, that lbme of thetn who had plac'd them- 
felves againft the Trees, after they were frozen 
to Death, look'd as if they were alive, and talking 
to one another, preferving ftill the fame outward 
Appearance that Death hadfurpriz'd them in. 

It happ&n'd at this time , that a private Soldier 
of the Macedonians, being hardly able to fupport 
himfelf and his Arms, with much ado at laft came 
into the Camp, where being perceiv'd by the King 
(who was warming himfelf by the Fire) he im- 
mediately leap'd from his Seat, and having heF£>'d 
the Soldier (who was almoft frozen, and hardly 
compos mentis) to put off his Armour, he bid him 
fit dozun in his feat. This Man for a while did 
not know either where he was, or by whom re- 
ceiv'd ; at laft his vital heat being reftor'd, he law 
the King, and finding himfelf feated in the Royal 
("hair, he got up in a fright, which Alexander ta- 
king notice of, he afk'd him, If he was not fenfible 
hozv much happier the Macedonians vjere under 
their King than the Perfians ? Since to thefe it is a 
capital Crime to fit in the Kings feat, whereas he 
had favd his Life by it. 

The next Day he call'd his Friends and chief Of- 
ficers , and order'd them to make Proclamation 
throughout the Army , that he woidd make good 
whatever Loffes had been fufiaind^ and accordingly 
he was as good as his Word ; for Syfimithres having 
brought to him a great Number of Horfes, and 
two thoufand Camels, with feveral Herds' of Cat- 
tle, and Flocks of Sheep, he diftributed them a- 
mong the Soldiers, by which means he at the fame 
time both fupply'd them with Provifions, and made 
good their Damage. 

The King having declar'd that Syfimithres had 
fbewn himfelf grateful, for the f avours he h-ad be- 

flow (I 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 73 

flowed on him, order'd the Soldiers to provide 
themfelve? , each with Vi&uals ready-drefs'd for 
fix Days, and then march'd towards the Sac&. He 
pillag'd and deftroy'd all this Countrey, and made 
a Prefent of thirty thoufand Sheep to Syfimithres t 
out of the Booty. 

From hence be pafs'd into the Province which 
was under the Government of a noble Satrap , 
whofe Name was Cohortanus, who prefently put 
himfelf under the Kings, Protection; whereupon 
Alexander reftofd his Government to him, with- 
out requiring any more from him, than two out 
of three Sons which he had, to ferve him in the 
War. The Satrap gave him alfo the third that 
was left him , and made a fumptuous Entertain- 
ment for him, with all the Magnificence the Bar- 
barians are capable of. During the Solemnity of 
the Feaft, he order'd thirty noble Virgins to be 
brought in, among whom was Roxane his own 
Daughter, who was' an exquiiite Beauty, and neat- 
ly fet off in Apparel, which is a Rarity amongft 
thofe People. This Lady, notwithftanding me 
was in the Company of chofen Beauties, fo far 
excell'd 'em all, as to turn the Eyes of all the Be- 
holders on her felf, efpecially the Kings, who in 
fo great an Indulgence of Fortune (againft which 
Mankind is feldom fufficiently guarded) had not 
now the fame Government of £/V Paffions as here- 
tofore. He therefore who had look'd upon Da- 
rius s Wife and Daughters (to whom none could 
be compar'd, except Roxane) no other way than 
with the Eyes of a Parent, was fo tranfported 
with Love for this young Lady (who in compa- 
rifon to the Royal Blood, might be efteercfd of 
mean Extraction) that he did not fcruple to fay , 
It was neceJJ'ary for the firmer Eftablifhment of the 
new Kingdom, that the Perfians and Macedonians 
jhoidd inter-marry, that being the only way to wipe 

74 Quintus Curtius. BookVIIL 

off the Shame of the Conquer d, and abate the Pride 
of the Conquerors. He added, That Achilles {from 
whom he ivas defcended) had not fcrupl'd to marry 
a Captive. And that he might not be thought to 
do an ill Thing, he was refolvd to marry her law- 
fully. Her Father raviuYd with an unexpected Joy, 
heard the Kings Speech with inexpreffible Plea- 
jure; and the King in the highth of his Pailion, 
order'd Bread to be brought, according to the Cuftom 
of his Count rey. This was the moft folemn way 
of celebrating Marriages among the Macedonians, 
who on this Occaiion cut the Bread afunder, each 
of the contracted Parties eating a Piece thereof. I 
fuppofe the Founders of this Cuftom had in view 
(in the Inftitution thereof) to fhew by this fparing 
;and eafily procurable Food, with how fin all a Mat- 
ter they ought to be contented. Thus the great 
King of Afia and Europe, in the Feftival Sports of 
an Entertainment, marry'd a Captive, on whom 
he was to beget an Emperor for the Victors thera- 
felves. His Friends were aiham'd he mould after 
this manner,- in his Wine and good Chear, make 
choice of a Father-in-law, out of thofe he had 
fubdu'd ; but upon Clitus's Death, all Liberty of 
Speech was taken away, and by their Counte- 
nance, which is eafily commanded on fuch Occa- 
fions, they feem'd to approve of the King's Action. 


HOwever, as he refolv'd to march into India, 
and from thence to the Ocean, that he might 
leave nothing behind him able to interrupt the 
Execution of his Defigns, he gave Orders to his 
Lieutenants to pick out of all the Provinces, thirty 
thoufand chofen young Men, and to fend them to 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtios. 75- 

him ready arm 'd, to ferve him loth as Hoflages and 
Soldiers. He alio dctach'd Craterus to purlue Hau- 
ftanes and Catenes, who had revolted; of whom 
Haujianes was taken , and Catenes was kill'd in 
Battel. Polypercon likewife fubdu'd the Countrey 
call'd Bubacene. Having thus fettl'd his Affairs, he 
bent his Thoughts intirely on the Indian War. 

This Countrey was efteem'd to be vaftly rich, 
not only in Gold, but alfo in Pearls and precious 
Stones, which were by the Inhabitants apply 'd ra- 
ther to Luxury than Magnificence. The Soldiers 
Shields were faid to glitter with Gold and Ivory : 
That therefore he who excell'd all others , might 
be no where out-done, he order'd his Soldiers 
Bucklers to be cover'd with a Plate of Silver, and 
the Horfe to have Gold Bridles, and adorn'd their 
Breaft-plates, fome with Gold, and fome with Sil- 
ver. The King was follow'd by one hundred and 
twenty thoufand Men to this War. Having thus 
prepar'd every thing, he thought it now a proper 
Opportunity to execute what he had a long time 
wickedly entertain'd in his Mind; he therefore? 
began to confult about the Meafures which were 
necefTary for his ufurp'mg the celeftial Honours. He 
w r as no longer contented to be call'd Jupiter's Son, 
but would likewife be believ'd to be really fo, as 
if he had the fame Power over Mens Minds, as 
over their Tongues. He requir'd therefore, that 
the Macedonians mould proftrate themfelves on the 
Ground, and worfrSip him, after the manner of 
the Perfians. In thefe irregular Defires, he did not 
want the Applaufe of Flatterers, the perpetual 
Banes of Kings , who have been oftner ruin'd by 
them, than by their profefs'd Enemies. However, 
the Macedonians were not to blame herein, for 
none of them were for fubverting the Laws of 
their Countrey. But it was the Greeks Fault, Rrfcp 
by their corrupt Manners, dimonour'd the Pro- 
E 2 feffion 

y6 Quintvs Curtius. Book VIII. 

feffion they made of the liberal Arts. There was 
one Agis of Argos the worft Poet had been fince 
Chcenlas; and another nam'd^Cko a Sicilian, who 
w as no lefs a Flatterer by his own Nature, than 
by the common Vice of his Nation : Thefe with 
fame others, who were the Dregs and Refufe of 
their refpe&ive Towns, had greater Jntereft with 
Alexander, than either his Relations or Generals. 
Thefe Wretches did not fcruple to blaze up and 
down, That Hercules, Bacchus, with Caftor and 
Pollux, would all readily give way to this new Di- 
v'mhy. The King therefore on a Feftival Day, 
Order d an Entertainment to be prepard with all 
the Pomp and Magnificence imaginable : To which 
were invited not only the chiefeft of his Friends, 
as well Macedonians as Greeks, but alfo the molt 
confiderable among the Nobility. After he had 
fate down with them, and eat a while, he with- 
drew. 1 hen Cleo, as it had been concerted, made 
a Speech in Praife and Admiration of the King's 
Virtues, reciting particularly the great Favours he 
had beftow'd upon them; for all which, he told 
them, they had but one way to make him a Return, 
which was publickly to acknowledge him to be a God, 
whom they underftood to be one; it being the leaft 
they could do, to repay fuch mighty Benefits, with fo 
[mall an Expence as that of a little Incenfe. The 
Perlians, he faid, did not only acl pioujly, but pru- 
dently in worjhipping their Kings as Gods, fince the 
Majefty of Empire and Sovereignty , zvas its chief 
Protection and Safety. Neither Hercules nor Bac- 
chus were rank'd amongfi the Gods, till they had over- 
come the Envy of their Contemporaries , after Ages 
tafily believing what the prefent Age had warrant- 
ed. If the reft had any Difficulty in this Matter, 
he was refolved for his part to proftrate his Body on 
the Ground , at the Kings returning to the Tea ft. 
Ihat tht reft ought to follow his Example, efpecially 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 77 

thofe who were wife, it being their Duty to lead the 
way, in the Veneration that was due to the King. It 
was eafie to perceive, that this Speech was chiefly 
directed to Calitfthenes, whofe Gravity and Free- 
dom of Speech was odious to the King ; as if he 
was the only Perfon who hinder'd the reft of the 
Macedonians from paying him that Honour. Here- 
upon Calliflhenes, on whom the Eyes of the Af~ 
fembly were flx'd, (Silence being made) faid, If the 
King had been prefent at thy Difcourfe, none of us 
would have had Occafion to anfwtr thee; for he 
himfelf would have requird thee, not to prefl him 
to degenerate into foreign Manners, nor fully the 
Splendor of his glorious Performances with fo foul an 
Envy as an Aclion of this Nature muft neceffarily 
raife in the Minds of all his Friends. But fince he 
is abfent, Til anfwer thee for him, That no Fruit 
too foon ripe, is of long Duration, and that in- 
ftead of conferring divine Honours on him, thou 
robbefi him of 'em. Tor an Interval of Time is ne- 
cejj'ary to have him believd a God, it being from 
Pofterity that extraordinary Men ufually receive this 
Favour. For my Part, I wifh the King a late Im- 
mortality, and that his Life may be long, and his 
Majefiy eternal. Divinity fometimes follows the 
Dead, but never accompanies the Living. Thou jufi 
now broughteft Hercules and Bacchus for Inflances 
of confecrated Immortality. Dojl thou then think 
they zvere made Gods by the Decree of an Affembly 
at an Entertainment ? No : Their mortal Nature 
was firfl removd from the Sight, before their Fame 
tarry d y em into Heaven. Dofi thou think, Cleo, 
that thou and I can make a God ? The King then 
is to receive his Divine Authority from us ! Now 
let us try thy Power. Let us fee thee make a King, 
if thou canfl fo eafily make a God. It is not fo 
difficult a Matter to give an Empire, as to beftozv 
Heaven, May the propitious Gods hear, tvithout 
E 3 being 

78 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

being provoked, thy blafphemous Difcourfe, and fuf- 
fer things to be carry d on with the fame Succefs 
that has hitherto attended m, and grant us to bt con- 
tented with our ancient Cufioms. I am not ajhamd 
of my Countrey, nor do I now defire to learn from 
the Perfians, after what manner I am to reverence 
the King. For I pronounce them to be Conquerors, 
if we receive from them Laws to prefcribe our way 
of Living. 

Callifthenes was liften'd to with great Attention, 
us the Affertor of the Publick Liberty. He not 
only gain'd the lilent Approbation of the Elders, 
but alio their open Declaration in his Favour, as 
thinking it a great Grievance to forfake their an- 
cient Cuftoms, and ftrike into foreign Manners. 

The King was not ignorant of what pafs"d to 
and fro in the AlTembly, for he ftood all the while 
behind the Tapeftry, which he had for that pur- 
pofe order'd to be hung up before the Table. He 
therefore fent to Agis and Cleo, to fuperfede the 
Difcourfe, and be contented that the Barbarians on- 
ly, according to their Cuftom, fell dozvn before him. 
And after fome time, he retum'd to the AlTembly 
as if he had been about fome Matter of Moment ; 
and as the Per fans were worihipping him, Poly- 
percon (who fate above the King) advis'd one of 
them who touch'd the very Ground with his Chin, 
to hit it harder againjl the Ground, by which Jeft 
he provok'd Alexanders Anger, which for a long 
time he had not been able to fupprefs. He there- 
fore faid to him, Thou wilt not then adott-mef 
Are we. fo contemptible to thee alone, as to be thy Sport 
and Biverfion ? To which he made Anfwer, That 
he neither thought the King ought to be jejled with, 
nor himfelf contemned. At thefe Words, the King 
dragg'd him from the Bed, and flung him on the 
Ground; where, as he lay in aproftrate Pofture, he 
laid to him, Dofi thou fee thou haft done the fame 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 79 

thing that thou ridiculedfi jufi now in another ? 
And having commanded him to be taken Into Cu~ 
Jlody, he difmifs'd the Aflembly. However, after 
a long Puniflmient, he pardon d Polypercon. 


AS for his Anger to Callifihenes (whofe ftubborn- 
nefs he had a long time fufpecled) it had ta- 
ken a deeper root, and he quickly had an oppor- 
tunity to gratifie it. 

It was (as we above took notice) the Cuftom 
of the Macedonian Noblemen to deliver their Sons 
--to the King, as foon as they had attain'd to an 
adult Age , to be apply'd in Functions not dif- 
fering much from fervile Offices. They watch'd 
by turns in the Night at the King's Chamber-door ; 
they introduc'd the Concubines by another way 
than where the Soldiers kept Guard. It was their 
Dutylikewife to take the Horfes from the Grooms 
of the Stables, and bring them to the King, when- 
ever he mounted on Horfeback ; they attended 
him alfoa Hunting, or in Battel, and were inftruft- 
ed in all the liberal Acts and Sciences. Their 
chiefeft Honour was, that they were allow'd to 
fit at Table with the King, and that no Body had 
Power to chaftife 'em but himfelf. This Band 
was,amongft the Macedonians a kind of Nurfery, 
or Seminary of Generals and Commanders : From 
hence Pofterity receiv'd their Kings, whofe Off- 
fpnng were after many Ages depriv'd of their 
States by the Romans. Now it happen'd that Her- 
molaiu, who was a young Nobleman of this Roy- 
al Company, kill'd with his Dart a wild Boar that 
the King himfelf defign'd to ftrike ; for which 
Action he commanded him to be whipp'd. Her- 

E 4 mflaui 

80 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

molaus being very much griev'd at this Affront, 
began to make his Complaint to Soflratm, who 
was of the fame Band, and lov'd him dearly : 
This Sojlratus feeing how miferably his Friend's 
Body was torn, and perhaps being already incens'd 
againft the King on fome other fcore, put the 
Youth, (who was fufficiently provok'd by this U- 
fage) on entring into a ftrict Confederacy with him 
to kill the King. Having therefore giv'n and receiv'd, 
to and from each other, their mutual Fidelity in a 
matter of fuch Importance, they did not go about 
the Execution of it with a Juvenile Rafimefs, but 
wifely made ufe of proper Perfons to join with them 
in their criminal Undertaking, which were Nko- 
firatpcf , dntipater , Afckpiadortis and Philotat ; 
thefe brought into the Confpiracy Amides, Elap- 
ton'rns and Epimenes. Notwithstanding thefe Pre- 
parations, it was no eafie thing to execute their 
Delign ; for it was requifite they mould be upon 
the Guard all at the fame time, whereas fome of 
them mounted one Night, and fome another : 
They therefore were two and thirty Days in 
changing their turns of Duty, and making the 
other neceffary Preparatives ; but the Night 
was now come that they were all to be upon Du- 
ty at the fame time, and they were not a little 
pleas'd at their mutual Fidelity, of which fo ma- 
ny Days elaps'd was a fufficient Proof. Neither 
Fear nor Hope had (hook the Conftancy of any 
one of them in all that time, fo great was their 
Refentment againft the King, or their Fidelity to 
one another. They were all waiting at the Door 
of the Apartment in which the King was eating, 
that at his riling from Table they might conduct 
him into his Bed-chamber ; but either his Fortune, 
or the merry difpofition of the Company, promo- 
ted their drinking largely ; befides, the Spoits and 
Diverfions ufual on thofe Occafions fpun out the 


BookVIir. Quintos Curtius. 8 1 

time. The Confpirators one while were pleas'd at 
it, thinking they jhould attack him in a ftupify'd Con- 
dition ; on the other hand , they were in pain left 
the Merriment Jhould be protracled till Bay light, 
becaufe by break of Day they were to be reliev'd 
by others , and were not to mount again till that 
Day fe'night ; and they could not tell how to 
hope, that none of their Fidelities mould be (ha- 
ken in fo long a time. However, as it began to 
draw near Day light, the Company broke up, and 
the Confpirators receiv'd the King , over-joy'd 
they had now an Opportunity to execute their 
criminal Defign, when a Woman (who, as 
it was thought, was difturb'd in Mind, and was 
us'd to be about the Palace, becaufe fhe pretend- 
ed to foretel what was to come) not on* 
Jy came and met him , but oppos'd his coming 
out, and by her Countenance and Eyes fignifying 
the Emotion of her Soul, advis'd him to go back 
again, and drink on. The King, as it were in jell, 
made anfwer, That the Gods gave good Counfel ; 
and calling back his Friends, continu'd drinking 
till two hours after Day light : By this time others 
had fucceeded in the Confpirators Pott, notwith- 
ftanding which they did not go off, tho* they had 
fulfill d their Duty ; fo obftinate is the hope of Man. 
when he pajjionately defires any thing. When the 
King came out he fpoke to 'em in more courteous 
Terms than ufual, and bid them go and take their 
Keft,fince they had zvatch'd all the Night ; and to 
recompence their extraordinary Diligence, he or- 
der'd them, every one fifty Seftercies, commending 
their Zeal, which had prompted them to remain af- 
ter they were reliev'd. Having loft their Oppor- 
tunity they retir'd all to their own Homes. All 
the reft impatiently expected the return of their 
Duty ; but Epimenes, whether fuddenly chang'd by 
the Kings obliging Behaviour to him and the o- 
E 5 ther 

8x Quxntus Curtius. Book VIII. 

ther Confpirators, or out of Opinion, that the 
Gods oppos'd their wicked Intentions, went imme- 
diately to his Brother Eurylochus (from whom till 
then he had conceal'd the matter) and reveal'd to 
him the whole Defign. 

The Punimment of Philotas was fo frefli in all 
their Memories , that he prefently feizd his Bro- 
ther, and brought him to the Palace, where ha- 
ving rais'd the Guards, he told them , That zuhat 
he came about related 'to the Kings Safety. The 
unfeafonable time they came at, and their difturb'd 
Countenance, together with the dejected Looks 
of one of them , gave a Sufpicion to Ptolemuu 
and Leonnatus, who commanded the Guard at the 
JCzwg'sChamber.They therefore immediately open'd 
the Door, and carrying in a Light waken'd the King, 
who by reafon of his hard drinking was in a pro- 
found Sleep ; but having by little and little recol- 
lected his Spirits, he aflt'd them , What -was their 
Bufinefi ? Then Eurylochus made anfwer, That 
the Gods had not intirely forfaken their Family , 
jince his Brother {who had dard to be concern d in 
the ivor ft of Crimes) did not only repent thereof, but 
had pitctid upon him to difcover the fame. The 
Mifchief was to have been executed the preceding 
Night, and they rvere concern d in it that the King 
leafi fufpetted. Then Epimenes laid open the whole 
Matter , as it had been contriv'd and projected , 
giving in the Names of all the Confpirators. It 
is molt certain Callifihenes was not nam'd amongft 
them, but he was obferv'd to lend an eafie Ear to 
the young Men, when they talk'd licentioujly, and 
raild againfi the King. Some did not fcruple to 
fay, that when Hermolaus complain'd to him of 
his being whipp'd by the Kings Orders, he made 
this Anfwer, That the King ought to reftecl, that 
they were now at Mens Eftate ; but it is ftill doubt- 
ful, whether he fa'id this to comfwt him in his Af- 

fliftion s 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 8 J 

fiiclion, or to exafperate hU provoked Mind. When 
the King was thoroughly awak'd, and duly con- 
iider'd the greatnefs of the Danger he efcap'd, he had 
immediately order'd Eurylochus fifty Talents, gi- 
ving him *t the fame time the forfeited Eftate of 
a certain rich Man call'd Tyridates, and reftor'd his. 
Brother to him , even before he made it his re- 
queft. But he order'd the reft of the Confpirators, 
and with them Callifthenes to be ftrictly guarded, 
who being brought to the Palace, he flept all that 
Day and the following Night, being heavy with 
the excefs of Wine and fitting up. 

The next Day he call'd a general Council, at 
which affifted the Fathers and neareft Relations of 
thofe whofe Caufe was in Agitation, and who for 
that reafon were not fafe themfelves, it being the 
Practice of the Macedonians to punifti with Death 
all thofe who were related by Blood to Traytors. 
Then the King commanded all the Prifoners to be 
brought in except Callifthenes, who prefently con- 
fefs'd the Crime they had intended; and as every 
one cry'd out againft them, the King alk'd 'em, 
What he had done to them to provoke J em to fo hor- 
rible an Enter prife ? 


WHEN Hermolam faw all the reft remain'd 
filent like Men aftoniuYd, he utter'd him- 
felf in thefe Terms, Since you feem to be ignorant 
of the matter , I muft tell you, that we confpird 
your Death, becaufe you began to treat us not like 
free-born Men, but like Slaves. At thefe Words 
his Father Sopolis got up, and calling him the bafe 
Murtherer of his Parent ws well as King ; and clap- 
ping his Hand to his Mouth, faid, He was dijiraft- 

E 6 a 

84 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

ed with his Crime, and the Evils that attended it, 
and ought not to be fufferd to fay any more. But the 
king reprimanding his Father, bid Hermolaus [peak 
what he had learn d from his Mafter Callifthenes. 
I fhall then, [aid Hermolaus, make ufe*of the Fa- 
vour you grant me, and tell you zuhat our own Mis- 
fortunes have taught me. Hozv fmall is the Num- 
ber of Macedonians that have efcap'd your Fury ? 
Hozv many is there left, I fay, of noble Blood ? At- 
taltis, Philotas and Parmenio, Lynceftes, Alexander 
and Clitus, with reference to the Enemies, are fiill 
alive ; they are fill in their Pofls protecting you 
with their Bucklers, cheerfully receiving Wounds to 
promote your Glory, and gain you Victories, and in- 
deed you have nobly recruited them ; for one of them 
fiaind your Table with his Blood , and you thought 
it too great a Favour to punifh the other zvith a 
fimple Death ; you therefore put the braveft Generals of 
your Army to the Rack, that the horrible Sight might 
be a grateful Spectacle to the Perfians they had con- 
quer d. As for Parmenio , you barbaroujly mur- 
iherd him, zvithout fujfering him to plead, tho he 
had taken off Attalus your Enemy. Thus you by 
turns make ufe of the Hands of the wretched to fa- 
t'afie your Cruelty ; and thofe who have been the 
Injlruments of your Murthers, are quickly after fa- 
crificd by others. The whole Affembly now was 
in an uproar, and his Father drew his Sword to 
kill him, had he not been hinder' d by the King, 
who bid Hermolaus continue his Speech, and dtfir'd 
the Company to hear patiently the unhappy Wretch, 
who freely aggravated his ozvn Crime. They be- 
ing with difficulty reftrain'd, Hermolaus faid again ; 
How bountifully you permit Children nnjkilld in the 
Art of Oratory to plead their Caufe ! But the Voice 
of Callifthenes muft be fout up in a Prifon, becaufe 
he alone knows how to fpeak I Why is he not brought 
ferrb, fmct they who cmfeft themfehes guilty are 
I heard ? 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 85- 

heard ? But the Reafon is plain, you are afraid to 
hear the free Speech of the innocent, nay, you cannot 
fo much as bear his Looks. However, Til do him that 
Juftice, as publickly to declare he was not any way 
concern d with us. They are here prefent who joirid 
with me in the glorious Undertaking. There is not 
any one that charges Callifthenes with being privy 
to the Defign ; yet he has been a long time dejiin'd 
a Sacrifice , by the juflefi and patienteji of Kings. 
Thefe are the noble Rewards of the Macedonians, 
whofe Blood you make an abufe of, as a thing in it 
felf fuperfiuous and fordid. As for your own part, 
you have thirty thoufand Mules laden ivith captive 
Gold, when at the fame time your Soldiers have no- 
thing to carry home to their Families , but their 
Scars and Wounds. Yet we made a Jhift to bear all 
thefe Grievances till you deliver d us up to the Bar- 
barians, and by a new and unheard-of Method you 
enjlavd even the Conquerors themfelves. You de- 
light in the Drefl as well as Difcipline of the Per- 
fians, and perfectly hate your own Countreys Man- 
ners. It vjas therefore the King of the Perfians, 
and not of the Macedonians, we would have kiWd* 
and we profecute you as a Defer ter by the Law of 
Arms. Tou were for having the Macedonians a- 
dore you as a God: You flighted your own Father 
Philip, and if there were any of the Gods fuperior 
to Jupiter, you would even difdain him too. Can 
you then wonder, if Men who are free-born cannot 
brook your excefpve Pride? What can ive hope front 
you, fince we muft either be contented to faffer 
Death, tho innocent, or which is worfe than Death f 
live in Slavery i Now if you are capable of Amend- 
ment, you are very much oblig'd to me, fence I am 
the firfl that dare tell you what it is that free-born 
Spirits cannot bear. However be fo good at leafl as 
to fpare our Parents^ and do not load their old Age 
yuith Torments, who are fufliciently puniftid in be- 

86 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

ing deprivd of the Comfort they had in us ; but as 
for our felves, order us to be taken to the Place of 
Execution, that ive may obtain by our own Death 
zvhat we hop'd for from yours. 

Hermolaus fpoke after this manner, to which 
the King reply'd. 


HO W falfe all thefe things are which he has re- 
ceiv'd from his Mafier, fufficientiy appears by 
my Patience ; for notwithjlanding he pleaded Guilty 
to the worfl of Crimes, yet I was willing you floould 
hear what he faid as well as my felf. I was not 
ignorant that this Villain would be tranfported with 
the fame Rage zvhich prompted him to kill me, whom 
he ought to have reverencd as a Parent. It is true 
I lately order d him to be corrected for his infolent 
Behaviour when I vjas a Hunting \ but I did no 
more in that than zvhat was cufiomary , and a- 
greeable to the Practice of the former Kings of Ma- 
cedon. And indeed it is as abfolutely necejfary, as y 
for Pupils to be chaftiz'd by their Tutors, and Wives 
'by their Husbands ; nay, we grant our Slaves the 
privilege of correcting their Children of that Age. 
This is the Cruelty I exercised towards him , and 
which he zvould have revengd by my Death. As 
for thofe who do not compel me to acl contrary to 
my own Nature, how gentle I am towards them, 
is well known to you all, and fo needle fs to be dwelt 
■upon. 1 cannot wonder Hermolaus does not approve 
of the Punifhment of Parricides, ftnee he has in- 
curred the fafne ; fo that when he praifes Parme- 
nio and Philotas he defends his own Caufe. Tot* 
know I pardon d Lynceftes Alexander, who had 
twice confpird agaJnfl my Life, tho he was con- 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 87 

vitled by two Witnejj'es ; nay, upon a third Con- 
viclion I delay' d his Punifloment two Tears, till yon 
your felves requir'd he fiould undergo Juftice. You 
all remember Attains had refolv'd upon my Death, 
even before I was King. As for Clitus, would to 
God he had not fore d me to be angry with him ; / 
bore his virulent Expreffions to you and my felf, 
longer than he would have bore with me, had I faid 
the fame things to him. The Clemency of Kings and 
Princes, does not altogether depend on their own Bif- 
pofttion, but in a great meafure on the Temper and 
Behaviour of their Subjects. Empire is foftend by 
Submi/Jion ; but when all refpeel is laid afide, and 
high and low are confounded, then ive are necejfita- 
ted to have recourfe to Force, to repel Force. But 
why fhould 1 wonder he accufes me of Cruelty, 
who dares reproach me with Avarice ? I foall not 
appeal to your felves on that Head, for fear I fl)outd 
render my Liberality odious to you, by making it a 
burthen to your Modefiy. Caft but your Eyes on the 
whole Army, and you 11 fee that they who a little 
while ago had nothing but their bare Arms, lie now 
in Beds of Silver , their Tables are fervd in gold 
Plate, they have Troops of Slaves in their Service : 
In fine, they are fo loaded with Booty that they 
know not what to do with it. Oh ! but the Per- 
lians whom we have overcome are in great Honour 
with me ! it is true, and it is an undeniable Argument 
of my Moderation, that 1 do not reign haughtily o- 
ver them I have fubdud. 1 did not come into Alia 
utterly to exterminate whole Nations, nor to make 
a Defart of one half of the World ; but to behave 
my felf fo towards thofe I fhould overcome, that 
they might not be grievd at my Victories. This gentle 
ufage is the caufe they cheerfully ferve in the War 
with you, and do not fcruple to fied their Blood to 
enlarge your Empire ; zvhereas, had they been haugh- 
tily dealt ivith, they would have rebell'd. The Pof- 

Z fejfton 

88 Quintus Curtius. BookVin. 

feffton of what we get by the Sword is not very du- 
rable, but the Benefit of good Offices is eternal. If 
we have a mind to keep Afia, and not fimply pafs 
through it, our Clemency mufi extend to them alfo ; 
and their Fidelity will make our Empire everlafting. 
As for our felves, we have more than zve know 
what to do with, and it mufi be an infatiable ava- 
ritious Temper indeed to continue filling what al- 
ready runs over. It is faid again, that I introduce 
the Manners of the Barbarians among the Macedo- 
nians ! Why truly, I obferve in many Nations thofe 
Cufioms which we need not be afhamd to imitate ; 
nor is it pojftble to govern well fo large an Empire, 
without communicating fome things to them, and 
learning others from them. It was ridiculous enough 
in Hermolaus, that he would have had me oppofe 
Jupiter, who thought fit by his Oracle to own me 
for his Son ; do the An fivers of the Gods depend on 
me ? He was pleas d to offer me the Title of Son ; 
and I thought to receive it would very much contri- 
bute to the fuccefs of what I had in view. Iwijh 
the Indians could be perfuaded I was a God ; for 
War depends much upon Fame, and fometimes a 
falfe Report believd has had the effecl of a Truth. 
X>o you think it is out of Luxury that I caufe your 
Arms to be adorn d with Gold and Silver ? No, I 
defignd thereby to convince thofe People among fi 
whom there is nothing more common than thofe Me- 
tals, that the Macedonians, who are invincible in 
all other rcfpefts , are not to be outvyd' even in 
that. 1 fimll by this means firfi conquer the Eyes 
ef thefe Barbarians , who expecl to fee nothing 4* 
mongfi us but what is fordid and vile ; and make 
'em fenfible, that it is not out of greedinefs of Gold 
and Silver, but out of a thirft after Honour, and to 
fubdue the whole World, that we come to 'em : Of 
which Glory, thou Parricide, would'fi fain have 
robb'd us ; and having deprivd the Macedonians 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 89 

of their King, have delivered them up a prey to the con- 
quer d Nations. J am dejir'd by thee to [pare your Pa- 
rents ; now that you might perijh with the greater 
concern {if you have any love for your Parents) you 
ought to be kept ignorant $f my Intentions therein ; but 
it is a long time fmce I abolifh'd that Cuftom of put- 
ting to Death the innocent Relations with the guilty ; 
and I do now proteft, that they /hall all hold their 
refpeclive Stations, and be as much in my Favour as 
before. The Reafon why thou wouldft have had 
Calliflhenes {who alone has an Opinion of thy Me- 
rit, becaufe thou art a Ruffian) brought forth, is 
this, that he might before this AJfembly have fpoke 
the fame outrageous things thou haft lately learn d 
of him, and now villanoufly utter d thy felf againft 
me. However, had he been a Macedonian by Birth, 
be had appear d here with thee, a worthy Mafter of 
fuch a Difciple ; but as he is an Olynthian he ha: 
not the fame Privilege. After this Speech he dif- 
miis'd the Council, and order'd thofe who were 
condemn d, to be deliver d into the Hands of their 
own Companions ; who, to ftiew their Zeal for the 
Kings fafety, tormented 'em cruelly, and then 
kill'd 'em. Calliflhenes alfo dy'd upon the Rack ; 
he was altogether innocent of the Confpiracy a- 
gainft the King's Perform but was not at all of a 
complaifant Humour, nor qualify'd by Nature for 
the Flatteries of a Court. The Death of this Man 
procur'd Alexander more ill Will than that of any 
other, by reafon he was a Man of Probity and 
Learning, and had permaded him to live, when 
(having kill'd Clitus) he had refolv'd to dye. It 
was the more diflik'd becaufe he not only put him 
to Death, but tortur'd him, and all this without 
fo much as granting him a Hearing. The King 
repented (but too late) of this Cruelty. 


90 QuiNTtis Curtius. BookVIIL 


BUT that he might not remain in Idlenefs, 
which is apt to give birth to, and foment 
raiie Rumours, he advanc'd towards India, getting 
always more Glory during the War, than h(f could 
maintain after the Victory. The whole Countrey 
of India lies chiefly towards the Eaft, extending 
it felf more in length than in breadth. To the 
Southward it is hilly, the reft of it is flat and open, 
and is water'd by feveral confiderable Rivers, which 
have their rife from Mount Caucasus , and pafs 
pleafantly thro' the Plains. The Indus is the cold- 
eft of them all , and its Water differs in Colour 
but little from that of the Sea. The Ganges is 
remarkable from its firft appearance, and runs to 
the Southward in a direffc Channel, warning the 
tops of feveral Mountains, after which the Rocks 
that lie in its way turn its Courfe to the Eaftward. 
It empties it felf into the Red Sea, and by its rapid 
Courfe eats away its Banks, and carries along with 
it a great many Trees with part of the Ground 
they grew upon. Its Current is obftrucled in ma- 
ny Places by Rocks which beat it back, but where 
it finds a gentler Bed, it ftagnates and forms I- 
flands. The Aceftnes fwells it : The Ganges inter- 
cepts this River a little before it difcharges it felf 
into the Sea ; at their firft meeting they dam fu- 
rioufly againft each other, for the Ganges is very 
rough where it receives it, and the Acejines is too 
violent to give way to the other's refilling Streams. 
The Dyardenes is lefs celebrated, becaufe it runs 
along the Extremities of India; however, it is re- 
markable for this, that it not only affords Croco- 
idilesas the Nilus does, but alfo Dolphins and feve- 
ral other Animals unknown to other Nations. 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 91 

ThtErymanthus has frequent turnings and windings, 
and is by the Inhabitants let into feveral Cuts for 
the more convenient watering of the Countrey, 
which makes it have but a fmall Channel, and even 
loie its Name where it runs into the Sea. This 
Kingdom is water' d by feveral other Rivers, which 
are of lefs note, becaufe they do not run fo far 
into it. 

That part of the Countrey that lies neareft the 
Sea, is for the molt part blafted by the North Winds, 
but thefe Winds being reftrain'd by the tops of 
the Mountains, cannot penetrate into the inward 
Parts, for which Reafon they are very fruitful • 
yet this Countrey's Climate is fo different from 
the reft of the World, that when other Places are 
parch'd up with the fcorching heat of the Sun, 
India is cover'd with Snow ; and when other Re- 
gions are frozen, the heat is here almoft intole- 
rable, no Body being able to account for the 

The Indian Sea does not differ in Colour from 
other Seas , yet having received its Name from 
King Erythras, the ignorant have believ'd its Wa- 
ters were Red. The Land produces a great deal 
of Flax, wherewith the major part of the Inhabi- 
tants cloath themfelves. The inward Bark of the 
Trees receives the Characters of Letters as well 
as Paper, and the Birds may be taught to imitate 
the founds of a human Voice. The Beafts here 
are different from thofe of other Nations, the Rhi- 
noceros will live here but not breed. The Indian 
Elephants are ftronger than thofe that are tam'd 
in Africa, and they are large proportionably to 
their Strength. ■ Gold is to be found in feveral Ri- 
vers of this Countrey, which glide along with a 
gentle ftream. The Sea doth caft both Pearls and 
precious Stones on the Shore, which is the chief 
caufe of their Wealth, efpecially fince they have 


pi Quintus Curtius. Book VIII- 

communicated their Vices to foreign Nations ; for 
thefe Excrements of the working Sea, are look'd 
upon to be worth whatever Luxury rates them at. 
There, as well as elfewhere, the Minds of Men 
feem to be form'd according to the different Situ- 
ation of the Countrey. They cover their Bodies 
with Linen Garments down to the Feet : They pro- 
tect their Feet with Sandals, and bind their Heads 
with Rolls of Linen. Thofe amongft 'em, wha 
are diftinguifli'd from the reft, either by their No- 
bility of Birth or Riches , have precious Stones 
hanging at their Ears, and adorn their Arms, as 
well as Wrifts, with Bracelets and other Ornaments 
of Gold. They comb their Hair often, but fel- 
dom cut it. They (have the reft of their Face 
very fmooth, but the Beard on their Chins remains 
untouch'd. The Luxury of their Kings (which 
they call Magnificence) goes beyond the ExcefTes 
of all other Nations. When the King is pleas'd to 
appear publickly, there are proper Officers, who 
with Silver Cenfers, perfume all the Way through 
which he is to pafs. He is cairy'd in a Litter of 
Gold, curioufty fet off with Pearls that hang down 
all round it. The Linen with which he is cloth'd, 
is finely embroider'd with Gold and Purple. Hps 
Body-Guards follow the Litter, fome of them car- 
rying Boughs full of Birds, which by their agree- 
able Notes, are taught to divert 'em, in their more 
ferious Affairs. 

The Palace is fupported with Pillars of Gold, 
upon which Vines are curioufly engrav'd, where- 
on the Effigies of thofe Birds they raoft delight in, 
are reprefented in Silver. The Palace is open to 
all Comers , while the King is combing himfelf 
and drefiing ; during which Time, he gives Audi- 
ence to Ambafladors, and adminifters Juftice to 
his People. When his Sandals are taken off, they 
anoint his Feet with odoriferous Unguents. His 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 93 

greateft Labour is Hunting, which is perform'd in 
a Park, where he (hoots the wild Bealts, whilft hU 
Concubines are linging, and offering up their Vows 
for him. The Arrows are two Cubits in length, 
which they let fly with a greater Effort than Ef- 
fect, by Reafon they are clogg'd with an unweil- 
dy Weight, which retards their Swiftnefs, wherein 
their Force chiefly confifts. In fmall Journeys he 
rides on Horfeback ; but in longer Progreffes, he 
is drawn in a Chariot by Elephants, whofe vail 
Bodies are corer'd all over with Gold Trappings. 
And that nothing may be wanting to their cor- 
rupt Manners, he is follow'd by a long Train of 
Concubines in golden Litters : This Troop marches 
feparately from the Queen's, but is equal to it in 
point of Luxury. It is the Bufinefs of Women to 
prepare his Victuals ; they alfo ferve him with 
Wine, of which all the Indians drink largely. 

When the King is overcome with Wine and 
Sleep, thefe Concubines carry him into his Cham- 
ber, invoking the Gods of the Night, in their 
Country Hymns. Who would imagine, that where 
Vice feems to reign fo abfolutely, there mould be 
any Regard had to Wifdom ? Yet there is a rural and 
rigid Sect amongft 'em, which they diftinguiih by the 
Tide of wife Men. Thefe Men efteem it a glo- 
rious thing to prevent their natural Death ; they 
therefore , when Age begins to be burthenfome 
to them , or are otherwife indifpos'd in Health , 
order themfelves to be burnt alive ; looking upon 
it as a Difgrace to their Lives, patiently to expedl 
the Hour of Death. For this Reafon, no Honours 
are (hewn to the Bodies of thofe who die of old 
Age ; the Fire is dehTd, they think, unlefs it re- 
ceives them breathing. There is another fort of 
wife Men amongft them, who live in Towns af- 
ter a civil Manner. They are faid to be well 
ftill'd in the Motion of the Planets, and to fore- 


94 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

tcl future Events. They hold, that no Body ac- 
celerates his Diilblution, who has Courage enough 
to wait the Decrees of Nature. They worfhip 
for Gods, whatever they have a Fancy for, but 
Trees efpecially ; to violate which , is a capital 
Crime with them. Their Months contain'd but 
fifteen Days, notwithstanding which, their Years 
are compleat. They compute their Time by the 
Courfe of the Moon, but not as molt People do, 
when that Planet fills its Orb ; but when it begins 
to hollow it feif into Horns. This is the Caufe 
that they who reckon their Months after this man- 
ner, have them much fhorter than other People. 
There are feveral other Things related of 'em, 
which I dicl not think worth the while to interrupt 
the Order of my Hillory with. 


Alexander being enter'd into India, the little 
Kings of the Countrey went to meet him , 
and fubmit themfelves and Dominions to him, tel- 
ling him y he was the Third of Jupiter'* Offspring, 
that had reached their Countrey. Bacchus and Her- 
cules they knew by Tame only ; but they had the 
Honour to behold him , and be blefi'd with his 
Prefence. The King having receiv'd them graci- 
oufly, order'd them to accompany him, defigning 
to make ufe of them as Guides in his March. But 
when he faw that none of the reft came, he fent 
Heph&ftion and Perdiccas with part of the Army 
before, to fubdue fuch as were unwilling to fub- 
mit to his Power, ordering them to advance as 
far as the River Indus, and there to prepare Boats 
to tranfport his Army over the fame. 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 

Now becaufe there were feveral Rivers to 
pafs, they fo contnv'd the Boats that they might, 
be taken to Pieces, and carry'd in Waggons, and 
put together again when Occafion requir'd. Then 
having commanded Craterus to follow him with 
the Phalanx ,' he advanc'd with the Cavalry and 
light-arm'd Forces, and after a fmall Engagement, 
drove a Body of the Enemies (which came to op- 
pofe him) into the next Town. By this Time, 
Craters was come up to him. That therefore he 
might ftrike a Terror amongrt thefe People, who 
had not yet experienc'd the Macedonians Arms; 
he gave Orders to put all to the Sword , burning 
the Fortifications of the Place. But whilft he was 
riding about the Walls, he was wounded with an 
Arrow. However, he took the Town, and ha- 
ving kill'd all the Inhabitants, he did not fo much 
as fpare the Houfes. 

Having conquer'd this inconfiderable People, he 
came to a City call'd Nyfa, and pitch'd his Camp 
before the Walls thereof in a woody Ground. 
Here the Night-cold was fo (harp, that it very 
much incommoded the Army , but it was ealily 
remedied by Fires. For having cut down the 
Wood, they kindled fuch a Flame, that it reach'd 
the burying Places of the Townfmen, which being 
built with old Cedar , quickly took Fire , which 
fpreading it felf on all fides, burnt them down to 
the Ground. By this time the barking of the Dogs 
from the Town, and the Noife of the Army from 
the Camp were reciprocally heard, fo that the In- 
habitants were fenfible the Enemy was at hand, 
and the Macedonians underftood they were near 
the Town. 

The King therefore drew out his Troops, and 
as he prepard to befiege the Place , fome of the 
Townfmen made a Sally, but were all kill'd. Af- 
ter tfus, fome of the befieged were for furrender- 

96 Quintus Curtius. BookVIIL 

ing, while others again were for trying a Battel. A- 
lexander being inform'd of their Divifions , ..was 
cnotented to block up the Place without doing them 
any farther Damage. At laft being tir'd with the 
Inconveniences of the Siege , they yielded them- 
felves at Difcretion. 

They faid Bacchus was the Founder of their 
City, which Afiertion indeed was true. It is feat- 
ed at the Foot of a Hill, which by the Inhabitants 
is call'd Meros, from whence the Greeks took the Li- 
berty to feign, that Bacchus had been conceal d in Ju- 
piter' 5 Thigh. Alexander being inftrudted in the Na- 
ture of the Mountain by the Inhabitants, fent Provt- 
fions before him, and march'd to the Top of it 
with his whole Army. It is full of Vines and Ivy, 
and has a great Number of Springs. There is alio 
great Variety of wholefom Fruits, the Earth nou- 
riming the accidental Seeds that grow up and flou- 
rifti without Cultivation. The Laurel likewiie 
grows here, and it is pretty well cloth'd with 
Wood. I cannot believe it was by any divine In- 
ftincl, but rather out of Wantonnefs, that the Sol- 
diers made themfelves Garlands of the Ivy and 
Vine-Leaves, running in that Condition up and 
down the Woods like fo many Bacchanals. This 
Frolick was begun by a few at firft (as it generally 
happens) but at laft fpread it felf throughout the 
whole Army. The Mountains and Valleys rung 
with the Voices of lb many thoufand Men, who in 
that manner ador'd the Tutelar God of the Grove. 
Here , as if they had enjoy'd a profound Peace , 
they laid themfelves down upon the Grafs and 
Heaps of Leafes. The King was fo far from dis- 
approving this accidental Licenfe , that on the 
contrary, he order'd them all wherewith to make 
Good Chear, and fuffer'd his Army to be thus em- 
ploy'd for ten Days together in the Service of 
Bacchus. Who can (after this) deny that the great- 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 97 

eft Glory is oftner the Favour of Fortune, than 
the Effect of Virtue and Merit ? Since the Enemy 
did not dare to attack them in that drunken and 
drowfte Condition, being no lefs terrify'd by the 
Noife and Roaring of thefe mad Men, than they 
would have been by their Shoots and Huzza's in 
an Engagement; it was the fame good Fortune 
that fav'd them at their Return from the Ocean, 
when they had abandon'd themfelves to Drunken- 
nefs and Feafting. From hence he came into a 
Countrey ealTd D&daU, the People whereof had 
forfaken their Habitations, and were fled to the 
Woods and Mountains. He therefore pafs'd by 
Acadera, which he alfo found wafte and defo- 
late by the Flight of its Inhabitants. This ab- 
lig'd him to change the Order of the War, and di- 
vide his Army to carry on the War in fevera! 
Places at the fame Time ; fo that they were over- 
come on the fudden, before they expe&ed to fee 
the Enemy. Ptohmy reduc'd feveral Tow ? ns, but 
Alexander took the largeft. This being done, he 
again re-united his difperfed Forces, and having 
pafs'd the River Ckoafpes, he left Canus to carry 
on the Siege of a rich Town call'd Bezira by the 
Inhabitants, and march'd himfelf to Maz,ag&. Af- 
facanus the King thereof, was lately dead, and his 
, Mother Cleophes had the Government both of the 
Town and Countrey. The Town was defended 
by thirty thoufand Foot, and was not only ftrong 
by Nature, but alfo by Art : For toward the Eaft, 
it was cover'd by a rapid River, whole fteep Banks 
hinder'd the Approach to it. On the Weft and 
South Parts, there are prodigious high Rocks ( which 
Nature feems to have contriv'd on Purpofe) at the 
Bottom whereof, are Pits and Gulphs which length 
of Time has funk to a very great Depth ; where 
thefe fail, there is a Ditch of wonderful Labour. 
The Wall that encom paries the To way -is thirtv 
Vol. II. F five 

98 Quintus Cur/tius. Book VIII. 

five Furlongs in Circumference, the lower Part, 
thereof is built of Stone, and the upper of un- 
burnt Bricks ; yet the Bricks were ftrengthned with 
Stone, which they intermix'd, that the loofer Sub- 
ftance might be fecur'd by the harder. And left 
the whole fliould link or fettle, there were ftrong 
Beams of Timber laid on the Top, on which they 
erected Scaffolds which ferv'd both to cover the 
Walls, and to make 'em practicable. 

As Alexander was viewing thefe Fortifications, 
uncertain what to refolve upon (for it was a labo- 
rious Undertaking to fill up thofe Pits and hollow 
Caves, without which, notwithstanding, it was im- 
poflible to advance the Engines to the Walls,) He 
was wounded in the Calf of the Leg with an Ar~ 
row from the Wall , which being pull'd out , he 
call'd for his Horfe, and without biffth'ng up his 
Wound, purfu'd what he was about. However, 
as h/sLeg hung down, the Blood fettling, and the 
Wound growing cold, his Pain encreas'd very 
much, which made him fay, that notwith flan ding 
he was /aid to be Jupiter' j Son, he was fenfible of 
the Infirmities of a fickly Body. Yet he did not re- 
tire to the Camp, till he had view'd every thing, 
and given his Orders thereupon. The Soldiers 
therefore, as they were commanded, demolished 
the Out-buildings , which afforded a great deal of 
Matter to fill up the Cavities with ; others calf in 
great Trees and vaft Heaps of Stone, fo that thro' 
the indefatigable Labour of the Soldiers, the Work 
was compleated in nine Days, and the Towers 
erected thereon. The King, tho' his Wound was 
not quite curd, came to view the Works, and ha- 
ving commended the Soldiers for their Diligence, 
order'd the Engines to be advane'd, from whence 
they difcharg'd a great many Darts againft the Gar- 
rilbn. But what mod amaz'd and terrify'd the 
Barbarians, was, to fee the Towers move ; for be- 
2 holding 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 99 

holding fuch vail Piles to advance, without per- 
ceiving by what Means they mov'd, they con- 
cluded they were actuated by the Power of the 
Gods. Befides, they could not conceive how fuch 
heavy Darts and Spears (which were (hot at them 
from the Engines) could be call by Mortals. 

Defpairing therefore of being able to defend the 
Place, they retir'd into the Citadel. From hence 
(being refolv'd to furrender themfelves) they fent 
AmbafTadors to implore the Kings Pardon, which 
being granted, the Queen came to him, attended 
by a Train of Noble Women, who ofFer'd him 
Wine in golden Cups by the way of Sacrifice, and 
having prefented to him her little Son , {he not 
only obtain'd Pardon, but was alfo reftor'd to the 
Splendor of her former Dignity , retaining the 
Title of Queen. Some were of Opinion , that 
he granted more to her Beauty than to Pity, It is 
certain, that the Child (he had afterwards (whofo- 
ever was the Father of it) was call'd Alexander. 


FROM hence he detach'd Polypercon with an 
Army to a Town call'd Ora, the Inhabitants 
whereof making a disorderly Sally, were beat by 
him, and drove back into their Fortifications; io 
that Polypercon following them dole enter'd the 
Town with them , and made himfelf Matter of 
it. A great many other inconfiderable Places came 
into the Kings Power, being forfaken by the In- 
habitants, who repair'd with their At ms to a Rock 
call'd Aomos. It is faid, that Hercules in vain at- 
tempted to take this Rock, being forc'd by an 
Earthquake to leave it. As Alexander was at a' 
lofs which way to attack this Place , which was 
F a very 

ioo Quintus Curtius. BookVlH. 

very fteep and craggy on all fides, an ancient Man 
with his two Sons came to him , offering, for a 
Reward , to (hew his Men a Way to the Top of 
it. Alexander hereupon promis'd him fourfcore 
Talents, and keeping with him one of the young 
Men as a Pledge, fent him to execute what he had 

Mulimu* the Kings Secretary, with fome light- 
arm'd Soldiers, was appointed to follow this Guide, 
who defign'd, by fetching a Compafs, to deceive 
the Enemy, and get up to the Top unperceiv'd 
by them. This Rock does not by a moderate and 
gentle Afcent (as a great many do) raife it felf to 
its Highth, but ftands erect after the manner of a 
Butt, being broad beneath, contracting it felf as it 
rifes, till at laft it terminates in a Point. The Ri- 
ver Indus runs at the Bottom of it, having very 
high and fteep Banks ; on the other fide thereof, 
there are deep Gulphs and craggy Hollows that 
muft of neceffity be fill'd up by whoever would 
take the Place. There was a Wood near at hand, 
which the King commanded to be cut down for 
that purpofe, caufing the Branches to be lop'd off, 
that the Men might carry the Stocks with the 
more eafe. He flung in the firlt Tree himfelf, the 
whole Army {homing at the fame time for Toy, 
and no Body refuting now to do what they had 
feen the King himfelf perform. Thefe Cavities 
were by this means fill'd up in feven Day's time. 
Then the King order'd the Archers and Agriani- 
&ns to climb up the Rock. He like wife made 
choice of thirty of the braveft young Men of his 
own Band, appointing Charm and Alexander to 
be their Leaders. The laft of thefe, he put in 
Mind of his Name, which he bore in common 
with himfelf. 

At flrft, all oppos'd the King's hazarding his Per- 
fon in fo manifeft a Danger ; but the Signal was 



no fooner given, than this Prince who was of an 
undaunted Courage turn'd to his Guards, and bid 
them follow him, and was the firft to climb the 
Rock. After this, none of the Macedonians would 
flay behind, but of their own Motion, left their 
Polls and follow'd the King. A great many 
of them perifh'd miferably , falling from the 
Rock into the River, which prefently fwallow'd 
them up. It was a melancholy Spedacle even. to 
thole who were out of Danger ; but when they 
. obferv'd by the Difafter of others what they had 
reafon to apprehend might be their own Lot, their 
Compaffion was turn'd into Fear, and they no 
-longer bewail'd the Dead, but their own hard Con- 
dition. By this time they were advane'd fo far , 
that they could not retire with Safety, unlefs they 
conquer'd; and the Barbarians on their part, rol- 
led down huge Stones upon them, who being ter~ 
rify'd with the Danger, and not able to take firm 
Footing on the flippery Rock, were eafily bore 
down the Precipice. However, Alexander and 
Charns, whom the King had. fent before with the 
thirty chofen young Men , had made a (Lift to- 
gain the Top, and was already engag'd in a clofe 
Fight with the Enemy ; but by reafon the Barba- 
rians were ftill'd poiTefs'd of the Summit, they re- 
ceived a great many more Wounds than they 
gave. Wherefore Alexander remembring both his 
Name and Promife , behav'd himfelf with more 
Bravery than Caution , but being attack'd on all 
fides, he was cover'd with Wounds, under which 
at lad he funk and died. Chants feeing him lie 
on the Ground, fell furioufly on the Enemy, think- 
ing of nothing but Revenge, and kill'd feveral with 
his Pike, and fome with his Sword, but fighting 
fingly againft fo many, he fell down dead upon, 
the Body of his Friend. 


ioi Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

The King no lefs afflicted than he ought to be, 
at the Lofs of two fuch gallant young Men, and 
the reft of the Soldiers, caus'd the Retreat to be 
founded. What fav'd 'em here, was, that they re- 
-tir'd leifurely , and with Intrepidity : Moreover, 
the Barbarians being contented to have repuls'd the 
Enemy, did not purfue 'em. However, tho* Alex- 
ander had refolv'd within himfelf to deiiit from the 
Attempt (fince there was not the leaft Probability 
of Succefs therein) yet he made a Shew, as if he 
intended to continue the Siege. For he poflefs'd 
himfelf of the Avenues, and order' d the Towers 
to be approach'd, and caufed frefli Men to relieve 
the fatigu'd. The Indians perceiving his Obftina- 
cy, gave themfelves up to Mirth, out of an Often- 
tation, not only of the Confidence they had in 
their Safety, but alfo of the Victory. But on the 
third Night, the Noife of the Drums ceas'd, and 
the Rock was every where illuminated with 
Torches, that they might make the fafer Retreat 
in the Obfcurity of the Night, through the Pre- 
cipices of the Rock. The King having therefore 
fent Balacer to inform himfelf of the Matter, he 
brought an Account, that the Enemy was fled. 
Hereupon the King gave the Signal for a general 
Shout, which ftruck fuch a Terror into the difor- 
derly Fugitives, that a great many of 'em think- 
ing the Enemy at Hand , flung themfelves head- 
long down the flippery Rock, and perim'd mife- 
rably; others of 'em being maim'd in fome or 
other of their Limbs, were forfaken by thofe who 
-were unhurt. The King having thus rather over- 
come the Place, than the Enemy, yet he ofFer'd 
Sacrifices to the Gods, as if he had obtain'd a great 
Victory, erecting Altars on the Rock to Minerva 
and Victory. As to the Guides who were to have 
conducted the light-arm'd Soldiers, as we faid be- 
fore, he faithfully gave them what he had promis'd 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 103 

them, notwithftanding they did not perfectly per- 
form what they had undertook ; after which he 
committed the guard of this Rock and the Coun- 
trey round it to Sofccojlus. 


FROM hence the King conrinu'd his March 
towards Ecbolina, but being inform'd that 
lome Defiles thro' which- he was to pafs, werepof- 
fefs'd by one Eryces, with twenty thouiand Men ; he 
left the heavy laden part of his Army under the com- 
mand of C&nus to be brought up by eaiie Marches, 
and taking with him the Slingers and Archers, he 
went before, and having driven the Enemies from 
their Poft , he open'd a Paflage to the reft of his 
Troops that follow'd him. 

The Indians, either out of Hatred to their Cap- 
tain, or to obtain the Favour of the Conqueror, 
fet upon Eryces in his Flight, and having kill' d him, 
brought both his Head and Arms to Alexander • 
who, notwithftanding he forgave the Facl, yet ht 
did not encourage the Example. 

From hence in fixteen Encampments he came 
to the River Indus , where he found every thing 
prepar'd by Heph&jlion for palling the fame, ac- 
cording to his Orders. Omph'u reign'd now in 
this Countrey, he had, during his Father's Life, 
advis'd him to furrender himfelf and Kingdom to 
Alexander. His Father being dead, he fent Mef- 
fengers to the K'mg to know his Pleafure, Whether 
he fhonld take the Regal Dignity upon him, or in a 
private Capacity wait his coming ; nay, his Mo- 
defty was fuch, that altho' he had Alexander's Con- 
fent to take the Government upon him, he would 
not make ufe of it till his Arrival. He had been 

F 4 very 

104 Quintus Curtius. BookVIII. 

very kind to Heph&ftion, and had caus'd Corn to 
be diftributed to his Troops gratis, but he did not 
vifit him in Perfon, being unwilling to furrender 
himfelf to any but the King ; whom (upon Infor- 
mation of his drawing nigh) he went out to meet 
at the Head of an Army, wherein he had feveral 
Elephants at fome diftance from each other, which 
a great way off appear'd like fo many Caftles. At 
firlt Alexander thinking him an Enemy, and 
not an Ally, order'd his Soldiers to take to their 
Arms , and the Horfe to place themfelves on the 
Wings , and all to be ready to engage. But the 
Indian perceiving the Miftake, caus'd his Army to 
halt, and clap'ping Spurs to his Horfe, advanc'd a- 
fene. Alexander on his fide did the like, ready 
to meet him either as a Friend or an Enemy ; 
when they came together their Countenances de- 
clar'd they were friendly difpos'd, yet they could 
not exprefs themfelves to each other for want of 
an Interpreter, wiiich being come, the Barbarian 
told the King, That he met him in this manner 
ivith his Army, to yield up to him at once the whole 
'Strength of his Kingdom, without waiting till he 
had receivd his Parole of Honour ; that he refignd 
loth his Perfon and Dominions into his Hands, who 
he knezv fought for Glory and Renoivn, and fear d 
nothing but fullying his Honour. The King being 
well pleas'd with the Sincerity of the Barbarian, 
gave him his right Hand as a Pledge of his Pro- 
tection and reftor'd his Kingdom to him. He pre- 
fented Alexander with fifty fix Elephants, and feve- 
ral other Cattle of an extraordinary Size ; there 
were amongft the reft three thoufand Bulls, which 
are a rarity in this Countrey, and much valu'd 
by the Kings. Upon Alexanders aflcing him. 
Whether he had more Hujbandmen or Soldiers be- 
longing to him? He made anlwer, that having two 
Kings to fight againfi, he flood in need of more Sol- 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. tof 

diers than Plough-men. The two Kings were Abi- f 
[ares and Porus, but Poms was the moft power- 
ful ; both their Countreys lay beyond the River 
Hydafpes ; however, he was refolv'd to try the- 
Fortune of the War againft the firft that fhould 
attack him. 

Omphis , with Alexanders leave, put on the 
Diadem, and took the Name of Taxiles, which 
his Father had bore before him, and which de^- 
fcended of courfe to whoever was King of that 
Countrey. Having - entertain'd Alexander very 
fplendidly during three Days, on the fourth, he 
gave him to underftand what quantity of Corn 
he had fupply'd Heph&ftion with for his Troops*, 
and prefented the King and all his Friends with. 
Crowns of Gold, belides which he made him a 
Gift of fourfcore Talents of coin'd Silver. Alexan- 
der was wonderfully pleas'd with the generous-Dir 
fpofition of this Prince, and thereupon not only 
return'd to him all his Prefents, but alfo gave him 
a thoufand Talents out of the Booty he carry'd 
with him , befides a great deal of Gold and Sil- 
ver Plate, feveral Per [tan Garments, and thirty of 
his own Horfes accoutred with the fame Furni- 
ture he us'd to mount 'em with himfelf. As this 
Liberality very much oblig'd the Barbarian, fo it. 
very much offended his own Friends, infomuch. that 
Maleager having drunk pretty largely at Supper.,, 
faid, He congratulated Alexander upon his having 
at la ft found in India, a Perfon deferring of a thou* 
fand Talents. The King calling to mind how- 
much he had been afflicted for killing Clitus ? 
on the account of his indifcreet Difcourfe , fup- 
prefs'd his Anger, but told him however, That 
envious Perfons were their own greateft Torments, 


io6 Quiotus Curtius. Book VIII. 


TH E Day following he receiv'd Ambafladors 
from Abifares, who, according to their Com- 
mifiion, yielded up all that belong'd to their Ma- 
iler, to his Royal Will and Pleafure ; and after 
•mutual alfurance given of Fidelity and Protection, 
he fent them back to their King. Alexander ima- 
gining that his Reputation and Fame had by this 
time ftartled Poms, and fo he might be brought 
to furrender himfelf as others had done, tent Cleo- 
chares to him, to fummon him to pay a Tribute, 
and to meet the King on the Frontiers of his Domi- 
nions. Poms made anfvver, That he would not fail 
to do one of thofe two things ; which was to meet 
him on the Borders of his Kingdom, but it fliottld be 
with a good Army. 

Alexander was now upon the point of paffing 
the Hydafpes when Barzain-tes, the Author of the 
Arachofians Rebellion, was brought to him bound, 
and thirty Elephants which were taken with him ; 
thefe were a very feafonable Succour at this time 
againft the Indians, for they put more confidence 
in thefe Reafts than in their Army. Gnmaxu**, 
who was King of a fmall Portion of India , and 
.had made an Alliance with Barza'entes, was al- 
fo brought a Prifoner to him. Having therefore 
•committed the Tray tor and the little King to a 
fafe Guard, and the Elephants to the Care of Ta- 
xiles, he came to the River Hydafpes. Poms was 
-encamp'd on the other fide thereof to oppofe his 
Ullage, having with him fourfcore and live Ele- 
phants of a prodigious ftrengrh of Body ; betides 
thefe, he had three hundred Chariots, and thirty 
thoufand Foot, amongft which there were fome 
of thofe Archers which we have already menti- 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 107 

on'd, whofe Shafts were too heavy to be eafily 
{hot off. Porus himfelf was carried upon an E- 
lephant of a much larger Size than the reft , his 
Arms, which were finely adorn'd with Gold and 
Silver, were a great Ornament to his illuftrious 
Perfonage, which was of an unufual bignefs ; his 
Courage was equal to the Strength of his Body, 
and he was as wife as could be expected in a 
Nation fo unciviliz'd. The Macedonians were- 
not only terrify'd by the dreadful appearance of 
the Enemy, but alfo by the largenefs of the River 
they were to pafs, which was four Furlongs in 
breadth, and being very deep was no where for- 
dable, fo that it carried the appearance of a little 
Sea. Its largenefs did not remain its impetuous 
Current, for it ran with the fame rapidity it could 
have done in a narrow Channel, and the reper- 
cuffion of the Waters ftiew'd fufficiently ,. that 
there were hidden Rocks in it ; but the appear- 
ance of Men and Horfes that cover'd the Bank 
was ftill more terrible. There flood thofe huge- 
bulks of over-grown Bodies, the Elephants, which, 
being on purpofe provok'd, fill'd the Air with a 
horrible Noife. Thus the Enemy on one fide* 
and the River on the other , firuck with an un- 
forefeen Terror, the Hearts of thofe who had 
reafon to hope well, and had fo often experienc'd 
their own Bravery. They could not imagine how 
their tottering Boats could be fteer'd to the othet 
fide, nor how, when they came there, they could 
with fafety be put to Shoar. In the middle, of 
the River there were feveral I Hands, to which the 
Indians and Macedonians fwam, holding their Arms 
over their Heads ; here they had frequent Skir- 
milhes, and both Kings were pleas'd with thefe 
fmall Trials, thinking thereby to make a Judgment 
of the iflue of the future general Engagement. 

F 6 Among 

108 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

Among the Macedonians there were two young 
Noblemen, whofe Names were Symmachus and 
Nicanor , remarkable for their daring Courage , 
which feem'a 1 to partake of Raflinefs and Teme- 
rity. The conftant Succefs of their Party had 
brought 'em to an utter contempt of all Danger. 
Under the Conduct of thefe two, feveral briflc 
young Fellows (having no other Arms than their 
Javelins) fwam over to an Illand which was pof- 
fefs'd by a good number of the Enemy ; where, 
without hardly any other Weapon than their Cou- 
rage, they kill'd a great many of them. This 
done, they might have come off with Glory, if 
it had been poflible for a fuccefsful Temerity to 
know where to ftop ; but while with Contempt 
and Pride they waited till the Enemy was rein- 
forcd, they were fuddenly furrounded by fome 
who had fwam thither unperceiv'd, and opprefs'd 
with their Darts at a diftance. Thofe who efcap'd 
the Enemy were either bore down the rapid 
Stream, or fwallow'd by the Whirpools. This 
SkirmiQi increas'd Porus's ArTurance very much, 
who from the River fide beheld- all that pafs'd. 

In the mean time Alexander , who was at a lofs 
what to do, at laft refolv'd upon this Stratagem to 
.deceive the Enemy. There was in the River one 
Iiland .larger than the reft, which was very woody, 
and fo very proper to cover his Defign. Moreover, 
there was a deep Ditch not far from the Bank the 
Xing poflefs'd, which was not only capable of 
concealing Foot, but Horfe alfo ; that therefore 
he might draw off the Eyes of the Enemy from 
watching that conveniency, he detach'd Ptolemy 
with all his Cavalry, ordering him to ride up and 
down at a confiderable diftance from the Ifland, 
and now and then by Cries and Shouts to alarm 
the Indians, as if he intended to fwim over .the 
River, This was «xecuted by Ptolemy for feveral 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 109 

Days, by which means he fore' d.Porus to draw 
off his Army to that Place where he feem'd to 
have a defign to pafs over. The Ifland was now 
out of the Enemy's fight, and Alexander order'd 
his Tent to be pitch'd over againft the Indians 
Camp, and his ufual Guards to do Duty before it, 
expofing on purpofe to the View of the Enemy 
all the Pomp and Splendor of Regal Magnificence. 
He alfo caus' d Attains (who was about his Age, and 
not unlike him in Feature and Perfon, efpecially 
at a diftance) to put on his Royal Garments, and 
make a mew as if the King was there with them, 
and no wife contriving to pafs the River. 

A violent Tempeft retarded at firft the effedl of 
this Enterprize, but afterwards promoted it, For- 
tune turning to his Advantage whatever feem- 
ed to be againft him. He was now preparing 
to pafs into the Ifland we before mention'd ?'(the 
Enemy being wholly intent on thofe who with 
Ptolemy were encamp'd lower down) when on 
the fudden there fell fuch a ftorm of Rain as 
was hardly fupportable to thofe who were under 
cover, fo that the Soldiers were fore'd to quit their 
Boats, and take refuge again on the Land. The 
noife of all this Hurry was drown'd by that of the 
Waves againft the Banks of the River, fo that the 
Enemy was infenfible thereof. After a while the 
Rain ceas'd at once, but then fuch thick Clouds 
fucceeded, that they intercepted the Light, and 
made it almoft impoffible for thofe who were talk- 
ing to one another to diftinguifti their Compa,- 
nions, Faces. This darknefs would have terrify'd 
any Body but Alexander, efpecially being to pafs 
over an unknown. River, when they were not cer- 
tain but the Enemy might have poflefs'd themr 
felves of that part of the Bank they were unwa- 
rily making to without the benefit of their Eyes, 
as if they fought for Glory from the extremity of 


no Quintus Curtius . Book VIII, 

their Danger. But that Obfcurity which would 
have daunted others, he thought was his Oppor- 
tunity; he therefore gave the Signal to embark 
(enjoining a profound lilence) and caus'd his own 
Boat to put off the firft. That part of the Bank where 
they landed was free from the Enemy, Porus be- 
ing ftill intent upon Ptalemy, and all the Boats ex- 
cept one which was dauYd againft a Rock, arriv'd 
fafe, fo that he order'd his Men to take to their 
Arms, and form their Ranks, and march in order 
of Battel. 


Alexander was marching now at the Head of 
his Army, divided into tw-o Wings, when 
Porus receiv'd Advice, that the Enemy had pafs'd 
the River, and were marching diredly to him ; 
at firft, thro* the common frailty of the Mind of 
Man, he flatter'd himfelf with the hopes that it 
was Abifares his Ally, who was coming to his Af- 
fiftance, according to Agreement ; but by and by 
the clearer Light made him feniible it was the Ene- 
my, fo that he fent his Brother Hages with a hun- 
dred Chariots, and three thoufand Horfe to make 
Headagainlt em. Thefe Chariots were the chief- 
eft part of his Strength, each of them carry'd fix 
Men, viz.. two who had Bucklers, two Archers 
difpos'd on each fide> and the other two were Dri- 
vers, who were not without Arms, for in clofe 
Engagements they laid afide their Reins, and caft 
Darts amongft the Enemy. However, they were 
of little or no ufe at this time, for the Rain (as 
we before obferv'd) having fallen in greater abun- 
dance than ufual, had made the Ground flippery 
and impractible to the Horfes, fo that thefe heavy 

Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. HI 

and aim oft immoveable Chariots ftuck fall in the 
•Mire and hollow Places ; whereas Alexanders Ar- 
my being lightly arm'd, and free from all Incum- 
brance, charg'd the Enemy brifkly. The Scythi- 
ans and the Dah& gave the Onfet, then he order'd 
Per dice cvs with his Horfe to attack the Enemies 
Right Wing ; by this time the Engagement was 
general, and the Charioteers thinking themfelves 
the fcjft refuge of their Party, with a loofe Rein 
drove furioufty in the midft of the Throng, and 
equally annoy'd both Parties; for at firft the Ma- 
cedonian Infantry fuffer'd very much by 'em r 
"but being driven thro' flippery and impracti- 
cable Places, the Charioteers were flung out of 
their Seats, while the affrighted Horfes over-turn'd 
fome of them in the Sloughs and Ditches, and 
precipitated others into the River ; a few of tbera 
pafhng thro' the Enemy, came into Poruss Camp, 
who was preparing all things for a vigorous Fight. 
Porus perceiving his Chariots thus fcatter'd all over 
the Field of Battel, diftributed the Charge of the 
Elephants amongft his Friends, and behind them 
drew up his Foot and Archers, who likewife had 
Drums to beat, which ferv'd the Indians inftead of 
Trumpets. The Beafts are not at all mov'd at 
thisNoife, their Ears having been a long time ac- 
cuftom'd to it. 

The Image of Hercules was carry'd at the Head 
of the Infantry. This was a great Encourage- 
ment to them, and it was efteem'd a great Crime 
to defert the Bearers of it , who were by the 
Laws punifh'd with Death if they did not bring 
it fafe out of the Field ; the fear they .former- 
ly conceiv'd of him, while their Enemy, being now 
turn'd into 'Veneration and religious Worfliip. 

The noble Prefenceof Porus, as well as the 
Sight of thefe monftrous Animals, put the Mace- 
donians to a ftand for a while; for thefe Beafts 


iii Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

being difpos'd among the Men in the Front, at a 
diftance carry'd the appearance of Towers ; and 
Porus's extraordinary Stature was very much fet 
off by the largenefs of the Elephant that carry'd 
him, which as much exceeded all the reft in highth 
as he himfelf exceeded other Men in tallnefs. A- 
lexander therefore taking a view of the King's Per- 
fon and his Army, faid, At lafi I have met with 
a Danger fuitalle to the Greatnefs of my Soul ; I 
have nozv not only to do with Bcafts, but alfo with 
Men of Diftinclion. Then looking at C&nus, he 
gave him the following Orders, When you fee me 
with Ptolomy, Perdiccas and Haepheftion, charge 
the Enemies Left Wing, and fiall obferve us to be in 
the heat of Aclion, do you vigoroufly attack the 
Right Wing ; and for you, Antigenes* Leonnarus, 
and Tauron, do you prefs hard upon the Center. 
Our long and firong Pikes can never be of greater 
ufe than againft thefe Beafts, and their Managers ; 
beat thefe off of 'em, and run thofe through. They 
are at beft but a dangerous Succour , and may as 
eafily annoy as do Service ; nay, their Rage exerts 
its fury chiefly when turn'd upon their own People, 
for it is Discipline teaches 'em to acl againft the 
Enemy ; whereas fear drives \m amongji their 

As foon as he had fpok'e thefe Words,: he clap- 
ped Spurs to, his Horfe, and as he had project- 
ed, diforder'd the Enemies Ranks ; then C&nus 
attack'd the Right Wing with great Bravery, and 
the Phalanx at the fame time broke in upon the 

Poms took care to oppofe the Horfe with his 
Elephants; however, that flow and unwieldy 
Animal could not equal the Horfes fpeed; beiides 
which the Barbarians Arrows were of no ufe to 
them , for as they were long and very heavy 
they could not fix them without refting their 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 113 

Bows upon the Ground, which being flippery, de- 
ceiv'd their Effort, fo that while they were pre- 
paring to fhoot , they were prevented by ? the 

Poruss Orders were now no longer minded 
(as it generally happens where Fear has a greater 
Influence than the Authority of the Captain.) 
There were at this time as many Generals as there 
were fcatter'd Regiments. Some were for uniting 
all their Troops into one Body, others were for 
fighting diftindly in feparate Corps; fome were 
for making a (land, others were for wheeling about 
and attacking the Enemy in the Rear. In fine, 
there was no general Confutation; notwithstand- 
ing which, Porus, accompany'd by a few (with 
whom Honour prevail' d more than Fear) rally'd 
his fcatter'd Forces, and advanc'd againfl the Ene- 
my, placing the Elephants in the front of his Ar- 
my. Thefe Animals were very terrible, and their 
unufual noife did not only frighten the Horfes 
(who are naturally fearful) but the Men alfo, and 
diforder'd the Ranks ; fo that they who a little 
before were victorious, began now to confider 
which way they fhould take their Flight. Hereupon 
Alexander fent againft the Elephants the Agrians 
and the light-arm'd Th'racians, who are better at 
fkirmifliing than maintaining a clofe Fight. Thefe 
Men pour'd in a great number of Darts and Ar- 
rows amongfl the Elephants and their Governors, 
and the Phalanx perceiving their Confulion prefs'd 
hard upon 'em ; but fome of thefe advancing too 
eagerly againfl: thofe Beafts, fo provok'd 'em by 
the Wounds they gave 'em, that they trampled 
them under their Feet, and were an Example to 
others to attack them with more caution ; but 
the moft difmal thing of all was, when thefe A- 
nimals took up the arm'd Soldiers with their 


X14 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

Trunks, and deliver'd 'em up to their Governors 
upon their Backs. 

This made the Fight doubtful, the Macedonians 
fometimes purfuing, and fometimes flying from the 
Elephants, which occafion'd the Battel to continue 
"till the Day was far fpent, till at laft they chopp'd 
their Legs with Axes prepar'd for that purpofe. 
They had beiides another kind of Weapon, fome- 
what crooked, and refembltng a Scythe , with 
which they cut off their Trunks. Thus the fear 
not only of Death, but of a new Torment in the 
fame, made them leave nothing unexperienc'd a- 
gainft them. 

At laft the Elephants, enrag'd with their Wounds, 
bore down their own Party, and calling their Go- 
vernors on the Ground , trampled them to Death. 
By this time Fear had fo feiz'd them , that in- 
ftead of being mifchievous they were drove like 
Sheep out of the Field of Battel ; but Porus (not- 
withstanding he was forfaken by the greateft part 
of his People) began to ply thofe who furrounded 
him with Darts, with which he was provided, and 
wounded a great many at a diftance, being him- 
felf expos'd like a mark, at which every Body le- 
vell'd. He had already nine Wounds before and 
.behind, fo that having loft a great quantity of 
Blood, the Javelins might be faid rather to drop 
from his faint Arm, than be deliver'd. However, 
the Elephant that carry'd him (not being yet hurt) 
made great havock amongft the Enemy, till the 
Governor of it (perceiving the King's Limbs to 
fail him, and that dropping his Arms he was hard- 
ly compos mentis) put the Beaft to flight, making 
the beft of his way. Alexander follow'd him as fait 
as he could, but his Horfe being very much wounded 
fainted under him, and might be faid rather to fet 
him down gently, than call: him. Being thus oblig'd 


Book VIII. Quintus Curtius. 115- 

to change his Horfe, retarded his purfuit. In the 
mean time he fent the Brother of Taxiles the Indian 
King, to perfuade Yorus to furrender himfelf> and not 
hold out to the laft extremity ; but he, altho' his 
Strength fail'd him, and his Blood was exhaulted, yet 
raifing himfelf up at the known Voice, laid, 1 am 
fenfible thou art the Brother of Taxiles, that Trai- 
tor of his Sovereignty and Kingdom. And at the 
fame time , call: the only Dart he had left with 
fuch a Force at him, that it pierc'd his Body thro' 
to the Back. Having given this laft Token of his 
Strength, he began 10 fly falter than before ; but 
by this time, the Elephant who had receiv'd a 
great many Wounds, was not able to go any far- 
ther; fo that Poms was oblig'd to ftop, and with 
fome Foot made Head againft the purfuing Ene- 
my. Alexander being come up with him , and 
underftanding his Obftinacy, forbid any Mercy to 
be {hewn to thofe who made any Refinance. At 
thefe Words they ply'd Poms and his Men with 
Darts from all Parts, till at laft not being able to 
bear up any longer, he began to Hide down from 
his Beaft. The Indian who guided the Elephant, 
thinking he had a Mind to alight, caus'd the Beaft 
to kneel down according toCuftom; which being 
obferv'd by the reft, they all did the like , being 
train'd up to do fo, by which means , Poms and 
all his Followers, became a Prey to the Conque- 
rors. The King thinking Porm was dead, order'd 
his Body to be ftripp'd ; but as they were running 
to put the fame in Execution, and take off his 
Armour and Garments, the Beaft began to defend 
his Mafter, and attack the AggrelTors, and taking 
hold of him with his Trunk, put him again up- 
on his Back. Whereupon they prefently cover'd 
the Elephant with Darts , and kill'd it, and put 
Porm in a Waggon. But the King perceiving him 
to lift up his Eyes, was mov'd with Compaflion, 

H6 Quintus Curtius. Book VIII. 

and faid, to him, What Madnefs pojfefs'd thee to 
try the Fortune of the War with me, of whom thou 
hadft heard fuch mighty Things , efpecially when 
Taxilcs thy Neighbour might have been a fuffici- 
ent Example of my Clemency to thofe that are 
wife enough to fubmit to me ? To which he made 
Anfwer, Since thou afkejl me the Que/Hon, I /hall 
tell thee with the fame Freedom thou grante/l me 
by the Interrogation. I thought no Body flronger 
than my felf ; for I knew my own Poiuer, and had 
not yet experienced thine. The Event of the War 
convinces me, thou art the greateji Prince, and I 
think it no fmall Happinefs to hold the next Rank to 
thee. Being afk'd again, How he thought the Vi- 
clor ought to ufe him ? He reply'd, As this Day's 
AHion /hall infpire thee ; by which thou art fen- 
jible of the Frailty of mortal Happinefs. This Ad- 
monition avail'd him more than any Inrreaty 
could have done; for conlidering the Greatnefs of 
his Mind, which was altogether fearlefs, and not 
in the leaft impair'd by Adverfity, he not only 
took Pity of him , but us'd him honourably. He 
order'd the fame Care to be taken of his Wounds, 
as if he had fought for his Service, and when they 
were cur'd, he receiv'd him into the Number of 
his Friends, contrary to every Body's Expectation, 
and in a little time, gave him a larger Kingdom 
than he had before. Indeed, there was nothing 
more ftrongly riveted into his Nature, than a due 
Regard to true Merit and Glory. It is true, at 
the fame time, he confider'd Renown more im- 
partially in an Enemy, than in a Subject; for he 
thought that the Fame of thefe, was a Diminution 
to his own. which he imagin'd receiv'd fome ad- 
ditional Luftre from the Greatnefs of thofe he o- 

QUIN T tf i 




exander rejoicing at fo memorable 
a Victory (by which he conceiv'd 
he had open d himfelf a Tallage in- 
to the Eaft) offer'd Sacrifices to the 
Sun ; and that his Soldiers might 
undergo with the greater Chearful- 
nefs the Fatigues of the remaining Wars, he made 
a Speech to them, wherein he firft highly com- 
mended them for their paft Services , and after- 
wards acquainted them, That the main Strength 
of the Indians had been overcome in the late fuc- 
cefsful Acl'ion. That what remain 'd,. would be on- 
ly a noble Booty for them ; fence the Countrey they 
were going to , was particularly celebrated for its 
prodigious Wealth and Riches , in refpetl to which , 
the Spoils of the Perfians were but mere trifles : That 
they might now prcpofe, not only to fill their own 
Houfes, but likewife all Macedonia and Greece, 
with Pearls and precious Stones, Gold and Ivory. 
Hereupon the Soldiers, who were no lefs greedy 

2 Of 

ii 8 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

of Wealth, than ambitious of Glory and Honour,- 
and efpecially becaufe they had never found his 
Promises fail 'em, readily offer'd him afrefti their: 
Service. Having therefore difmifs'd the AfTembly 
full of Hopes, he order'd Ships to be built, that 
when they had over-run all Alia, he might be able ■ 
to vifit the Sea which bounded the whole World, 
There was a great deal of Timber fit for Shipping 
in the neighbouring Mountains , which as they 
were felling , they found Serpents of an unufual 
Size ; here were alfo Rhinoceroces, which is an ani- 
mal very rare in other Parts. This Name was 
given them by the Greeks, they being call'd other- 
wife by the Indians. 

The King having built two Cities upon the Banks 
of the River he had lately pafs'd, prefented every 
one of his Generals with a Crown, and a thou- 
fand Pieces of Gold befides. He alfo rewarded the 
reft in proportion to their Ranks, or the Service 
they had done. Abiz.ares who had before the Bat- 
tel with Porm, fent Ambafladors to Alexander, 
now fent others to him to allure him, he was ready 
to obey his Commands , provided he might not be 
obliged to furrender his Perfon, he being" rvfolvd not 
to live without the Regal Dignity, nor to reign in 
Captivity. To whom Alexander made Anfwer, 
That if it was too great a Trouble for their Mafler 
to come to him, he would go to him. 

Having thus vanquifh'd Porm , and pafs'd the 
River , he advanc'd farther into the Countrey , 
where he found Woods of a vaft Extent, wherein 
were Trees of a prodigious highth, the greater!: 
Part of the Arms equalling in Bignefs the Stocks 
ot Trees; for bending down into the Earth, they 
grew up again in the fame place , and feem'd ra- 
ther like a Tree growing from its proper Root, 
than -a Bough riling from another Stem. The Air 
is temperate, by xeafon that the Clofenefs of the 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 119 

1 Boughs mitigate the exceflive Heat of the Sun, 
and the great Number of the Springs , afford a 
large Quantity of Water, which refreflies the 
Ground. However, here were alfo Multitudes of 
Serpents, whofe Scales glitter'd like Gold,, and 
there is not any Poifon more virulent than theirs ; 
for their Bite was prefent Death, till fuch time as 
the Inhabitants communicated to 'em a proper An- 
tidote. From hence they pafs'd through Defarts, 
to the River Hydraotes , which has a, Foreft bor- 
dering upon it, fet thick with uncommon Trees, 
and very much frequented with wild Peacocks. 
Decamping from hence, he took a Town not far 
diltant, by Afiault, and having taken Hoftages for 
their Fidelity , he enjoyn'd 'em a certain Tri- 
bute , and advanc'd to another great Town , as 
they commonly are in that Countrey. This Town 
was not only encompafs'd with a Wall, but alfo 
fortify'd with a Morafs. The Inhabitants of this 
Place came out to fight him, making ufe of feve- 
ral Chariots join'd together; fome of them were 
arm'd with Darts, others with Pikes , and fome 
with Axes, and they would nimbly leap from one 
Chariot to another, when they had a Mind to fuc- 
cour their Friends. At firft, this new way of fight- 
ing fomewhat fiartl'd the Macedonians, who found 
themfelves wounded at a Dillance , without the 
Power of revenging themfelves upon their Ene- 
mies. But afterwards growing into a Contempt 
of this diforderly Rout, they furrounded thefe Cha- 
riots, and ftuck thofe who fought in 'em ; and to 
facilitate the Work, the King commanded 'em to 
cut the Traces that join 'd 'em together, that fo they 
might attack 'em Jingly. Having in this Engage- 
ment loft eight thouiand of their Men, the reft re- 
tir'd into the Town. The next Day the Macedo- 
nians fcal'd the Walls , and took it by Afiault ; 
fome tew had lav'd themfelves by Flight, and be- 

lib Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

ing fenfible of the Deftruction of the Place, they 
fwam over the Moor, and carry'd a difmal Ac- 
count to the neighbouring Cities, and put them in 
the utmoft Confternation, telling them, there was 
an invincible Army at hand, commanded by the 
Gods themfelves. Alexander having detach'd Per- 
d/cca* with a Body of Light-horfe to deftroy the 
(fountrey, fent Eumenes with another Body to re- 
duce the obftinate , and march'd himfelf with the 
reft to a ftrong Town, into which the Inhabitants 
of feveral others had taken Refuge. The Towns- 
Men difpatch'd Deputies to Alexander, to implore 
his Mercy, and yet at the fame time, prepared 
themfelves for War: For a Sedition happening 
amongft 'em, they were divided in their Counfels, 
fome preferring any Condition to a Surrender, 
while others thought it was to no Purpofe to re- 
fill:. But there being nothing confulted in com- 
mon, they who were for furrendring, open'd the 
Gates and let in the Enemy. 

Notwithftanding the King might with Juftice , 
have puniuYd thofe who were for encouraging the 
reft to oppofe him, yet he pardon'd all in general, 
and having, receiv'd Hoftages from them, he march- 
ed his Army to the next City. As thefe Hoftages 
were led at the Head of the Army, the Inhabi- 
tants from the Walls knew them, as being of the 
fame Nation, and therefore came to a Parley with 
them, and being inform'd by 'em of the Kings 
Clemency as well as Power, they were prevail- 
ed upon to furrender themfelves, and the other 
Towns following their Example , put themfelves 
alfo under his Protection. 

From hence he came into the Kingdom of So- 
rbites. This Nation (for Barbarians) is very wife, 
and is govern'd by good Laws and virtuous Mo- 
rals. Here they do not rear and bring up their 
Children according to the Will of the Parents, but 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 121 

by the Approbation of fuch who are appointed to 
infpedt and examine the Frame and Make of their 
Bodies. Where they find any notorioufly deform- 
ed, or defective in any of their Limbs, they caufe 
'em to be kill'd. In their Marriages, they have 
Regard neither to Nobility nor Extraction, but on- 
ly to the Beauty of the Body ; becaufe it is chiefly 
that they value in their Children. Alexander had 
brought his Army before the Capital of this Na- 
tion, where Sophites was himfelf prefent. The 
Gates were (but, but no Body appear'd either on 
the Walls, or in the Towers: This made the 
Macedonians fufpect the Inhabitants had either a- 
bandon'd the Place, or elfe kept out of Sight on 
the account of fome Stratagem. But all on the 
fudden, the Gate was open'd, and the Indian King 
(who far exceeded all the reft in Goodlinefs of 
Perfon) with two Sons already well grown, came 
forth to meet Alexander. His Garment was inter- 
mix'd with Gold and Purple, and cover'd his Legs ; 
his Sandals, which were of Gold, were alfo fet with 
' Pearls and precious Stones , with which his Arms 
were likewife curioufly adorn'd. At his Ears he 
had Pendants, whofe extraordinary Whitenefs and 
Largeneis made them almoft ineftimable. His 
Scepter, which was of Gold alfo , was neatly fet 
off with Beryls. This he deliver'd to Alexander , 
wiftung him all Health and Happinefs, and there- 
by gave him to underftand , that he laid himfelf, 
his Children, and Nation at his Mercy. 

This Countrey affords a very fine Dog for Hunt- 
ing ; they are faid to refrain their Cry, after they 
have once feen their Game , which is the Lion 
particularly. That he might therefore mew Ale- 
xander the Strength and Nature of thefe Dogs, he 
caus'd a very large Lion to be brought forth, and 
only four of them to be let loofe upon it. Thefe 
Dogs prefently faften'd upon their Prey ; then one 
Vol. II. G of 

izz Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

of thofe whofe proper Bufinefs it was, took hold 
of the Leg of one of them, and pull'd it with all 
his Strength, but the Dog not yielding thereunto, 
he began to cut it off; notwithstanding which, the 
Dog kept his Hold, fo that the Keeper cut him in 
another Place, and rinding him to adhere ftill te- 
nacioufly to his Prey , he by degrees cut him in 
Pieces, the Dog keeping his Teeth ftill nVd in the 
Beaft till he dy'd ; fo great is the Eagernefs Nature 
has implanted in thefe Creatures for their Game, 
as it is tranfmitted to us from our Predeceflbrs. 
I muft confefs , I tranfcribe more than I believe 
my felf ; for I cannot affirm for Truth, what I 
doubt of; and at the fame time, I cannot omit 
relating what I have receiv'd. Alexander there- 
fore leaving Sophites in PofTeffion of his Domini- 
ons , advanc'd to the River Hypafis , and there 
join'd Heph&fiion who had fubdu'd another Coun- 
trey. PhegeUs was King of the Neighbouring Na- 
tion, who, upon Advice of Alexanders Approach, 
order'd his Subjects to mind cultivating their Land, 
and then fet out with Prefents to meet him , re- 
folv'd to refufe no Injunctions he mould lay upon 


■TpH E King having ftaid with this Prince two 
i Days , defign'd on the third, to pafs the Ri- 
ver; which Undertaking was not only difficult, 
by reafon of its great breadth, but alfo on the ac- 
count of the many Rocks that lay fcatter'd up and 
down in it. He therefore inquir'd of Phegclas , 
what was proper for him to know; who gave him 
to underftand, That beyond the Riuer, he had eleven 
Days Journey through Be farts and Solitudes, after 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 1x3 

zvhich, he zvould come to the Ganges, zvhich is the 
largefl River in all India ; the furthermofl Bank 
whereof -was inhabited by the GangaridiS, and~?\\2cc- 
rafij, whofc King s Name zvas Aggrammes , zvho 
guarded the Entrance into his Dominions, zvith 
twenty thoufand Horfe, and two hundred thoufand 
Foot ; befides zvhich, he had two thoufand Chariots, 
and {which zvas flill more terrible) three thoufand 
Elephants. The King at firft look'd upon thefe 
Reports as fo many Incredibilities, and therefore 
aik'd Porus (for he was with him ) Whether this 
Account wen true ? Who told him, That as to the 
Strength of the Nation, there zvas nothing Roman- 
tick in it; but as for the prefent King, he was fo 
far from being noble, that he was of very mean Bxr 
traffion; his Father having been a Barber, and had 
much a-do to fubfifl by his daily Labour', till hi* 
Perfon recommended him to the Green's Favour, 
who procurd him the firfi Place in the then King s 
Friendjhip. After which , this barbarous Wretch 
treacheroufly hill'd his Sovereign, and under the 
Pretence of a Guardian, feizd his Kingdom ; then 
takmg off the Children, begot the prefent King, zvho 
zvas both defpis d and hated by hi* Subjects , who 
were more mindful of his paternal Difgrace, than of 
his prefent Fortune. This Confirmation of Porus, 
made the King very anxious ; for tho' he defpis'd 
the Enemy, and the Elephants, yet he was u:i- 
I eafy on the account of the difficult Situation of 
the Places he was to pafs through, and the Rapidi- 
ty of the Rivers. It feem'd to him & hard Tafk 
to feek out an Enemy in the Extremity of the 
World, and force 'em out of their ftrong Holds 
againft him. On the other fide, his infatiable 
Thirft after Fame , and his unbounded Ambition, 
(horten'd the Diftance of the remoter! Places, and 
*made him think no Difficulty infurmountable. But 
- then again, he doubted whether the Macedonians, 
G 2 zvho 

12.4 Quintus Curtius. Book IX' 

who had already march 'd through fo many large 
Countreys, who were grown old in the Camp and 
Service, would be willing to follow him over fo ma- 
ny Rivers that lay in his way, and ftruggle thro 
fo many Difficulties of refifting Nature ? It was rea- 
fonable to think, that they who were already over- 
Loaded with Booty, would rather covet to enjoy what 
they had acquird, than harrafi themfelves any lon- 
ger to procure more. Moreover, his Soldiers Bifpofition 
and his, zvere quite different ; for as he had ingrofi 'd 
in his Thoughts , the Empire of the whole World , 
he was in a manner but beginning his great Work, 
zvhereas the Soldiers, overcome by their Fatigues and 
Toils , defird nothing more than an End of their 
Dangers, that they might enjoy the lafi Fruits cf 
their Labours. However, Ambitipn carry'd it a- 
gainft R'eafon ; having therefore drawn up his 
Army, he fpoke to 'em in the following manner. 
I am not infenfible, Soldiers, that the Indians have 
within thefe few Days fpread feveral Rumours on 
purpofe to terrific you ; but you do not need being 
told, how groundlefi thefe Reports are. Thiu the 
Perfians heretofore endeavoured to terrify you with 
the Straits of Cilicia, and the Plains cf Mefopo- 
tamia, the Tigris and the Euphrates; and yet we 
forded the one, and by the means of Bridges, pajl the 
other. Fame never reprefents Matters truly as they 
are , but on the contrary , magnifies every thing. 
This is plain from our oivn Reputation and Glory , 
which tho" founded on folid Truths, is yet more ob- 
ligd to Pernor than Reality. Who would have 
thought v:e could have overcome (as we did lately) 
thofe monflrous Elephants that appear d like fo many 
firong Fortifications ? Or that we could have pafid 
the River Hydafpis ? Or grappid with a great many 
other Difficulties which zvere much more formidable 
to hear of than they were in Faff ? Believe me, we 
had long ago fled from Alia , if Fables could have 
2 frighten 'd 

BooklX. Quintus Curtius. IX f 

frighten d m. Can you imagine there jhould be 
greater Herds of Elephants than of other Cattle ? 
When at the fame Time it is knozvn to be a rare 
Animal, hard to be taken, and harder to be tam\i: 
It it the fame Spirit of Faljhood, that has reprefent- 
ed your Enemies to be fo numerous in Horfe and 
Foot. As for the River, it it certain that the broad- 
er it is, the gentler muft be its Stream ; for it is 
the being confi?id within narrow Banks , and the 
running in a ftrait Channel, that caufes the impe- 
tuous Current of the Water. Befides, all Men knozv, 
that the greateft Banger is at the landing, the Ene- 
my being ready on the Bank to receive us ; fo that 
the Rifk is equal in that Cafe, be the River broad 
or narrow. But admitting that all thefe Reports 
were true, Is it the huge Bulk of thefe Animals, or 
the Number of the Enemy, that affrights you ? As 
to [the Elephants , we have lately experienced that 
they did more Damage to their own Party, than to 
us, and that with our Axes, and other Weapons, 
we can difable their vaft Bodies. What matters it 
then, whether they are the fame Number Poms 
lately had , or three thoufand ? Since we fee that 
one or tvOv of them being wounded, the reft imme- 
diately fly. Again, it being fo difficult a Tafk to 
govern a few of them, fo many thoufands of them 
together, mufl needs interlock one another, where 
there is not room for their umviddy over-grown 
Bodies either to ftand or fly. As for my own Part, 
I ha-ve always had fo mean an Opinion of them, 
that tvhen J had 'em, I never thought 'em ivorth 
making ufe of, being fully convinced , they were 
more pernicious to thofe they were intended to ferve, 
than to the Enemy. But perhaps it is the Multi- 
tude of Horfe and Boot that terrifies you ! as if you 
had been hitherto us d to encounter but with fmall 
Numbers, and this was the fir ft time you had flood, 
the Brunt of a diforderly Rout ! The River Grani- 
G 3 cus 

1x6 Quintus Curtius. Book IX 

cus is a fufficient Witnefs of the invincible Courage 
of the Macedonians againjl a fuperior Number, as 
well as Cilicia, -which was drenched with the Blood 
of the Perfians, and Arbela whofe Plains were co- 
ver d xvith the Bones of the conquer d Enemy. It 
is too late to look at the Number of your Enemies^ 
after you have laid wafte all Alia by your Victories. 
Tou ought to have reflected on your fmall Number, 
when we pafid the Hellespont ; for at prefent the 
Scythians fc'llovj as, the Bacirians ajfift us, and the 
Bahae and Sogdiani are ingagd in our Service. At 
the fame time, I do not rely on this Rabble , it is 
you, Macedonians, I truft to, it is your unparallel'd 
Bravery and Courage I confide in , and is an infal- 
lible Pledge and Security for all the great Things I 
have yet to do. While 1 am at the Bead of fuch 
gallant Men , J fhall neither count the Number of 
my oivn, nor the Enemies Army : All that I re- 
quire, is , that you 11 fioew me a cheerful Counte- 
nance, accompany d ivith your ufual Confidence and 
Alacrity. We are not new in the Beginning of our 
Work, but at the Clofe of it. We have already 
reach' d the Ocean, aud the Bounds zvhere the Sun 
rifes, and unlefs your own Want of Spirit aud Sloth, 
ft and in the way, we fij all return home ivith a corn- 
pleat Conqueft of the ivhole World. Do not imitate 
thofe bad Hujbandmen, who through their Lazinefi, 
lofe the Fruits of their Labour. The Reward is much 
greater than the Danger ; the Countrey you are go- 
ing to, abounds in Riches, and is at the fame time 
weakly defended, fo that I may be faid to lead you 
not fo much to Glory and Honour , us to a noble 
Booty. It is your due to carry back to your own 
Nation , the Wealth that Sea difcharges on its 
Shore ; it vjere a Shame you fhould leave any thing 
untry d , or unattempted through Rear. 1 there- 
fore not only beg of you, but conjure you by your 
own Glory , in which you exceed all the reft of 


Bo0k IX. Quintus Curtius. izy 

Mankind, by the Favours I have beftow" d upo;/. 
«;eu, and your ozvn Merit towards me , m which 
noble Strife ive are fiill contending, that you zvdl 
not defert your Companion and Fellow Soldier , not 
to mention your King. What is pa ft, has been 
done by my Authority , bat for this I flmll own- 
my felf indebted to you. At the fame time that I 
ajk this of you, you, know that in all the Commands 
I have laid upon you, . I always zvas the firft to 
face the Danger, and have often protected you with 
my own Buckler. Do not therefore break the Palm 
you have put into my Hands, which if not blafted 
by Envy, will make me equal to Hercules and Bac- 
chus. Grant me this Jingle Re que ft, and break your 
cbftinate ftlence. What is become of that generous 
Shout, the ufual token of your Alacrity ? Where is 
that cheerful Countenance of my Macedonians ? 
Methinks I hardly knozv you, Soldiers, neither do you 
feem to knozv me; but I fpeak to deaf Ears, and 
ftrive in vain to excite and animate the broken Cou- 
rage of thofe vjhofe Minds are alienated from me. 
As notwithstanding all this, they perMed ftill in 
their dejected Pofture, hanging down their Heads; 
Wherein, faid he, have I unwittingly offended you, 
that you do not at leaft vouchfafe to look at me f 
J fancy my felf in a Wildernefs, no Body anfwers 
me, no Body fa much as gives me the Satisfaction 
t>f a flat Denial. Who do I fpeak to ? What is it I 
requeft ? It is your owyl Glory and Greatnefs we af- 
fert. Where are nozv. thofe Men who not long ago 
zvere contending about the Prerogative of carrying 
their vjounded King ? I am forfaken, defiitute and 
deliver' d up a prey to my Enemies. Be it as it will, 
I'll perfevere in the Profecution of my Deftgn, tho 
1 -march alone. Expofe me to the Difficulties of Ri- 
vers, the Cruelty of Elephants, and to thofe Nations 
that ftriks you zvith fo much Horror ; i" ft) all find 
thofe that will follow me, tho you defert me. The 
Q 4, Scythians 

1x8 f Quintus Curtius. BooklX. 

Scythians and Badrians will accompany me, and 
they who viere a while ago our Enemies, /hall be 
now our Soldiers. I had rather die than reign pre- 
carioujly. Get you gone heme, go and triumph for 
having abandon d your King ; for my own part, I'll 
either get the Viclory you defpair of, or perifh ho- 


ALL that/?*? could fay, could not force a firjgle 
Word from any one of 'em. They expected 
tint the Generals and chief Officers mould repre- 
fent to him, That alt ho 1 their Bodies zvere cover d 
with Wounds, and quite worn out with the conti- 
nual Fatigues of their long Service, they did not re- 
fufe the Duties of the War, but were no longer able 
to difcharge it. However, being ftupify'd with 
Fear, they kept their Eyes ftill nYd upon the 
Ground. After fome time there rofe amongft 'em 
a voluntary Murmur, and their Grief by degrees 
began to (hew it felf more freely, till at laft they 
burft all out in Tears ; fo that the King himfelf 
(his Anger being now turn'd into Pity) could no 
longer forbear weeping. While the whole Affem- 
bly was thus dilfolv'd in Tears, C&nus took Cou- 
rage and approach'd the Tribunal, intimating he 
had fomething to fay. When the Soldiers faw him 
take off his Helmet (it being the Cuftom to do 
fo, when they fpoke to the King) they all begg'd 
of him, That he would plead the Caufe of the Ar- 
my ; he therefore exprefs'd himfelf in the follow- 
ing manner : May the Gods forbid all impious 
Thoughts in us, and fure they do at prefent. Tour 
Seldiers have the fame Inclination towards you 
which they always had, and are ready to go where- 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius.. 1x9 

ever you command them, to encounter with any 
Dangers for your fake, and to fpdl the lafi drop of 
their Blood to recommend your Name to Poflerity. 
if therefore you infifi upon it, tho we are without 
Arms, naked and bloodlefi, if fuch be your Royal ■ 
Will and Pleafure , zve are not only ready to fol- 
low, but alfo to lead the way. But if your Majefiy 
will vouchsafe to hear the unfeigned Reprefentations 
of your Soldiers, forc'd from 'em by the lajl necef- 
fity ; lend, we befeech you, a favourable Ear to. 
thofe who have always chearfully obey d your Com- 
mands, and Jhar'd your Fortune, and do not want 
Will to attend you wherever you Jhall think fit to 
go. Conftder, Sir, that your great Performances 
have not only overcome your Enemies, but likewife 
your own Soldiers. We have done all that Mortals 
were capable of, and by frequent ufe are better ac- 
quainted ivith the Seas and Countreys than even 
the Inhabitants themfelves. We may be faid to- 
ftand now on the utmoft Bounds of the World; but 
as if this w*re too little for your great Soul, you are 
preparing to march to another, and to feek out new. 
Indies unknovjn to the Indians themfelves. You 
are for forcing out of their lurking Retreats, thofe. 
who have taken flielter with the Serpents and wild 
Beafis ; in fine, you are for lorrying your Viclories 
farther than the Sun's piercing Eye can fee. It 
muft be own'd to be a thought worthy your un- 
bounded Mind, but at the fame time it*is* above 
ours ; for your Courage and Bravery will ever be 
mcreafing, whereas our Strength is almofi at an 
end. Behold our bloodlefs Bodies, cover d over with- 
Wounds, and disfgurd with Scars. Our Weapons- 
are blunted, and our Arms worn cut. We are fore d 
to wear the Perlian Habit, becaufe we are too re- 
mete to have that of cur own Count rey brought tj, 
us, fo that we are degenerated into a foreign Appa- 
rel. Who amongfi us has a Breajl-plate ? Who has. 

G 5 a Horfz 

130 Quiktus Curtius. Book IX. 

a Hcrfe left ? Let a fcrutiny be made how, many o 
us have been able to be folloivd by our Servants, 
and what any of us has left of his Booty. Having 
cmquef d the World we are defiitute of all things, 
it is not our Luxury is the caufe of this, but zve 
I:. iv 3 worn out in the War the very Inflruments cf 
War. Can you find in your Heart to expofe fo gal- 
lant an Army naked, and without defence to the 
mercilefi fury of wild Be aft s $ Whcfe Multitude, tho 
it be depgncdly magnify d by the Barbarians, yet it 
is eafie to gather from the very falfe Report it felf, 
that the Number is great. If after all your Ma- 
jefty is bent on penetrating fltll farther into India, 
that part of it that lies to the Southzvard 'is not fa 
vajl which being fubdu'd, you will extend your 
Conquefts to that Sea that Nature has appointed for 
the Bounds of the World. Why JJjould you go the 
round-aboyt way to that Glory zvhich is near at 
hand ? For here the Ocean is to be found ; and unlefs 
you take delight in zvandering, zve are already arrivd 
where your Fortune intended to lead you. I chofe 
rather to fay thefe things in your prefence, Sir, than 
in your abfence confer about 'em with my fellozv 
Soldiers', not deftgning thereby to ingratiate my felf 
with the liftening Army, but that you may rather 
hear their common Sentiments from my Mouth, tha?t 
be troubled with their Groans and Murmurs. C&- 
nus having finifh'd his Speech, there was heard 
from all Parts a clamorous Noife mix'd with 
Lamentations, which in confus'd Sounds call'd 
Alexander King, Father, and Sovereign Lord. Then 
the other Captains, efpecially the molt ancient, 
who on the account of their Age were moll to 
be excus'd, and had alfo thereby the greater Au- 
thority, made the fame Requeir, fo that the King 
was not able to chaftife their OMlinacy, or miti- 
gate their Anger. Being therefore unrefolv'd what 
cotirfe to take, he leap'd from the Tribunal, and 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 131 

fhut himfelf up in hi* Tent, forbidding any to be 
admitted, except thole who were us'd to be with 
him. Thus he facrirk'd two Days to his PaiTion, 
and the third he appear'd publickly again, and or- 
der'd twelve Altars to be erecled of fquare Stone, 
to remain as a Monument of ha Expedition. He 
alfo caus'd the Fortifications of his Camp to be 
extended, and Beds to be left of a larger Size than 
the ordinary Stature of Man requir'd, defigning to 
•impofe upon Poiterity by this exceffive outward 
appearance of things. 

This being done, he march'd back the fame way 
he came, and encamp'd along the River Acefines. 
Here C&nus dy'd. The King was affli&ed at his 
Death, yet could not forbear faying, He had made 
a long Speech for the few Days he had to live, as if 
he alone had been to return to Macedonia. By this 
time the Fleet he had order'd to be built, lay rea- 
dy at Anchor; hither Memnon brought him fix: 
thoufand Thracian Horfe to recruit his Army, be- 
sides feven thoufand Foot, which Harpalus had 
fent by him : He alfo brought twenty five thou- 
fand Arms finely adorn'd with Gold and Silver, 
which Alexander caus'd to be diflributed amongft 
the Soldiers, commanding them to burn their old 
ones. Defigning now to make towards the Ocean 
with a thoufand Ships, he firft reconcil'd Porus and 
Taxiles, the Indian Kings (who were about re- 
newing their former Refentments) and having 
fettled a good Underftanding between them, he 
left them in their refpective Dominions, they had 
both been ferviceable to him in the building of his 
Fleet. He alfo built two Towns, one whereof ha 
eall'd Nic*a, and the other Eucephela, dedicating 
the latter to the Memory of his Horfe, which was 
dead. Then having given Orders for the Ele- 
phants and Baggage to follow him by Land, he 
fail'd down the River, proceeding every Day near 
G 6 four 

i3x Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

four hundred Furlongs for the conveniency of 
landing his Forces in commodious Places. 


AT length he came into the Countrey where 
the Hydafpes falls into the Acefmes; from 
whence he fell down the Confluence of thefe Ri- 
vers into the Territory of the Sobij. Thefe People 
report, That their Ancefiors belong d to Hercules'* 
Army, but being fick ivere left here, where their 
Pojierity has remain d ever fmce. They cloth'd 
themfelves with the Skins of wild Beafts, and their 
Weapons were Clubs ; and notwithstanding the 
Greeks manners were aboliuYd amongft 'em, yet 
there were a great many Monuments ftiil left, 
that fufficiently declar'd from whence they de- 

Here the King landed with his Army, and 
march'd two hundred and fifty Furlongs into the 
Countrey, which having pillag'd and laid wafte, 
he took the Capital Sword in Hand. There were 
forty thoufand Foot of another Nation drawn up 
along the River's fide to oppofe his landing, which 
however he effected, and put them to flight, and 
afterwards befieg'd the Town to which they had 
retir'd and took it by Storm ; all that were able 
to bear Arms were put to the Sword, and the reft 
were fold. After this he lay down before another 
Place, where he was gallantly repuls'd by the Be- 
fieg'd, and loft a great many Macedonians ; but 
when the Inhabitants found that he obftinately con- 
tinu'd the Siege, defpairing of their fafety, they 
fet fire to the Town, and caft their Wives, Chil- 
dren, and themfelves into the Flames, which as 
they ftrove to feed and increafe, the Enemy en- 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 133 

deavour'd to extinguifti ; fo that here was a new- 
Species of Contention and Strife, for the Inhabi- 
tants deftroy'd the Town, and the Enemies de- 
fended it, fo great a Change does War make even 
in the Laws of Nature. The Cattle had receiv'd 
no Damage, and the King left a Garrifon in it, 
after which he went round the fame by Water, 
for it was encompafs'd by three of the largeft Ri- 
vers of all India (except the Ganges) which feem- 
ed to lend their Streams for its Fortification. The 
Indus wafties it on the North fide , and on the 
South the Acefines mixes it felf with the Hydafpes. 
The violent meeting of thefe Rivers makes their 
Waters as turbulent and rough as thofe of the Sea ; 
and as they carry a great deal of Mud along with 
them , which by their rapid Concourfe is very 
much difturb'd , they leave but a narrow Channel 
for the Boats to pals in. Alexanders Fleet being 
therefore vehemently ply'd by the Waves' both at 
Stem and on the fides, the Mariners began to furl 
their Sails, and endeavour to get off ; but they 
were fo diforder d by Fear, that the impetuous 
fwiftnefs of the Rivers was too many for 'em, fo 
that two of their largeft Ships were loft in their 
fight: As for the fmall ones, tho' it was impoffible 
alfo to govern them, they were driven upon the 
Shore, without receiving any Damage. 

The Ship the King was in was carry'd by the 
furious force of the Current amongft the ftrongeft 
Whirpools, which hurrying the Ship along with 
their circular Motion, made the Rudder altogether 
ufelefs. The King had ftripp'd himfelf, and was juft 
ready to leap into the River, and his Friends were 
fwimming dole by ready to receive him ; but it 
feem'd almoft doubtful where was the greateft 
Danger, either in fwimming or ftaying on board. 
The Mariners therefore ply'd their Oars with all 
the ftrength human Force could lend, to break the 


134 Quiktus Curtius. Book IX, 

violence of the Waves, which at laft yielded to 
their importunate Labour , and the Ship was 
work'd out of thefe raging Gulphs ; notwith'tand- 
ing which they could not gain the Shore, butweie 
llranded on the next Flats. One would have 
thought it had been a kind of Engagement with 
the River; Alexander therefore having erected 
three Altars, according to the Number of the Ri- 
vers, offer'd Sacrifices upon them, and then advanc'd 
thirty Furlongs. 

From thence he march' d into the Countrey of 
the OxydracA and the Mailt, who tho' ufually at 
War with one another, yet at this Juncture were 
united by the common Danger. They had got 
together an Army of ninety thoufand Foot, ten 
thoufand Horfe, and nine hundred Chariots. The 
Macedonians , who thought they had pafs'd thro' 
all their Dangers, finding a frem War upon their 
Hands with the fierceft People of India, being 
ftruck with an unexpected Terror, began again to 
mutiny, and rail againit the King, alledging, that 
he would lately have compell 'd them to pafs the 
Ganges, and engage in a War with thofe flrong po- 
pulous Nations that lie beyond the fame ; which En- 
terprise tho* atlafihe de fifed from, yet the War was 
not at an end, but only changd. That they were 
now expos d to a favage People, that at the expence 
of their Blood they might open him a vjay to the 
Ocean. That they were dragg'd beyond the afpeel 
of the Sun and Stars, and forcd to thofe Places 
which Nature feemd to have a mind to hide from 
Mortal Eyes. That as he fupply'd 'em from time 
to time with new Arms , fo they had continually 
frejh Enemies to encounter ; which admitting that 
they overcame, what Reward had they to expect 
but thick Fogs and Darknefs and an eternal Night 
that lay hovering on the deep ; a Sea repleat with 
infinite Multitudes of hideom Monfters, and Stag- 

Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 135- 

nating Waters, in which dying Nature feem'd to 
faint azvay ? 

The King (tho' void of Fear himfelf) yet was 
in great Perplexity on the account of the uneafi- 
nefs of his Army, and therefore having call'd 'em 
together, he gave 'em to underftand , That thofe 
People they fo much dreaded were altogether raw 
and undifciplind ; that having overcome thefe Na- 
tions they would meet with no farther GbJIacle to flop 
their Pajjdge to the end of the IVorld, and put a pe- 
riod to their Fatigues and Labours ; that he had, in 
Confidcration of their Fear, defified from his defign 
of paffing the Ganges, and conquering the Nations 
that lie beyond it, and had turn'd his Arms ano- 
ther tvay , where there was equal Glory ai,d lej3 
Hazard ; that the Ocean was already within their 
fight, and refrefl'd 'em with its cool breezes ; he beg- 
ged therefore of 'em, that they would not envy him 
the Glory he fo much coveted , fince by pajfing the 
Bounds of Hercules and Bacchus they might at an 
eafie rate make his Fahie immortal ; at leafi he de- 
fir d they would fuffer him to lead 'em fafely back 
out of India, and not retire like Fugitives. It is the 
property of all Multitudes, and efpecially of the 
Military, to be carry'd away with fmall Motions, 
fo that as a little matter raifes a Sedition, it is alfo 
as eaiily appeas'd. There never was a more cheer- 
ful Shout given by the Army than at this time, 
defiring him to lead 'em zuherever he pleas'd, wi fl- 
ing the Gods to blefs his Arms, that he might equal 
the Glory of thofe he rival d. Alexander was over- 
joy'd at thefe Acclamations , and therefore broke 
up immediately to advance towards the Enemy. 
They were the mod warlike People of all the In- 
dians, and were preparing to make a vigorous 
War, having made choice of a very brave Gene- 
ral out Of the Oxydracan Nation. He was alfo an 
experiene'd Soldier, and had pitch'd his Camp at 


136 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

the foot of a Mountain, caufing Fires to be made 
to a great diftance, that his Army might thereby 
appear more numerous ; and would now and then 
alarm the Macedonians when at reft, by the fud- 
den Cries and uncouth Howlings of his Men. As 
foon as it was light the King, full of Aflurance 
and Hopes, order'd his Soldiers (who had now a 
cheerful Countenance) to. take to their Arms, and 
put themfelves in order of Rattel ; but the Barb a- 
nans, either thro' Fear, or by reafon of fome Di- 
vifions among themfelves, fled into the Moun- 
tains , the King purfuing them to no purpofe 1 
however, he took their Baggage. 

After this he advanc'd to the City of the Oxy~ 
dracans, where a great Number had taken refuge , 
putting no lefs Confidence in the ftrength. of the 
Place, than in their Arms. The King was juft 
going to lie down before it, when a Soothfayet 
advis'd him to forbear, or at leaft delay the Siege, 
becaufe he forefaw that his Life would be in dan- 
ger. Hereupon the King looking upon Demo- 
phoon (for that was the Soothfayers Name) faid 
to him, If while thou art intent upon thy Art of 
Infpeclion any Body floould interrupt thee , J do 
not , doubt but thou zuouldft think him imperti- 
nent and troublefome; which Demophoon agreeing 
to, Canfi thou then imagine, reply'd the King, that 
-when my Thoughts are taken up with Matters of 
the great eft Importance, a?id not with the Int rails 
of Beafts, there can be any thing more unfeafonable 
than the Interruption of a fuperftitious Sooth f ay er ? 
This faid, he without any farther delay command- 
ed the Ladders to be apply'd to the Wall, and 
while the reft were hefitating on the account of 
the Danger, he was tlie firft that fcal'd the Wall, 
whofe Coping was very narrow and without Bat- 
tlements, a? there is commonly at the top, but was 
carry'd on with one continue! Head, which de- 

Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 137 

fended its PaiTage. Thus the King might be faid 
rather to cleave to than ftand upon the narrow 
Margin thereof, receiving in his Buckler the Darts 
with which he was on all fides warmly ply'd at a 
diftance from the Towers, and the Soldiers were 
hinder'd from climbing up by the Clouds of Ar» 
rows that were mot at them from above. How- 
ever, at laft Shame overcame the greatnefs of the 
Danger, for they faw that by their delay the King 
would fall into the Hands of the Enemies; but 
their over engernefs prov'd a great hinderance to 
'em , for as they all llrove who mould get up 
fooneil, they ib loaded the Ladders that they 
broke under 'em , and difappointed the King of 
the only hope he had ; by this means tlanding 
in the light of fo numerous an Army, he might 
be faid to be as deftitute as if he had been, in a 


BY this time his left Arm (with which he held 
his Buckler) wastifd with parrying the Strokes 
that were made at him, and his Friends cry'd 
out to him to leap down to them, who ftood rea- 
dy to receive him ; but he inftead thereof did 
what furpafles all belief, and ferves rather to re- 
prefent his Rafhnefs than to increafe his Glory, for 
with an unheard-of Temerity he leap'd into the 
Town amongft all his Enemies, tho' at the fame 
time he could hardly propofe to himfelf the Satis- 
faction of dying fighting ; fince before he could 
rife off the Ground , he might be over-power'd 
and taken alive. However, as good Fortune 
would have it, he fo poiz'd his Body that he light 
upon his Feet, which gave him the advantage 


138 Quintus Curtius. BooklX. 

of engaging the Enemy (landing, and Providence 
had put it in his Power not to be furrounded. 
There was an old Tree not far from the Wall, 
whofe Branches being thick cloth'd with Leaves, 
feem'd to extend themfelves on purpofe to pro- 
-te<£t the King ; he therefore planted himfelf againft 
that Tree, and with his Buckler receiv'd the Darts 
that were call: at him ; for notwithstanding fo ma- 
ny of them attack'd him alone at a diftance, yet 
none dar'd to come to a clofe Engagement with 
him, and there fell more Darts amongft the Branches 
than on his Buckler. 

In this Extremity his mighty Fame did him no 
fmall Service ; then Defpair prompted him to 
exert all his Bravery that he might die honoura- 
bly, but as frefh Enemies continually fiock'd about 
him, his Buckler was already loaded with Darts, 
and the Stones had broke his Helmet ; at lafttir'd 
with the continual Labour, he fell upon his Knees. 
Hereupon they who were neareft, fufpe&ing no 
Danger , ran heedleiTly upon him, two of which 
he prefently kill'd with his Sword, after which no 
Body had the Courage to approach him, but they 
ply'd him afar oft' with their Darts and Arrows. 
Now as he was expos'd like a mark to all their 
Aims, it was a hard taik in that disadvantageous 
Poftuve to protect his Body, fo that an Indian let 
fly an Arrow at him two Cubits long (for the In- 
dians Arrows as we faid before were of this 
length) winch pierc'd his Armour a little above 
his Right Side. Having receiv'd this Wound, 
there iffti'd out of it fo great a quantity of Blood, 
that he let fall his Arms like one expiring, not ha- 
ving ihength enough left to pull out the Arrow. 
He therefore who had wounded him being tranf- 
porled wiili Joy, ran in toftrip his Body; but-^- 
lexander no fooncr felt his Hand touch him than 
(as I fuppofe difdaining to bear this lalt Indignity; 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 139 

he fummon'd together his departing Spirits, and 
plung'd his Sword into his Enemies naked Side. 

Thus three of the Enemies lay dead about the 
King, the reft keeping at a Diirance like Men flu- 
pify'd. In the mean time, Alexander (who cove- 
ted to yield up his laft Breath righting) endeavou- 
red to raife himfelf up with his Buckler, but find- 
ing he had not Strength enough left for that pur- 
pofe, he took hold of fome of the impending 
Boughs, and try'd to get up by their Afliftance , 
but not having Strength fufheient to fupport his 
Body, he fell down again upon his Knees threat- 
ning his Enemies with his Hand, and provoking 
any of 'em .to a clofe Fight. At laft Pekcefies ha- 
ving beat off the Enemy in another part of the 
Town , kept along the Wall till he came where 
the King was, who look'd upon him rather as a 
Comfort in his dying Hour, than any way able to 
fave his Life; however, he rais'd himfelf with his 
Help, upon his Buckler ; then came Tim&ut, and 
foon after Leonnatus , and after him Jriflonus. 
When the Indians were inforna'd, that the King 
was within their Walls, they abandon'd the other 
Places , and flcck'd a]l thither where he was , and 
prefs'd hard upon thofe who defended him. Of 
thefe Tim&us (after a gallant Behaviour, having re- 
ceiv'd a great many Wounds before) was kill'd : 
As for Peucefles , notwithftanding he was piere'd 
thro' with three Darts, yet he continu'd to defend 
the Kings Perfon, unmindful of himfelf; andZeotf- 
natus whilft he repeil'd the barbarians, who came 
upon them in great Numbers, receiv'd a grievous 
Blow on the Neck, and fell down at the Kings 
Feet half dead. By this time Peucefles had loft fo 
much Blood, that he was no longer able to fup- 
port his Buckler: Thus all the Hope was now in 
Ariflonus, but as he was alfo defperately wound- 
ed, what could be expected from him againft fo 


140 Quintus Curtius. Book IX, 

great a Multitude ? In the mean time, the Ru- 
mour that the King was kill'd, reach'd the Mace- 
donians. .What would have terrify'd others, only 
ferv'd to excite their Courage the more ; for>now, 
without having the leaft Regard to the Danger, 
they broke down the Wall with their Pick-Axes , 
and having enter'd the Town, made a migh- 
ty Slaughter of the Indians , who rather thought 
of faving themfelves by Flight, than of making 
any great Refiftance. They fpar'd neither the 
Aged, the Women, nor the Children ; for they 
look'd upon whomfoever they met, to be the Per- 
fon that, had wounded their King , till at laft by 
an univerfal Slaughter of the Enemy, they fatis- 
fied their Anger. Clitarchus and Timagenes relate, 
That Ptolemaeus {who was afterwards King) xvas 
prefent at this Aclion : But he him 1 elf (who mod 
certainly would not deny what would have re- 
dounded fo much to his Glory) has left it in wri- 
ting, That he wcvs abfent , being employ' d in ano- 
ther Expedition. So great was the Aflurancc of 
thofe that tranfmitted to Pofterity thofe ancient 
Hiftories, or their Credulity, which is no lefs a 
Fault ! The King being brought into his Tent , 
the Chirurgeons very dextroufly cut off the woody 
Part of the Javelin that ftuck in his Body, with- 
out ftirring the Iron-head of it ; which, upon lay- 
ing his Body naked, they found to be bearded, lb 
that there was no other way to take it out fafely, 
but by opening the Wound. But here again they 
were afraid of too great a Profufion of Blood, for 
the Javelin was large, and feem'd to penetrate in- 
to the noble Parts. Gritohulus, who of all the 
Chirurgeons was the moft experienced, was never- 
thelefs timorous in fo dangerous a Cafe, and un- 
willing to be concern'd , left his own Life mould 
be in Danger if the Cure did not anfwer Expe- 
ctation. The King perceiving him to weep, and 


Book IX. Qjuintus Curtius. 141 

difcovering the anxious Solicitude he was in, by 
the Palenefs of his Countenance, afk'd him, What 
he waited for , and why he delay d freeing him at 
leaft from the Pain he was in , fince it was impof- 
fible to fave his Life ? Doft thou fear being thought 
guilty, if thou doji not cure an incurable Wound? 
Hereupon Critobulus being freed from his Fear, 
or elfe diiTembling it, begg'd of him, that he 
would fujfer himfelf to be held, till he drew out the 
Iron-head', becaufe the leaft Motion of his Body du- 
ring the Operation , would be of dangerous Confe- 
quence. But the King told him, He did not zvant 
to be held, neither need he fear his ftirring, and ac- 
cordingly kept his Body as he was order'd, with- 
out the leaft Motion. The Wound therefore be- 
ing laid open, and the Head taken out, there fuc- 
ceeded fo vaft an Effulion of Blood, that the King 
fainted away, and lay extended like a dead Man. 
All Means were us'd to ftanch the Blood , but to 
no purpofe, fo that the King's Friends broke out 
into Lamentations, believing him to be really 
dead. However , at laft the Bleeding was ftop'd , 
and by degrees he came to himfelf, and began to 
know thole that were about him. All that Day, 
and the Night following , the Army was under 
Arms about his Tent, they all confefs'd, that their 
Lives depended on his fingle Breath, neither could 
they be prevail'd upon to withdraw, till they were 
inform'd he was fallen into a Sleep ; after which, 
they returned to their Camp with more certain 
Hopes of his Recovery. 


14^ Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 


TH E King having employ'd feven Days in the 
Care of his Wound , tho' it was not quite 
heal'd up, yet being inform'd, That it zvas gene- 
rally reported among the Barbarians , that he was 
dead, he caused two Ships to he faftend together, 
and his Tent to be pitch* d in the mi Aft thereof, that 
he might from thence fhew himfelf to all thofe who 
believd him dead. Thus being expos'd to the 
View of all the Inhabitants, he ftifTd the Hopes the 
Enemy had entertain'd from the falfe Rumour. 

From hence he fail'd down the River, having 
firft given Orders to the reft of the Fleet to fol- 
low him at a certain Diftance, left the Noife of 
the Oars ftiould hinder him from that Reft that 
was yet neceflary to his infirm Body. On the 
fourth Day after he embark'd, ^arriv'd in aCoun- 
trey abandon'd by its Inhabitants, but very fruitful 
in Corn, and abounding with Cattle. This Place 
feem'd proper both to confirm his own Health, 
and reft his Army. Now it was a Cuftom among 
th? Macedonians, for the molt confiderable of the 
Kings Friends, and thofe who had the Guard of 
his Perfon , to do Duty before the Royal Tent 
when he was indifpos'd , which Practice being at 
this time obferv'd, they all enter'd his Appartment 
together. The King was not a little furpriz'd at 
their general Appearance, and began to be in Pain 
left fome unforeseen Accident had happen'd , and 
therefore enquir'd of them , Whether there was 
any frejh Account of the Enemies Approach ? Then 
Craterus on whom they had pitch'd to l]>eak in 
the Behalf of them all, exprefs'd himfelf in the fol- 
lowing manner. Can you imagine, Sir, zve could 
be fo alarm d at %s Approach of an Enemy , tho 

2 they 

Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 143 

they were already within our Line, as we are real- 
ly concern 'd for your own Safety , efpecially when 
we fee you your felf fo little regard it .? Were all 
the Nations in the World to confpire againfi us ; 
were they to cover the whole Earth with Men and 
Arms, and the Seas with Fleets, we are fatisfy'd we 
are invincible while you are at the Head of us. 
But which of all the Gods can enfure us of this 
main Support and propitious Star of the Macedo- 
nians, when you fo eagerly expofe your precious Per- 
fon to fuch manifefl Dangers, unmindful of the great 
Number of Citizens who intirely depend upon your 
Tate ? Who amongfl us, either defires to furvive you, 
or can ? We are advanc d fo far already under your 
Conduct and Command, that it is impojfible for any 
but your felf, to lead us home. Were you flill con- 
tending with Darius for the Empire of Perfia, no 
Body could wonder you expos' d your felf fo refolute- 
ly on all Occafions {tho at the fame time it would 
be againfi our Wills) for ivhere there is any Equa- 
lity between the Banger and the Reward, the Fruit 
thereof is greater upon Succefi, as is alfo the Confo- 
lation upon a Mifcarriage. Bat that a forry Town 
JJjould be purchas d at fo dear a rate as your Life, 
who can bear the Thoughts of it, either of your otvn 
Soldiers, or of the Barbarians that has any Knozu- 
ledge of your Greatnefs ? My Soul is flruck with 
Horror, when I reflect on what ive all lately be- 
held. I cannot v/ithout trembling, relate how near 
your invincible Per fon was being Jlripp'd by the 
Hands of the vileji Wretches, if Fortune had not- 
been fo favourable to us, as by Miracle almofi to 
fave you. We can be counted no better than Tray- 
tors and Deferters all of us , who could not fol- 
low you, neither will any of ttt refufe to make any 
Satisfaction for the Crime zve could not help being 
guilty of. If we are not worthy your high Efteem* 
at leaft do us the Favour to ftevu your Contempt 


144 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

another way. We are ready to march wherever 
you pleafe to command us. Leave us thofe mean 
and ingloriom Actions , and preferve your felf for 
thofe noble Occafions that are zvorthy your Great- 
nefs. That Glory that refults from fordid Enemies, 
foon lofes its Luflre, and there cannot be any thing 
more univorthy your i/luflrious felf than to be pro- 
digal of your Bravery, where it cannot appear in its 
full Splendor. Ptolemy and the reft fpoke much to 
the fame purpofe , and all of them together in- 
treated him to fet fome Bounds at laft, to that Ex- 
cefs of Glory with which he zvas in a manner load- 
ed, and for the future to have a greater Regard to 
his Safety , on which that of the Publick depended. 
The King was very well pleas'd with theie Tefti- 
monials of their Zeal, and having embrae'd them 
every one fingly, after a more familiar manner 
than ufual, he bid them fit down. Then taking 
into Confideration their foregoing Speech, he faid 
to them, My mofl faithful and moft zealous Ci- 
tizens and Friends, I return you my hearty Thanks, 
not only that you at this time prefer my Safety to 
your own, but alfo, that from the Beginning of the 
War you have let flip no Opportunity of teftifying 
your dutiful and benevolent Difpofition towards me ; 
fo that I muji confefs, Life was never dearer to me 
than it is at prefent, and that chiefly, that I may 
long enjoy you. At the fame time 1 mufl let you 
know, that how willing foever you may be to lay 
down your Lives for me {which Inclination I have 
defervd , only by that Bravery you now blame ) 
your Thoughts and mine are very different. Tor 
you covet to reap the Fruits of my Favour a long 
time, nay, perhaps for ever : Whereas I meafure 
my felf not by the Time I have liv'd, but by the 
Glory I have acquir'd. Had I been contented with 
my paternal lnheritayice, I might within the Bounds 
of Macedonia, have fpun eut my Life in Obfcu- 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. I45T 

rity and Idlenefs, to an inglorious old Age : Tho" it 
miifl be o lurid too, that even the Slothful and Lazy, 
are not Maflers of their oivn Defliny ; for while 
they place their fupreme Happinefs in a long Life, 
they are frequently cut off by fome unexpected, un- 
relenting Death. But as for my felf, who do not 
reckon my Tears, but my Victories ; if I rightly com- 
pute the Gifts of Fortune, I have already livd a 
long time. For having begun my Empire in Mace- 
donia, / made my felf Mafier of Greece ; I fub- 
dud the Thracians and Illyrians ; / give Laws to 
the Triballi, 'and the Medes; J am in Poffeflion of 
Alia, from the Hellefpont to the Red-Sea; and at 
trefent, am not far from the End of the World , 
which as foon as I have pafl'd, I defign to open my 
felf a new one, and if pojjible, dif cover another Na- 
ture. I pafl d from Europe to Afia, in fo fhort a 
time as that of an Hour. Having conquer d both 
Countrcys in the ninth Tear of my Reign, and m 
the rime and twentieth Tear of my Age. Do you 
think I can make any Stop in my full Career after 
Glory, to tuhich alone I have entirely devoted my 
felf? No, believe me, I fliall never be wanting to 
her on my Part, and vjherefoever I fnall fight, I 
fljAll imagine my felf to be on the Theatre of the 
zuhole World. Thofe Places that have been hitherto 
obfeure, fhall become famous through my Means ; 
Til open a Pajjage to all Nations, to thofe Countreys 
Nature has placd at the remotefl Diftance. If while 
I am employ' d in the Execution of thefe great Things, 
it be my Lot to be killd, What can be more for my 
■ Reputation ? 1 am defcended from fuch a Stock, that 
I ought to covet rather to live much , than long. 
Let me recommend to your Refection, that we are 
come into thofe Countreys where the very Women 
are celebrated for their Virtue. What Cities Semi- 
ramis has built! What Nations did floe fubdue ! 
What mighty Works did floe accomplifh ! We have 
Vol. IT. H not 

146 Quintus Curtius. Book IX 

not yet equal? d the glorious Performances of a Wo- 
man, and fJjall we already be feiz'd with a Satiety 
of Praife ? No, no, let the Gods but favour m, and 
we have much greater things yet to do, than tve 
have done. But the ready way to conquer all thofe 
Countreys we have not yet touched, is to efieem no- 
thing little, where there is a great deal of Glory to 
he got. Bo you but defend me from iniefline Mif- 
chief, and domeftick Confpiracies, and I fl)all un- 
dauntedly face all the Dangers of the War. Philip 
was fafer in the Field than in the Theatre ; he had 
often efcaped the Hands of his profejfd Enemies , 
but could not at lafi fecure him f elf from the Trea- 
chery of his Subjecls. And if you examine into the 
Death of other Kings, you jhall find more kill'd by 
their oivn People, than by the Enemy. Before I con- 
dude this Speech, I fliall lay held of the prefent Op- 
portunity to difclofe to you a thing which I for a 
tonfiderable time have had in my Thoughts : Know 
then that I fl'all look upon it as the greateft Reward 
of all my Labours, and chiefefl Bruit of my ViEto- 
ries, if ivhen my Mother Olympias dies , flie be 
placd among the Gods. If I am living, I fljall dif- 
charge that Duty my felf, but if I die before her , 
remember zuhat I now commit to your Care. Ha- 
ving made this Speech, he difmifs'd the Company, 
but remam'd feveral Days in this Camp. 


WHILE thefe Things were doing in India, 
the Greek Soldiers (whom the King had 
fettl'd in and about Baclra) thro' a Sedition that 
happen'd among 'em, rerpell'd, not fo much out 
of ill Will to Alexander, as for Fear of PuninV 
ment ; for having kill'd fome of their Compani- 

Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 147 

ons, they who were the fliongeit had Recourfe to 
Arms, and having made themlelves Mailers of the 
Citadel ofEartra, which was but negligently guard- 
ed, they drew the Barbarians alfo into their Par- 
ty. Athenodorm was their Leader, who had alfo 
aiTum'd the Title of King ; not fo much out of 
an Ambition to reign, as out of a Defire to re- 
turn into his native Countrey with thofe who 
own'd his Authority. But one Bicon of the fame 
Nation, envying his Power, confpir'd againft him, 
and having invited him to an Entertainment, 
caus'd him to be kill'd by Boxus a Macerianian. 
The Day following, Bicon in a general Aifembly, 
perfuaded the major Part of it , that Athenodorm 
had entertain'd a Defign againft his Life, which 
oblig'd him to be before-hand with him. How- 
ever, others fufpeded his treacherous Deflgns, and 
by Degrees this Sufpicion fpread it felf among the 
reft. The Greek Soldiers therefore take to then- 
Arms, intending to kill Bicon if they had an Op- 
portunity : But the Chief amonglt 'em, appeas'd 
the Anger of the Multitude. Thus Bicon being 
contrary to his Expectation freed from the pre- 
fent Danger, in a little time confpir'd againfl the 
Authors of his Safety : But the Treachery taking 
Vent, they feiz'd both him and Boxus. Boxus 
was put to Death immediately, and Bicon was re- 
ferv'd to die upon the Rack. Now it happen'd, 
that juft as they were going to torment him , the 
Greek Soldiers (without any known Caufe) ran to 
their Arms like mad Men ; fo that they who had 
Orders to torment him, hearing the fudden Up- 
roar, defifted from their Office, imagining they 
were forbid to execute the fame by this tumul- 
tuous Outcry. Hereupon he ran naked as he was 
to the Greeks , who beholding him in this wretch- 
ed Condition, were touch'd with Companion for 
him, and order'd him to be let at Liberty. Ha- 
H 2. ving 

148 Quintus Curtius. Book IX- 

ving thus twice efcap'd dying, he return'd into 
his native Countrey with the reft of thoie who kit 
the Colonies allotted them by the King. This is 
•what happen'd about Baclra , and the Borders of 

In the mean time, a hundred Ambafiadois came 
to the King from the two Nations we before men- 
tioned. They all rid in Chariots, were very tall, 
and handfome Perfonages, clad in linen Garments 
embroider'd with Gold, and a Mixture of Purple. 
They told him y They deliver d up to him them- 
felves, their Towns and Territories : That he luas 
the firji they ever intrufied their Liberty with , 
-which they had for fo many Ages prefervd invio- 
late. That the Gods were the Authors of their Sub- 
mijjion , and not Fear ; which might appear from 
hence, that they took his Yoke upon them, without 
making any Trial of their Strength. Hereupon the 
King having deliberated with his Council, took 
them into his Protection, enjoining them the fame 
Tribute they pay'd to the Arachofians ; befides 
which, he commanded them to fupply him with 
two thoufand five hundred Horfe, all which was 
punc'tually perform'd by the Barbarians. 

After this, he gave Orders for a great Enter- 
tainment, to which he invited thefe AmbaiTadors, 
and the little Kings. Here were a hundred Beds 
of Gold fet at a moderate dillance from each o- 
ther. Thefe Beds were encompafs'd with rich Ta- 
peftries glittering with Gold and Purple : In fine, 
at this Banquet he difplay'd all the ancient Luxury 
of the Perfians, together with the new Inventions 
of the corrupted Macedonians, intermixing the 
Vices of both Nations. 

Among the reft that were at this Feaft , was 
Dioxippus the Athenian, a famous Wreftler , 
who on the account of his prodigious Strength, 
was well known to the King, and much in his Fa- 
i vour. 

BooklX. Quintus Curtius. 149 

vour. Some envious and malicious Perfons re- 
proach'd Dioxippus betwixt Jeft and Earneit, That 
he was a fat , over-grown , ufelefs Monfler ; and 
that while they were engagd in Battels, he was 
only employ d in anointing his Body with Oil, and 
preparing himfelf for a frejh Meal. Horratas a 
Macedonian, was one of them that us'd thefe re- 
viling Exprenions to him, and being drunk, chal- 
lenged him to fight him with his Sword the next Day, 
and that the King fjould he judge either of his Te- 
merity, or Dioxippus'j Cowardice. This latter ac- 
cepted the Condition, and in a fcornful manner 
phy'd upon the other's military Fiercenefs. The 
King rinding them the next Day more eager for 
the Trial of Skill than the Day before, fufFer'd 'em 
to fight. On this Occafion there was a great Con- 
courfe of the Soldiers, and among the reft of the 
Greeks, who were Well-withers to Dioxippus. The 
Macedonian appear'd compleatly arm'd , holding 
in his Left-hand his brazen Buckler and long Spear, 
and in his Right a Javelin, with his Sword by his 
Side, as if he had been to engage with feveral at 
the fame time. As for Dioxippus, he (Kin'd with 
Oil with which he was anointed, having a Gar- 
land on his Head, and a fcarlet Cloak wrapt about 
his Left-arm , and in his Right a flrong knotty 
Club. The different Appearance rais'd a mighty 
Expectation in the Spectators, for it feem'd Mad- 
nefs, and not Temerity, for a naked Man to en- 
gage with one compleatly arm'd. The Macedo- 
nian therefore no wife doubting but he could kill 
him af- a diltance , catt his javelin at him, which 
Dioxippus avoided by a fmall Inclination of his Bo- 
dy, and before the other could ffuft his long Spear 
into his Right-hand, lejp'd into him, and broke it 
with his Club: The Macedonian having loft both his 
other Weapons, began now to draw his Sword, but 
Dioxippus cloiing in with him, ftruck up his Heels. 

H 3 and 

150 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

and pitch'd his Head againft the Ground, and ha- 
ving taken his Sword from him, clapp'd his Foot 
upon his Neck, and was juft going to dam his 
Brains out with his Club, if he had not been hin- 
der'd by the King. 

The Event of this Spectacle was neither grate- 
ful to the Macedonians nor Alexander himfelf; for 
he was afraid left the fo much boailed Bravery of 
the Macedonians flibuld thereby fall into Contempt. 
This made him liffen a little too much to the Ac- 
cufations of the Invidious. A few Days after at 
a Feaft, they by Agreement took away a Golden 
Cup : The Officers pretending to mifs it, came to 
the King and complain'd they had loft what they 
had only hid. Oftentimes there is lefs Con- 
stancy in the Countenance than in the Offence it 
felf. DioxippHs was not able to bear the Call of 
their Eyes , by which he was hinted to be the 
Thief ; and therefore going away from the Enter- 
tainment, he writ a Letter to the King, and then 
kill'd himfelf. The King was concern'd at his 
Death, looking upon it to proceed from Indigna- 
tion and not Repentance ; for it appear'd plain e- 
nough that he was falfly accus'd, by the exceffive 
Joy of his Enemies. 


TH E Indian Ambafladors being difmifs'd, went 
home, and in a few Days return'd again with 
Prefents for Alexander , which conMed of three 
hundred Horfes, one thoufand and thirty Chari- 
ots, each drawn by four Horfes, fome linen Gar- 
ments, a thoufand Indian Bucklers, and one hun- 
dred Talents of Tin, with tame Lions and Tigers 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 15-1 

of an extraordinary Size, as alfo the Skins of very- 
large Lizards, and Tortoile- (hells. 

The King then commanded Craterus to march 
the Army at no great diftance from the River on 
which he zvas to fail; after which embarking with 
thole who were us'd to accompany him, he came 
down the Stream into the Territory of the Mailt: 
From whence he march' d towards the Sabracz 
who are a powerful Nation , not govern'd by- 
Kingly Authority, but that of the People. They 
had got together iixty thoufandFoot, and fix thou- 
fand Horfe, which were follow'd by five hundred 
Chariots. They had made choice of three Ge- 
nerals of great Experience in military Matters, but 
when fuch of 'em as inhabited near the River 
(the Bank whereof was full of Villages) perceiv'd 
the whole River cover'd with Ships as far as they 
could fee, and beheld the mining Arms and Ar- 
mour of fo many thoufand Men, they were a- 
maz'd at the novelty of the fight, and believ'd that 
fome Army of the Gods was come amongn: 'em, 
or elfe another Bacchus, for that Name was fa- 
mous in thefe Parts. The Soldiers Shouts, and 
the noife of the Oars, together with the confus'd 
Voices of the Mariners encouraging one another, 
fo fill'd their fearful Ears, that they all ran to the 
Army, crying out, that they were mad to offer to 
contend with the Gods ; that it was impoffible to 
number the Ships that carry'd thefe invincible Men. 
By which Words they fpread fuch a general Fear 
throughout their whole Army, that they immedi- 
ately difpatch'd Ambafladors to Alexander, to yield 
up their Nation to him. 

Having taken them into^i* Protection,^ came 
the fourth Day into another Countrey, the People 
whereof had no more Courage than the former ;: 
here/^ built a City, wfcicia he order' d to be cali'd 
H 4 Alexandria,, 

*5i Quint us Curtius. Book IX. 

Alexandria, and then enter'd into the Territory 
of the Muficani. 

While he was here he heard the Complaints of 
the Varopamifad& againft Terialtes, whom he had 
made their Governor, and finding him convicted 
of feveral Irregulariries thro' his Avarice and Pride, 
he fentene'd him to fufFer Death. At the fame 
time Oxatres, who was Praetor of the JBactr'taitt\ 
was not only difcharg'd of what was alledg'd a- 
gainft him, but had alfo the extent of his Govern- 
ment enlarg'd. Having fubdu'd the Countrey of 
the Muficaniy he put a Garrifon into their Capital, 
and from thence advane'd againft the Pr&fti, who 
are alfo a People of India. Oxycanus was their 
King, and had, with a great Body of Men, retir'd 
into a ftrong City. However, Alexander took it 
the third Day after he lay down before it. The 
Town being taken, Oxycanus fled into the Caftle, 
and fent Ambafiadors to the King to treat about 
tne Terms of his fin render ; but before they could 
reach the King two of the Towers were beat 
down, thro' the breach of which the Macedonians 
got into the Caftle, which being taken, Oxyca- 
nm, with a few more that made Refiftance, was 

Having demolim'd the Caftle, and fold all the 
Captives, he march'd into the Territories of King 
Sabm> where feveral Towns fubmitted to him ; 
but he took the ftrongeft City by a fubterrane- 
ous PafTage which he had carry'd on within the 
Place. The Barbarians who were unflrill'd in mi- 
litary Affairs, were amaz'd to fee Men rife out of 
the Ground in the middle of their Town, without 
being able to trace the Way they came. Clitar- 
chus fays there were fourfcore thoufand Indian: 
ilain in this Countrey, and a great Number of 
.Captives fold as Slaves. The Muficani in the 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 15:3 

mean time rebell'd, and Pithon was fent to fup- 
preis them, who accordingly did fo, and brought 
me Prince of the Nation (who was alfo the Au- 
thor of the Revolt) Frifoner to the King, who or- 
der'd him to be Crucify "d, and then return'd to- 
the River where his Fleet waited for him. The 
fourth Day after he came to a Town which leads 
into the Dominions of King Sabus. He had late- 
ly iubmitted to Alexander, but the Inhabitants re- 
fus'd to obey him, and (but the Gates againft him ; 
however, the King defpifing their fmall Number 
commanded five hundred Agrians to approach the 
Walls of the Place, and retiring by little and little 
to draw the Enemy out of the Town, who he con- 
cluded would not fail to purfue 'em, if they once 
vjere perfuaded that they fled. The Agrians, ac- 
cording to the Orders they had receiv'd , having 
provok'd the Enemy took to their Heels, and 
w r ere purfu'd fo clofely by the Indians, that thefe 
laft fell into a frefh Body where the King was in 
Perfon. Then the fight was renew'd, and out of 
three xhouhnd Barbarians five hundred were kill'd,. 
a thoufand taken Prifoners, and the reft got back 
again to the Town ; but the iffue of this Victory 
was not fo favourable as at firft was expected, for 
the Barbarians had poifon'd their Swords, fo 
that thofe who were wounded died fuddenly, 
the Phyficians not being able to find out the Caufe 
of fo prefent a Death, the flighteft Wounds be- 
ing incurable. The Indians were in hopes that 
the King, who was ram, and regardlefs of his own 
Safety, might have been involv'd in that Dan- 
ger , but notwithstanding he fought amongft the 
foremoft, yet he efcap'd unwounded. 

Ptolemy indeed gave him great unealmefs on 
the account of a Wound he had receiv'd in the 
left Shoulder, which tho' light in it felf, was by 
reafon. of the Poyfon of dangerous Confequence. 

H \ H% 

15*4 Quintus Cuktius. Book IX. 

He was related to the King, and fome belie v'd 
Philip was his Father ; it is certain he was born of 
one of his MiftrefTes. He was one of the King's 
Body Guards, and a very brave Soldier ; however, 
he was Hill more excellent in the Arts of Peace, 
was moderate in his Apparel, very Liberal, and 
eafie of Accefs, having nothing of that haughti- 
nefs that feems natural to thofe who are defend- 
ed from Royal Blood : Thel'e Qualities made it 
doubtful whether he was more lov'd by the King, 
or thofe of his Nation. It was on this Occafion 
that the Macedonians firft exprefs'd their general 
Affection for him* which feem'd to prefage the 
future Grandeur to which afterwards he rais'd 
himielf ; for they had no lefs care of his Health 
- than the King /' who being fatigu'd with the Bat- 
tel, and full of folicitude for Ptolemy, by whom 
he fate, order'd his Bed to be brought where he 
was, into which he was no fooner got than he fell 
into a profound Sleep. As foon as he wak'd, he 
told thofe who were prefent, That while he was 
at refi he dream d a Dragon brought an Herb to 
him in its Mouth, as a proper Remedy againfl the 
Poifon ; he defcrib'd the Colour of the Herb, and 
alTur'd them,£e JJjouldknow it again if any of them 
Jhould chance to find it. As a great many were 
employ'd to feek it, fome of them found it, and 
having brought it to htm, he apply'd it himfelf to 
the Wound, the pain whereof ceas'd immediate- 
ly, and in a mort time the Wound was perfect- 
ly heal'd. The Barbarians finding themfelves 
difappointed of their firft hopes, furrendred both 
themfelves and City. From hence Alexander 
march'd into the next Province call'd Parthalia, 
M&ris was King of it, who having abandon'd the 
Town was fled into the Mountains ; Alexander 
therefore took Poffemon of the Place, and plun- 
der'd the Countrey, carrying off a great Booty of 


Book IX. Quintus Curttus. 15$ 

Sheep and Cattle, befides a great quantity of Corn. 
After this he made choice of Guides who knew 
the River, and fail'd down it to an Ifland that 
flood almoft in the middle of the Channel. 


HE R E he was oblig'd to make a longer Hay 
than he at firft propos'd, becaufe the Guides 
being careleffly look'd after were fled ; he there- 
fore lent to feek after others, but none being to 
be found, the ftrong delire he had to fee the Q- 
cean, and to reach the utmoft Bounds of the 
World , made him commit his own Life , and 
the fafety of fo many gallant Men to an un- 
known River, without Guides. Thus they fail'd 
altogether ignorant of the Places they pafs'd by 
how far the Sea was diftant from them ; what 
People inhabited the Coafts ; the Nature of the 
Mouth of the River ; or, whether it were proper 
for their long Ships ; for all which they had only 
their own blind and uncertain Conjecture. The 
only comfort in this his Temerity, was his con- 
usant Felicity. Having proceeded after this man- 
ner for the fpace of four hundred Furlongs, the 
Pilots acquainted him. That they began to be fen- 
fible of the Air of the Sea, and that they did not. 
believe the Ocean could be far off. He was over* 
joy'd at this News, and encourag'd the Mariners 
to ply their Oars, alluring the Soldiers, They were 
near attaining what they all had fo long wijh'd 
for, viz. an end of their Labours ; that now their 
Glory would be perfecl, nothing being left to with* 
fiand their Bravery ; that without any farther 
Banger or Bloodfhed the whole World would be 
their own ; th& their Exploits would equal the 
H6 utmoft 

156 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

utmojl extent of Nature ; and that they vjould be- 
hold in a little time what tvas only known to the 
immortal Gods. However, he fet a fmall Detach- 
ment afliore, in order to take fome of the llrag- 
gling Natives, hoping to- get from them a thorough 
Information of all things. After a long fearch they 
found fome who lay lurking in their Huts. Thei'e 
being afk'd , How far the Sea wm off .? made an- 
fwer, That they never had heard of any fuch thing 
as the Sea y but in three Days time they would come 
to a brackijh Water which corrupted the frefl). It 
was plain, that by thisDefcription they meant the 
Sea, whofe Nature they did not underftand; here- 
upon the Mariners with frefli Alacrity ply their 
Oars , and every Day the nearer they grew to 
their Hopes, the greater was their vigor. 

On the third Day they perceiv'd that the Sea 
began to mingle its Water with that of the River, 
and by a gentle Tide confound their different 
Streams; here they difcover'd another Ifland, fi- 
tuate in the very middle of the River , to which 
they could approach butflowly, becaufe the courfe 
of the Tide ran againft them : Being landed they 
ran about to lay in Provifions , not dreaming of 
the Misfortune that was ready to fall upon 'em. 
About three of the Clock the Tide, according to 
its ordinary Courfe, began to pour in ftrongly, 
and force back the Current of the River. At firft 
it feem'd in a manner but to ftruggle with it, but 
running ftill higher and higher, it drove it back 
with fuch impetuofity that its retrograde Courfe 
exceeded the rapidity of the fwifteft Torrents, 
The generality of them were intirely ignorant of 
the Nature of the Sea, fo that they look'd upon 
it to be ominous, and a certain indication of the 
Anger of the Gods ; but, to their greater Terror, 
the Sea, by its repeated workings fwell'd fo high 
as to overflow the neighbouring Plains, which be- 

Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 157 

fore were dry, and as the Flux increas'd, the Ships 
were rais'd higher, till at laft the Fleet was difpers'd. 
They who had been fent afhore, furpriYd at the 
Suddennefs of the Accident, repair d to their Ships 
with the greateft Precipitation ; but in all tumul- 
tuary AfTemblies, Hafte is of pernicious Confe- 
quence. Some endeavour'd to get on board, by 
the means of long hook'd Poles; others, while 
they place themfelves, interrupt the Rowers; fome 
again try to make the bell: of their way, but not 
wailing the Arrival of thofe who were abfolutely 
neceflary for their purpofe , found it a difficult 
matter to navigate thofe heavy and unwieldy 
Ships ; at the fame time other Boats were not. 
able to contain the Multitude of thofe that incon- 
fiderately flock'd into 'em ; fo that the Crowd in 
this cafe, was as detrimental as the Want of Hands 
in' the other. Some cry'd out to flay, others to 
make off; which Confufion of Orders, not tend- 
ing to the fame purpofe, not only took away the 
Ufe of their Eyes, but alfo of their Ears. The 
Pilots at this Juncture were likewife ufelefs, their 
Directions not being heard in fo great a Tumult, 
nor obey'd, by reafon of the Fright. The Ships 
now begin to fall foul upon one another, and the 
Oars are broke : In fine, the Diforder was fo great, 
that no Body could have imagin'd it to be the 
Fleet of the fame Army, but a Sea Engagement 
between two Fleets that w r ere Enemies. The 
Stems of fome Ships were forc'd againll tbe Sterns 
of others, and the Damage that was done to thofe 
that were foremoft, was again receiv'd from thofe 
that came after; at laft from high Words they 
came to Blows. By this time the Inundation had 
fpread it felf over all the Fields in the Neighbour- 
hood of the River, the Hills only appearing above 
the Water, and carrying the Refemblance of fo 
many fmall Iflands, whither feveral betook them- 

ifS Quintus Curtius. BooklX. 

felves by fwimming, out of Fear abandoning their 

While the Fleet was fcatter'd here and there , 
fome Ships riding in deep Water where the Val- 
lies funk low, others being ftranded on the Shoals, 
according to the Inequality of the Surface of the 
Ground the Water pofleis'd , they were fuddenly 
furpriz'd with another Terror greater than the firlt ; 
For when the Sea began to ebb, it carry'd back 
the Waters from whence they came, and reftor'd 
the Land they had cover'd but a little before. The 
Ships being thus left upon the dry Land , pitch'd 
fome upon their Stems, while others fell upon their 
Sides. The Fields were cover'd with Baggage, 
Arms, broken Planks and Oars. The Soldiers 
were fo terrify'd, that they neither dar'd trult 
themfelves on the Land , nor remain on board , 
expecting in a little time greater Evils than thole 
they had already experienc'd. They could hard- 
ly believe what they faw and fuffer'd ; viaL a Ship- 
wrack upon the Land, and the Sea in a River. But 
their Trouble did not end here , for as they were 
ignorant that the Tide would in a little time re- 
turn, and fet their Ships a-float again, they expe- 
cted nothing but Famine and the utmoft Calami- 
ties. Befides, they were feiz'd with Horror at the 
Sight of fo many monftrous Creatures the Sea had 
left behind it. The Night now began to draw on, 
and the defperate Circumftances fill'd the King him- 
felf with Concern ; but no Care could get the bet- 
ter of his invincible Courage : He remain'd all the 
Night upon the Watch, giving his Orders , and 
fent fome Horfemen to the Mouth of the River , 
to bring him Word when the Tide began to re- 
turn. In the mean time , he caus'd the fhatter'd 
Ships to be refitted, and thofe that were over- 
turn'd, to be fet right again. This whole Night 
being fpent in watching and encouraging his Men, 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 15-9 

theHorfemen came back upon full fpeed, and the 
Tide at their Heels; at firft it came in gently upon 
'em, till encreafmg by degrees it rais'd the Ships; 
then overflowing all the Fields as before, itfet the 
whole Fleet in Motion. 

Hereupon the Banks of the River and Coafts 
rung with the Shouts of the Sailors and Soldiers, 
who were tranfported with Joy at their unexpe- 
cted Safety. They now with Wonder enquir'd 
of one another , from whence this vafi Sea could 
return fo fuddenly ? Whither it could retire the Bay 
before ? What could be the Nature of thus Element, 
that vj(ts fometimes fo rebellious, and at others* fg 
fuljecl to the Empire of Time? The King conjectu- 
red by what had happen* d , that the Tide would 
return after the Sun's rifing; he therefore to pre- 
vent it, fet out at -Midnight , and fail'd down 
the River, attended by a few Ships , and having 
pafs'd thro' the Mouth of it, advanc'd four hun- 
dred Furlongs into the Sea, obtaining at laft what 
he had fo long wifti'd for ; then having facrific'd 
to the tutelar Gods of the Sea, and adjacent Places, 
he return'd back to his Fleet. 

THEN he fail'd up the River, and came to an 
Anchor the Day following, not far from a 
Salt Lake , the Nature whereof being unknown 
to his Men, deceiv'd a great many , who rafliiy 
venturd to bath themfelves therein: For their Bo- 
dies broke out into Scabs, which being contagious, 
communicated the Diftemper to their Compani- 
ons, but Oil prov'd a prefent Remedy for this E- 
vil. He afterwards fent Leonatus before to dig 
Wells in the Countrey thro' which he was to pafs 
with his Army (for it was naturally dry and de- 



160 Quintus Curtius. Book IX, 

ftitute of Water;) and he remain'd with his Forces 
where he was, expecting the Return of the Spring. 
In the mean time, he built ieveral Cities, and 
commanded Nearchus and one Sicritus, very Jk'dl- 
ful Seamen, to fail with the flrongefl Ships into the 
Ocean, and to advance as far as they could with 
Safety, in Order to inform themfelves of the Nature 
of the Sea ; xvhich having done, they might return 
to him either by the fame River, or by the Eu- 

The Winter being now pretty well over, he 
burn'd thole Ships which were ufeiefs to him, and 
march'd his Army by Land. In nine Encamp- 
ments he came into the Countrey of the Arabit&, 
and from thence in nine Days more, into that of 
the Gedroftj. Thefe were a free People; how- 
ever, having held a Council upon the Matter, they 
fubmitted to him, and he laid no other Injun- 
ctions upon them, but to fupply hi* Army with 

From hence in five Days he came to a River 
call'd by the Inhabitants Arabus, beyond which , 
there lies a barren Countrey very deftitute of Wa- 
ter ; which having march'd through, he arriv'd at 
the Territories of the Horitn. Here he gave He- 
ph&ftion the grea.teft Part of the Army, and divi- 
ded the remaining Part, which confifted of the 
light-arm'd Troops, between Ptolemy, Leonnatus 
and himfelf. In this manner, they ravag'd India 
•in three diftinct. Bodies, and carry'd off a great 
Boor/. Ptolemy wafted the maritime Countrey; 
the King deftroy'd the, midland part, and Leonna- 
tus the reft. He alfo built a City here, and peo- 
pled it with Arachofians. 

From hence he came to thofe Indians who in- 
habit the Maritime Parts : They are pofTefs'd of a 
large Extent of Countrey, but it is very barren 
and defolate, fo that they hold no manner of 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 161 

Commerce with their Neighbours. Their Soli- 
tude adds very much to their otherwife ravage 
Nature : They never pair their Nails, nor cut their 
Hair. They adorn their Cottages with the Shells 
and other Refufe of the Sea. Their Clothes are 
made of the Skins of wild Beafts, and they feed 
upon Fifhes dry'd in the Sun, and other Monfters 
that the Sea calls upon the Shore. 

.The Macedonians having confum'd all their Pro- 
visions, firft endur'd a Scarcity , and afterwards 
Extremity of Hunger, fo that they were forc'd 
to have Recourfe to the Roots of the P aim-Tree, 
Which they every where fought for, it being the 
only Tree the Countrey produces. But this Food 
failing 'em too, they began to kill their Beafts of 
Burthen , not fparing even their Horfes. Thus 
wanting wherewith to carry their Baggage , they 
burnt thofe rich Spoils for which they had march- 
ed to the utmoft Extremity of the Eaft. The 
Plague fucceeded the Famine, for the new Juices 
of their unwholefom Food, together with the 
Fatigue of their Marches, and their Grief and 
Anxiety of Mind, had caus'd feveral Diftempers 
amongft 'em ; fo that they could neither flop nor go 
forwards without certain Mifchief. If they ftop'd 
any where , they were fure to perifli with Hun- 
ger, and if they advanc'd they fell in with thofe 
who were grievoufly afflicted with the Plague. 
The Fields therefore were cover'd over with more 
Bodies that were ftill languiftiing and half alive, 
than that were really dead. They who were 
the leaft tainted, were not able to keep up with 
the main Army, it march'd with fo much Expe- 
dition , every one imagining that the farther he 
advanc'd, the better he fecur'd his Health. In 
this wretched Condition , thofe whofe Strength 
faii'd 'em, begg'd the AlTrftance of Strangers as 
well as that of their Acquaintance, to help them 


i6z Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

up. But befides , that there was no Conveniency 
to bring 'em along , the Soldiers had enough to 
do to carry their Arms, and the frightful Appear- 
ance of the Evil was continually before their 
Eyes. This made 'em not fo much as look at 
thofe who call'd to 'em, their Pity being itifled by 
their Fear. On the other lide, they who found 
themfelves thus forfaken, attefted the Gods , and 
reprefented their Communion in the fame facred 
Rites, and implor'd the Kings Help ; but finding 
they apply'd themfelves in vain to deaf Ears, their 
Defpair turn'd into Rage, fo that they fell to Im- 
precations, wifliing them the fame End and fuch 
Friends and Companions in their need. 

The King hereupon was no lefs amam'd than 
gricv'd, becaufe he knew himfelf to be the Author 
of fo great a Calamity; he therefore fent Orders to 
Phrataphernes Governor of the Parthians , to fend 
him Provifions ready drcfi 'd, upon Camels : He alfo 
notify 'd his Diftrefs to the Governors of the neigh- 
bouring Provinces, who were not backward in 
their Supplies. 

By thefe means the Army was at leaft freed 
from Famine,, and came at laft upon the Fron- 
tiers of the Gedrofians , whofe Territory was 
very fruitful, and afforded Plenty of all Things. 
Here he ftay'd fome time to refreQi his harraf- 
fed Troops, in the interim he receiv'd Letters 
from Leonnatus, importing, That he had fought 
and overcome eight thoufand Foot y and five hun- 
dred Horfe of the Horitae. Craterus likewife fent 
him Advice, That he had feizd and put into 
Cuflody Ozines and Zariafpes, two Noblemen of 
Perfia , who were contriving a Rebellion. The 
King afterwards appointed Siburtius Governor of 
that Province , of which Memnon had the Pre- 
fecture (he being lately dead of Sicknefs) and 
then march'd into Carmania. Afpnfles had the 


Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 163 

Government of this Nation, and was fufp.edted 
to aim at Innovations during the King's abode 
in India; but as he came to meet the King, 
his Majeity thought fit to diflemble hi* Refent- 
ment, and fliew'd him the ufual Honours , till 
he got a clearer Information of the Crimes he 
was accus'd of. 

The Governors of India having fent him by 
this time (according to hk Orders) a great num- 
ber of Horfes, and draught Cattle out of the 
refpeclive Countries fubject. to his Empire, he 
remounted, and gave frcfh Equipages to thofe 
who wanted. He alio reftor'd their Arms to 
their former Splendor, for they were not now 
far from Perfia , which was not only in a pro- 
found Peace, but vaftly Rich. 

As therefore he not only rival' d the Glory 
Bacchus had gain'd by the Conqueft of thefe 
Countreys, but alfo his Fame, he refolv'd {his 
Mind being elevated above mortal Grandeur) 
to imitate him in his manner of Triumph, tho' 
it be uncertain whether it was at firft intended by 
Bacchus as a Triumph, or only the Sport and Pa- 
ftime of the drunken Crew. Hereupon he caus'd 
all the Streets thro vjhich he -was to pafs to be 
ftreivd with Blowers and Garlands, and large Vef> 
fels and Cups fiWd xvith Wine to be placd before the 
Doors of the Houfes. Then he order'd Waggons to be 
made of a fufficient largenefs to contain a great ma- 
ny, ivhich were adorn d like Tents, fome with white 
Coverings, and fome xvith other preciotts Burniture. 

The Kings Fri@nds and the Royal Band went 
firft, wearing on their Heads Chaplets made of 
variety ,of Flowers ; in fome Places the Flutes 
and Hautboys were heard, in others the har- 
monious found of the Harp and Lute : All the 
Army follow'd eating and drinking after a di fib- 
lute manner, every one letting off his Waggon 


1^4 Quintus Curtius. BooklX, 

according to his Ability, their Arms (which were 
extraordinary fine) hanging round about the fame. 
The King, with the Companions of his Debauche- 
ry, was carry'd in a magnificent Chariot laden 
with Gold Cups, and other large Veffels of the 
fame Metal. After this manner did this Army of 
Bacchanals march for feven Days together, a noble 
as well as certain Prey to thofe they had con- 
quer'd, if they had had but Courage enough to 
fall upon them in this drunken Condition ; nay it 
had been an eafie matter for a thoufand Men, (pro- 
vided they were but fober) to have made them- 
felves Mailers of this riotous Army, in the midft 
of its Triumph as it lay plung'din the Surfeits and 
Exceties of a feven Days debauch ; but Fortune 
that fets the Price and Credit of Things, turn'd 
this military Scandal into Glory. The then pre- 
fent Age and Pofterity fince have with reafon ad- 
mir'd , How they could in that drunken Condition, 
with fafety pafs thro' Nations hardly yet fufficiently 
fubdud; but the Barbarians interpreted the rankeft 
Temerity imaginable for a well-grounded AJfurance. 
However, all this Pomp and Splendor had the 
Executioner at its Heels, for the Satrap Afpafles, 
of whom we before made mention, was order'd 
to be put to Death. Thus we fee that Luxu- 
ry is no obftacle to Cruelty , nor Cruelty to 





BOUT this time Oleander and Si- 
takes , with Agathon and Heracon 
(who had kill'd Parmenio by the 
King's Orders) came to him, ha- 
ving with them five thoufand Foot 
and one thoufand Horfe; but they 
were follow'd by their Accufers out of the re- 
fpective Provinces of which they had had the Pre- 
fecture ; and indeed it was impoffible for them 
to atone for fo many enormous Crimes which 
they had committed, tho' they had been Inftru- 
ments in a Murther altogether grateful to the 
King ; for they were not contented to pillage the 
Publick, but even plunder'd the Temples, and left 
the Virgins and chief Matrons to bewail the Viola- 
tion of their Honour. In fine, by their Avarice and 
Lull, they had render'd the very Name of the Ma- 
cedonians odious to the Barbarians \ but Oleanders 


1 66 Quintus Curtius. Book IX. 

fury exceeded all the reft, for he was not con- 
tented to defile a noble Virgin, but gave her af- 
terwards to his Slave for a Concubine. 

The major part of Alexander's Friends did not 
fo much regard the grievoufnefs of the Crimes 
that were now publickly laid to their Charge, as the 
memory of Parmenio's barbarous Murther, which 
perhaps might fecretly plead for 'em in the Kings 
Breaft; and they were over-joy'd to fee thofe 
Minifters of his Anger, experience the dire Ef- 
fects of it themfelves. Thus we fee that no 
Power that is injurioufly acquir'd can be of long 

The King having heard their Accufation faid, 
That their Adversaries had forgot one thing, and 
the greatefl of all their Crimes, -which was their 
defpairing of his Safety ; for they would never have 
dar'd to be guilty of fuch Villanies, if they had ei- 
ther hop ' d or believ'd he fiould have return d fafe 
from India. He therefore committed them to Cu- 
ftody, and order'd the fix hundred Soldiers who 
had been the Inflruments of their Cruelty to be put 
to Death. The fame Day alfo the Authors of the 
Per fan Revolt (whom Crater us had brought along 
with him) were executed. 

Not long after Nearchus and Oneficratus (whom 
he had fent to make Difcoveries on the Ocean) re- 
turn'd and reported to him feveral things they had 
found out themfelves, as well as others, which 
they had only by hear-fay ; That the Ifland that 
was in the Mouth of the River abounded with Gold, 
but was deflitute of Horfes ; that therefore every 
Horfe that the Inhabitants of the Continent dar d 
to tranfport thither, was fold there for a Talent ; 
that that Sea was full of Whales which follow' d 
the Courfe of the Tide, and in bignefs equall'd the 
bulk of large Ships ; that they were frighten d at 


[ Book IX. Quintus Curtius. 167 

f the horrihU Noife made on purpofe from on board 
the Fleet, notwithftanding which they follozvd the 
fame, and camd a mighty roaring of the Sea, when 
they flung d their huge Bodies under Water, refem- 
bling fo many finking VeJJ'els. 

The reft they receiv'd from the Relation of the 
Inhabitants, and particularly, That the Red Sea 
had its Denomination from King * Erythras, and not 
from the colour of its Waters. That not far from the 
Continent there was an Ijland thick fet with Palm 
Trees, and in the midfl of the Grove there was a 
Pillar eretied to the Memory of King Erythras, with 
an Infcription in the Characters us d by that People. 
They added moreover, That of all the Merchant 
Ships which had failed thither for the fake of the 
Gold, not any were ever feen after. The King, de- 
firous to be farther inform'd, lent them out again 
with Orders to fleer along the Coaft till they came to 
the Euphrates , and then to fail up that River to 

Now he having conceiv'd vaft Defigns, had re- 
folv'd after he had conquer'd all the Eaftern Ma- 
ritime Coaft, to pafs out of Syria into Africa, be- 
ing very much incens'd again the Carthaginian^ 
and from thence marching thro' the Defarts of 
Numidia , to direct his Courfe towards Cadiz ; 
for it was generally reported, that Hercules had 
there planted his Pillars. From hence he propo- 
fed to march thro' Spain, which the Greeks call 
Iberia, from the River lberus ; and having pafs'd 
the Alps to come to the Coaft of Italy , from 
whence it was but a (hort cut to E fir us : He there- 
fore gave Orders to hps Governors in Mefopota- 
mia, to cut down Timber in Mount Libanus, and 
convey it to Thapfacus, a Town in Syria, where it 


* Erythrus in Greek fignifies Red. 

i<58 Quintus Curtius. Book X. 

was to be employ d to build large Vejjels, which were 
afterivards to be conducted to Babylon. The Kings 
of Cyprus were alfo commanded to fupply 'em with 
Copper^ Hemp and Sails. 

While he was doing thefe things he receiv'd 
Letters from the Kings Porus and Taxiles, to ac- 
quaint him with the Death of Abifares by Sicknefi, 
and that Philip his Lieutenant was dead of his 
Wounds ; as alfo that the Perfons concern din that 
Attion had been puniftid. Hereupon he fubfliiuted 
Eudxmon (who was Commander of the Thra- 
cians) in the room of Philip , and gave Abifares $ 
Kingdom to his Son. From thence he came to 
Perfagadz, which is a City of Perfia , and whole 
Satrap's Name was Orfines , who in Nobility and 
Riches far exceeded all the Barbarians ; he de- 
riv'd his Pedigree from Cyrus , formerly King of 
Perfia ; his Predecelfors had left him a great deal 
of Wealth , which he had very much increas'd 
by the long Enjoyment of his Authority. This 
Nobleman came to meet the King, with all forts of 
Prefents, as well for himfelf as for his Friends ; he 
had .with him whole Herds of Horfes ready brdke, 
Chariots adorn'd with Gold and Silver, rich Furni- 
ture, Jewels, Gold Plate to a great value, Purple Gar- 
ments, and four thoufand Talents of coin'd Silver. 
However, this exceffive Liberality prov'd the caufe 
of his Death; for having prefented all the King's 
Friends with Gifts far beyond their Expectation, 
he took no notice of Bagoas the Eunuch, who 
had endear'd Alexander to him by his abominable 
Compliance ; and being inform'd by fome who 
wiuYd him well , That he zvas very much in A- 
lexander'; Favour ; he made anfwer, That he ho- 
nour d the King's Friends, but not fuch Inftruments 
as Bagoas, it not being the practice of the Perllans 
to ufe the Male Sex after that manner. The Eu- 
nuch was no fooner acquainted with this Anfwer, 


Book X. Quintus Curtius. 165? 

than he employ'd all the Power and Intereft he 
had fo fhamefuliy procur'd himfclf, to ruin this 
innocent Nobleman. He firft fuborn'd fame mean 
Wretches of the fame Nation to accufe him of 
falfe Crimes, with thefe Inlhudions , not to ap- 
pear againft him till they had receiv'd his farther 
Orders. In the mean time, whenever he was 
alone with the King, he fill'd his credulous Ears 
with odious Relations, difiembling the caufe of his 
Difpleafure, that the greater Credit might be giv'n 
to his Accusations. However, the King did not 
immediately fufpe& Or fines , yet he began to be 
in lefs Efceem with him than before. 

The Plot w T as carry'd on fo privately againft 
him, that he was wholly ignorant of the latent 
Danger, and this importunate Favourite was not 
unmindful of his malicious Defign, even in his 
molt familiar Converfation with the King; fo that 
whenever he had enflam'd his unnatural Love, he 
would be fure to charge Orfines fometimes with 
Avarice, and fometimes with rebellious Practices, 
in fine, everything was ripe for the deftrudtion of 
the Innocent, and Delliny, whofe Appointments 
are irreverfible, was now approaching. 

It happen'd that Alexander caus'd Cyrus's Tomb 
to he open'd, in order to pay his Allies the fune- 
ral Rites ; and whereas he believ'd it to be full of 
Gold and Silver, according to the general Opini- 
on of the Per/iansy there was nothing found in it 
but a rotten Buckler , two Scythian Bows and a 
Scimeter. However, the King plac'd a Crown of 
Gold upon his Coffin, and cover'd it with the 
Cloke he us'd to wear himlelf, and feem'd to won- 
der, That fo great a Prince , ivho abounded in 
Riches, wtu not -more fumpt uoufly interrd than if 
he had been a private Psrfon. Hereupon Bagoar, 
who flood next to the King, turning to him faid, 
What wonder is it to find the Royal Tombs empty, 
Vol. It. I whe» 

170 Quint us Curtius. BookX, 

when the Satraps Houfes are not able to contain the 
Treafures they have taken from thence ? As for my 
own part , I mufl confefs, I never faw this Tomb 
before, but I remember to have heard Darius fay, 
■ that there zvsre three thoufand Talents bury d zvith 
Cyrus. Trom hence proceeds Orfines'* Liberality to 
you, that zvhat he knezv he could not keep zvith Im- 
munity might procure him your Favoitr, when he 
prefented you zvith it. 

Having thus ftirr'd up the Kings Anger, thofe 
-whom he had intruded with the fame Affair came 
-iii, fo that Bagaos on one fide, and the fuborn'd 
Witneffes on the other fo poffefs'd the Kings Ears, 
'that Orfnes found himfelf in Chains before he had 
the leait fufpicion of his being accus'd. This vile 
Eunuch was not fatisfy'd with the Death of this 
innocent Prince, but had the impudence to ftrifce 
him as he was going to be executed ; whereupon 
Orfinis looking at him faid, / had heard indeed, 
'that formerly Women reigu d in Alia, but it is alto- 
gether new, that an Eunuch fliould govern! This 
was the End of the chiefeft Nobleman of Per f -a, 
who was not only Innocent , but had likewife been • 
profufely Liberal to the King. At the fame time 
Phradatcs was put to Death , being fufpected to 
aim at the Regal Dignity ; it is certain he began 
now to be too fudden in his Executions, and too 
apt to give Credit to falfe Informations ; from 
whence it is plain, That Profperity is able to change 
the befl Nature, it being a rarity to find any one 
fufftctently cautious againfl good Fortune. Thus he 
who a little before could not find in his Heart to 
condemn Lyncefies Alexander, tho' accus'd by two 
Witneffes ; and had fuffer'd feveral others to be 
difcharg'd, even contrary to his own Inclination, 
only becaufe they feem'd Innocent to the reft, and 
had been fo extravagantly Munificent as to beftow 
Kingdoms on his coriquer'd Enemies, at laft fo de- 
I 2 generated 

BookX. Quntus Curtius. 171 

generated from himfelf , as even againft his own. 
Sentiment to beftow Kingdoms on fome at the 
pleafure of an infamous Catamite, and deprive o- 
the-rs of their Lives. 

Much about the fame time he receiv'd Letters 
from C&nus concerning the Transitions in Europe 
and Afia. whilil'7?e was fubduing India, "Sin. that 
Zopirio his Governor of Thrace, in his Expedition 
againft the Geu, had been furpris'd with a mdden 
Storm, and perifh'd therein witli the whole Army ; 
and that Sceuthes being inform'd tliereof , had fo- 
licited the Odryjians, his Countreymen to revolt , 
whereby Thrace was almofi loft, and Greece it felt' 
in danger ; * for Alexander having puniuYd the 
Infolence of fome of the Satraps (who during his 
Wars in India, had exercis'd all manner of Crimes 
in their respective Provinces) had thereby terrify'd 
others, who being guilty of the fame foul Pra- 
ctices, expected to be rewarded after the fame 
manner, and therefore took refuge with the mer- 
cenary Troops, defigning to make ufe of their 
Hands in their defence, if they were call'd to Exe- 
cution ; others getting together what Money they 
could, fled. The King being advis'd hereof, dif- 
patch'd Letters to all the Governors throughout 
Afia, whereby they were commanded upon fight 
to di/band all the foreign Troops within their re- 
fpective Jurifdictions. Harpalns was one of thefe 
Offenders ; Alexander had a great Confidence in 
him, becaufe he had upon his Account formerly 
been banihYd by Philip, and therefore when Ma~ 
Z.&HS dy'd, he conferr'd upon him the Satrapfhip 
of Babylon, and the Guard of the Treafures. This 
Man having, by the extravagance of his Crimes, 
loft all the Confidence he had in the Kings Fa- 
I z vour, 

* Supplement of Freinihemius. 

172- Quintus Curthjs. BookX- 

vour, took five thoufand Talents out of the Trea- 
fury, and having hir'd fix thoufand Mercenaries, 
letum'd into Europe. He had for a confiderable 
time follow'd the bentof his Lutt and Luxury, fo 
that of the King's Mercy, he began to 
look about for foreign Means to fecure himfelf a- 
gainft his Anger; and as he had all along cultiva- 
ted the Friendfhip of the Athenians, whofe Power 
was no way contemptible , and whofe Authority 
he knew was very great with the other Greeks, as 
well as their private Hatred to the Macedonians ; 
he flatter'd thole of his Party, that as foon as the 
Athenians fhould be inform'd of his Arrival, and 
behold the Troops and Treafure he brought with 
him, they would immediately join their Arms and 
Counfels to his : For he thought that by the 
means of wicked Innruments whofe Avarice fet 
every thing to fale, he might by Prefents and 
Bribes compafs his Ends with an ignorant and wa- 
vering People. 


* TpHEY therefore put to Sea with thirty Ships, 
JL and came to Suinum, which is a Cape in 
Attica, from whence they intended to go to the 
Haven of the City. 

The King being inform'd of thefe things, was 
equally incens'd againft Harpalus and the Atheni- 
ans, and immediately order'd a Fleet to be got 
ready refolving to repair immediately to Athens; 
but while he was taken up with thefe Thoughts he 
receiv'd Letters of Advice, That Harpalus had in- 

* Curtiws. 

Book X. QpiNTUS Curtics. 173 

deed enter d Athens, and by Urge Sums gain d the 
chief Citizens, notwithjlanding which , in an Af~ 
fembiy of the People, he had been commanded to 
have the Town, ivhereupon he retird to the Greek 
Soldiers, ivho feizd him, and that he was after- 
wards treacheroujly kill'd by a' certain Traveller. 
Being pleas'd with this Account, he laid aikk iois" 
thoughts of patting into Europe ; however, he or- 
der'd all the Cities of Greece to receive their re- 
fpeftive Exiles, excepting fuch who had defil'd their 
Hands with the Blood of their fello'd{ Citizens. 

The Greeks not daring to difobey his Com-~ 
mands, (altho' they look'd upon- 'em , as a be- 
ginning of the Subverfion of their Laws) not on-" 
ly recall'd 'em , but alfo reftor'd to 'em all their 
Effects that were in being. The Athenians were 
the only People who on this Occafion afTerted 
both their own and the publick Liberty, for look- 
ing upon it as an infupportable Grievance,- (as not 
being us'd to Monarchical Government, but to 
their own Laws and Cuftoms of their Countrey) 
they forbid 'em entring into their Territories, 
being refolv'd to fuffer any thing rather than grant 
admittance to thofe former Dregs of their owir 
Town, and now the refufe of the Places of their 

Alexander having difcharg'd and fent home the 
oldeft of his Soldiers , order'd thirteen thoufand 
IBoot, and two thoufand Horfe, to be piclid out to 
remain xvith him in Alia, judging that he could 
now keep Afia in Subjection with a fmall Army, 
by reafon he had good Garrifons in feveral Places, 
befides the new Towns he had built and peopled 
with Colonies, all which he conceiv'd would be a 
futhcient Bridle upon thofe who might be dif- 
pos'd to Innovations. But before he made choice 
of thofe he defign'd to keep with him , he iflu'd 
out a Proclamation, requiring all the Soldiers to- 

I 3 give 

i/4 Quintus Curtius. Book X. 

give in an account of what they ow'd, for he was 
fenfible that feveral of 'em were very much in 
debt ; and notwithstanding he knew their Luxu- 
ry had been the caufe of it, yet he was refolv'd 
to free 'em. 

They thinking it was only an Artifice to di-. 
ftinguifli the profufe from the good Hufbands, 
were flow in bringing in their Accounts , where- 
upon the King , knowing very well that it was 
their Modefly, and not their Contumacy, that was 
the ObfEacle, order'd Counting-tables to be dif- 
pos'd throughout the Campy and ten thoufa'nd Ta- 
lents to be deliver d out. Being by this convine'd 
he was in earner! ,' they declar'd their Debts , 
which were fo great, that of fo vaft a Sum there 
was but one hundred and thirty Talents left ; 
from whence it is plain , that this victorious Ar- 
my that had conquer'd fo many rich Nations , 
had brought more Honour than Booty out of 

However, it was no fooner known that fome 
of 'em were to be fent home, and others retain'd,. 
than they prefently concluded, he intended to fix 
the Seat of his Empire in Afia. Whereupon they 
broke out in fuch a Fury, that laying afide all 
military Difcipline, they fill'd the Camp with Se- 
ditious Clamours, and addreffing themfelves to the 
King, after a more infolent manner than ever, 
they unanimoufly requir'd a general Difcharge, 
fhewing at the fame time their disfigur'd Faces, 
and their grey Hairs. Neither the Officers Cor- 
rection, nor their wonted Refpec"t for their King, 
had at prefent any Influence upon them, but with 
their tumultuous Cries and military Licenfe, they 
interrupted him when he offer'd to fpeak to 'em, 
declaring publicity , that they would not move a 
Step from the Place where they were, but towards 
their own Homes. At lalt, Silence being made 


Book X. Quintus Curtius. 175- 

(more became they thought they had work'd up- 
on the King, than that they were in the leaft mo- 
ved thcmfelves) they were defirous to know what 
he intended to do , when he deliver'd himfelf in 
the following Terms, What is the meaning of this 
fadden Tumult ? Whence proceeds this infolent and 
licentious Behaviour ? I am afraid to fpeak , you 
have barefacedly infringd my Authority, and I 
am now but a precarious King, to ivhpm you have 
not left the Privilege of f peaking to you, of taking 
Cognizance of your Grievances, or admoni flung you 
when you are in the Wrong ; nay, I mufi 'not fo 
much as look at yon. And what is -wonderful! 
now that I have determind to fend fame of you 
home, and in a little time to follow .my felf zuith 
the refi, I perceive thofe who are to go forthwith in 
the fame Uproar , as they who are to flay till I re- 
turn in Perfon. What can be the Meaning of this $ 
I jhould be glad to knotv which of the two are dif- 
faftsfied, they whom I difmifs, or thofe J retain. One 
would have thought the whole AfTembly had now 
had but one Voice, they fo unanimously reply'd, 
That their Complaint was general. It is hnpojfible 
for me (laid the King) to believe, that this univer- 
fal Complaint fjould proceed from the Caufe you pre- 
tend, in which the major Part of you are not con- 
cern d, fince I difmifs more than I jhall retain : The 
Evil mufi lie deeper, that, thus at once alienates you 
all from me. When zvas it ever knozun , that a 
hole Army unanimoufly agreed to abandon their 
King? The very Slaves themfelves are 'never fo ge- 
nerally corrupted, as to run from their Mafiers all 
at once : Some of 'em v/dl fill be afbamd to for fake 
thofe they fee abandon d by the refi. But why do I 
(as if I had forgot the Fury that noiv rages amongfi 
you, firive to adminificr Remedies to the Incurable ? 
I fee 'tis in vain to harbour any Hopes of you, and 
1 am refolved to life you not as my Soldiers (for you 
I 4 are 

ind Quintus Curtius. BookX. 

are no longer fitch) but as the mofi ungrateful of all 
Ma kaid. The abundance of your Succe/3 intoxicates 
yo-i, and makes yon forget that Condition of Life 
zvhich my Indulgence has procured to you, and in 
zvhich yon deferve to have grown grey ; for I find 
you can govern your felves better in Adverfity than 
in Profperity. They zvho not Img fince zvere Tri- 
butaries to the lilyiians and Perfians , are noiv 
grown fo haughty as to difdain Afia, and the Spoils 
of fo fha&y Nations-, and they who under Philip 
zvere half naked, at prefent think it hard to wear 
purple Garments-, their Eyes cant bear the Sight of 
Gold aad Silver, they want their zvoodtn VeJJ'els 
again, their Bucklers of Ozier and their rufly Wea- 
pons ; for to feak the Truth, this is the fins Con- 
dition I receiv'd you in, befides a Belt of five hu/t~ 
dred Talents, zvhen all the Royal Furniture did not 
amount to above threefcore. This was the Founda* 
tion I had for all my great Atchievcments, on which 
neverthelefs, I have (without Vanity) raisd an 
Empire of the greatefi Part of the World. Is it pof- 
fible you JJjould be grown -weary of Alia, where the 
Glory you have acquird, renders you almofi equal 
to the Gods ? Tou are in mighty Hafle to repair to 
Europe, and for fake your King, zvhen at the fame; 
time, a great many of you zvould ha ve zvanted Ne- 
ceJJ'aries on the Way, had I not difchargd your 
BebtSy and that too zvith the Booty of Afia. Are 
you not afl)am d to have prodigally fpent upon your 
Bellies, the Spoils of fo many conquer d Nations, and 
now return deftitute to your Wives and Children, 
to vjhom very few of you can jheiv any Fruits of 
your Victories, the major part having even pawn'd 
their Arms in hopes of returning home. I fiall fu- 
Jlain a great Lofi indeed in fuch Soldiers, who have 
nothing left out of fuch vafi Riches, but zvhat they 
employ daily in their Excejj'es and Debaucheries. Let 
the Fugitives therefore have a free PajJ'age ; be gone 

Book X. Quintus Curtius. iff 

from hence with all fpeed, xvhile I and the Perfians- 
guard your Rear. What flay you for ? I detain* 
none of you, ; deliver my Eyes from the odious Ob- 
ject of fuch ungrateful Citizens. No doubt but your 
Parents and Children will be mighty joyful to fee 
you return without your King ! They will not fail 
to come out and meet Deferters and Traitors / De- 
fend upon it, Til triumph over ybur Flight, and" 
wherever 1 am Til punijh you fujfi<:iently for the 
fame, if it be but in be/lowing my Favours on thofe 
with whom you leave me, and preferring them to 
your felves. Tou floall foon be fenfible vjhat an Ar- 
my is urithout a Head, and of what Moment my 
fngle Perfon is. Then leaping from the Tribunal 
in the utmoft Rage, he- ran in amongft the arm'd 
Soldiers, and having taken notice of the moft mu- 
tinous, he laid hold of thirteen of 'em one after 
another, and deliver'd 'em into the Cuftody of 
his Guards, none of 'em daring to make the leaft 
Refiftance. , 


WH O would imagine, that fo tumultuous an 
AlTerably could have been fo foon appeas'd f 
But they were feiz'd with fo great a Dread, that 
even thofe he was dragging to be made Examples of, 
did not dare to do any more than the reft. Thus 
this exceflive Licenfe and military Violence, was ar 
once fupprefs'd, not one of 'em daring to make the 
leaft Refiftance, but ftanding all like Men aftonim- 
ed, and half dead with Fear, they quietly expected 
what the King would determine concerning their 
Lives. Whether this proceeded from the Reve- 
rence thofe Nations, who are under a Monarchi- 
cal Government , pay to their Ki??gs, whom tkty- 
I 5 ^rot&ip 

17& Quintus Curtius. Book X, 

worfliip like Gods, or from the particular Venerati- 
on they had for his Perfon, or that the Confidence 
with which he exercis'd his Power, llruck an Awe 
into 'em , it is certain , they gave on this Occa- 
fion a fingular Example of their Patience ; for 
they were fo far from being exafperated by the 
Punimment of their Companions, who they un- 
derftood had been executed in the Evening , that 
they omitted nothing that fingle Perfons could 
have done to exprefs their Obedience , and expi- 
ate their Crime. The next Day when they pre- 
fented themfeives, and found they were prohibi- 
ted Entrance (the Afatick Troops being only ad- 
mitted) the whole Camp was fill'd with mournful 
Cries, declaring, they -would live no longer, if the 
King per fifed in his Anger. But he being of an 
©bftinate Temper in any thing he had refolv'd on, 
confirid the Macedonians to their Camp, and or- 
der'd the foreign Soldiers to be drawn out, who 
being met together, he, by an Interpreter made 
the following Speech to 'em. When I pafi'd out 
of Europe into Afia, I fed my felf with the Hopes 
of adding a great many confderable Nations and 
Multitudes of Men to my Empire, and indeed I have 
not been impos d upon by Fame, in the Credit I gave 
her concerning 'em, but find that, befides what was 
commonly reported of 'em , they afford brave Men, 
and of an unalterable Affection tozvards their Kings. 
I thought at firfl that Luxury prevail 'd amongft 
you, and that by a redundant Felicity, you zvere 
drozvrid in Pleafures. V/hereas I perceive you have 
fo much Vigor of Mind and Strength of Body, that 
you are indefatigable in the Difcharge of military 
Duties, and at the fame time that you are brave, 
you do not cultivate Fortitude, more than Loyalty. 
Tho this be my firfi Vrofeffion to you hereof, yet I 
have been a great while convincd of it. It is on 
ihh account that I made choice of you from the reft 


BookX, Quintus Curtius. 179 

of the Youth to ferve me, and incorporated you with 
my own Troops. Tour Clothes and Arms differ ra 
nothing from theirs, but your Dutifulnefi and Sub- 
mijfton to Orders, is tvhat you very much exceed "em 
in. Thcfe Confiderations made me marry the Daugh- 
ter of Qxathres the Perfian, not difdaining to have 
Children, from a Captive; then coveting a numerous 
Offspring I took Darius'.? Daughter in Marriage, and 
encouragd my beji Friends by my Example to mar-* 
ry Captives, that by the means of that facred Bond, 
I might put an End to all Difference between the 
Vana x uifldd and Victorious. Perfuade your felves 
therefore for the future , that you are my natural. 
Subjects, and not Strangers, Alia and Europe be- 
ing novj but one Kingdom. I have arm d you after 
the manner of the Macedonians, and by that means 
given Age to foreign Novelty. You are both my 
Citizens and Soldiers. All things have now the 
fame Appearance. It is no longer unbecoming the 
Perfians to copy- the Manners of the Macedonians, 
nor the Macedonians to imitate thofe of the Per- 
fians. They who live under the fame Sovereign, 
ought to have all the fame Lazus and Privileges. 
Having made this Speech, * He committed the 
Guard of hvs Perfon to the Perfians, putting all 
the. Offices thereunto belonging, into their Hands , 
and as they were leading to Execution thofe Ma- 
cedonians who had been the Caufe of this Sediti- 
on, it is faid one of 'em, whofe Age and Chara- 
fter diftinguiQVd him from the reft, fpoke after 
the following manner to the King. 

1M1 btel bns oniric* ibdt j;i $~jsib f l 3uJ o* biu.-i 
16 CHAP. 

* Supplement. 

180 Quintus- Curtius. Book X 

CHAP, m 

HOW long, Sir, v/ill you give way to the-Tran-> 
[ports of yettr Mh.'d , even to faff er us to be 
e <ecuted after this foreign Cufiom r your ovjn Scl- 
diers, your ov:n Citizens are dragg'd to Execution 
by their Captives, zuhhout fo much as a legal Hear- 
ing. If you re-ally think iOc deferve Death, at leafi s 
do us the Favour to change, our Executioners. 

Moil certainly this was a friendly Advice , had 
he been capable of hearing the Truth, but his An- 
ger was nirn'd into a- Rager fo that perceiving 
thole who were clnrg'd with the Prifoners, to be - 
dilatory in their Office, he commanded 'cm to 
drown 'em in the River bound as they were. Nor 
did this unufual Punimment raife any Commotion 
among the Soldiers; on the contrary, they repair- 
ed in Companies to the chief Officers, and the 
Kings Favourites, defiring, That if he knew of any 1 
more that were guihy of the fame Crime, he would 
command 'em to be affo put to Death , fince they ■ 
freely deliver d up their Bodies to appeafe his Wrath: 

* After they came to understand that he had gi- 
ven their Polls to the Perfans, and that the Bar- 
harians- were form'd into different Regiments, un- 
to whom he had given Macedonian Denominati- 
ons, while they were ignominioufly rejected; they 
were no longer able to contain the Grief that 
now pierc'd their very Hearts, they therefore re^ 
pair'd to the Palace in their Shirts, and laid their 
A-rms down before the Gate, as a Token of their 
Repentance, and with Tears and humble Suppli- 
cations begg'd to be admitted and forgiven, and 


* Supplement. 

BookX. Quintus Gurtics. l8t 

that he would rather fatisfie his Anger with their 
Executions than Difgraces , protecting that for 
their parts they were refolv'd not to depart till 
they had obtained their Pardons. Alexander being 
inform'd of this, caus'd the Gates to be open'd, and 
came out to 'em, and taking into Confideration all 
thefe Teftimonials of their Repentance, and be- 
holding their Tears and wretched Appearance-, he 
was fo mov'd thereat, that he could not refrain- 
weeping with them for fome time. In fine, their 
Model! y prevail'd with him to forgive 'em, and 
having gently reprimanded 'em,- and by courteous 
Speeches comforted them again, he broke a great 
many of 'em who were no longer fit for the Ser- 
vice, and fent them home magnificently rewarded/ 
Then he writ to Antipater his Lieutenant in Ma- 
cedonia , to affign them the fitfl Places in the 
Theatre at the publick Spectacles, and withal, that 
they mould fit there with Crowns on their Heads* 
and likewife order'd, that after their Deceafe, their 
Children fhould receive their Pay. He appointed 
Craterus to lead them home ,- giving him alio the 
Charge of Macedon, Thejjaly, and Thrace, in the 
room of Antipater, whom he commanded to re- 
pair to him with the Recruits, to ferve in the place 
of Craterus. 

Alexander had perceiv'd for feme time by his 
Mother's Letters, and thofe of Antipater, that -there 
was not a right Underftanding between 'em. Olym- 
pics accus'd Antipater of affecting the Crown : On 
the other fide Antipater reprefented, that (lie did 
feveral things unbecoming her Character; but find- 
ing himfelf recall'd from his Government, he took 
it fo to Heart, that he refolv'd to poifon the King. 

Alexander having fettl'd thefe Matters, came to' y 
Ed at ana m Media , where he made the necelTary 
Difpofitions for the Affairs of hus Empire, and re- 
peated the pubikk Shews and Solemnities. While 


i8i Quintus Curtius. BookX. 

the.fe Things were doing, H&phefiion whom the King 
lov'd entirely and like a Brother, dy'd of a Fever. 
Alexander was lb fenfibly afflicted hereat, that out 
of Indulgence to his Grief, he did fcveral things no 
way becoming the Regal Dignity ; for he caus'd the 
unhappy Phyiician to be hang'd, as if he -had been 
negligent in the Cure, and with Cries and La- 
mentations, flung himfelf upon the Corps of his 
deceafed Friend, bewailing his Lofs Night and Day, 
and would hardly fufFer his m Friends to take him 
away. There are many other Reports which I 
do not; credit. However, this is certain, that he 
order'd Sacrifices to be offer'd to him as to a Hero, 
and employ'd in his Funeral and Tomb, twelve 
thoufand Talents. 

As he was returning to Babylon, feveral Chal- 
dean Prophets came to meet him, and advis'd him 
not to enter that City, becaufe he fet out thither in 
an unlucky Hour, which feem'd to threaten his Life. 
But he flighted their Admonitions, and continu'd his 
intended Journey ; for he was inform'd that Am- 
bafTadors were come thither from all Parts of the 
World, and waited there for his Arrival. The 
Terror of his Name, had fpread it felf fo univer- 
fally throughout the World , that all the Nations 
feem'd to make their Court to him, as to him who 
was ordain'd to be their Sovereign. He therefore 
haften'd his Journey thither, as if he were there to 
hold a General Diet of all the Kingdoms of the Earth. 

Being arriv'd at Babylon , he receiv'd all the 
Ambaffies very courteoufly, and fent.them home. 
About this Time, one Medius a Thejfalian gave a 
fplendid Entertainment, to which the King was invi- 
ted with his Friends. Here he had not quite drunk 
off Hercules s Cup, when he gave § a deep Groan 
as if he had been run thro' the Body, and being 
carry 'd from the Feaft half dead, he found himfeJf 
in fuch cruel Torments, that he alk'.d for a Sword 


Book X. Quintus Curtius . 183 

to put an End to his Pain. His Friends gave out, : 
that too much Wine was the Caufe of his Illnefs, 
but in reality it was a Confpiracy , the Infamy 
whereof was ftifl'd by the great Power of his Suc- 
cefTors. For Antipaier had deliver'd a ready pre- 
pared Poifon to his Son CaJJ'ander , who with his 
Brothers Philip and Jo/las, us'd to ferve the King 
at Table; he at the fame time warn'd him not tor 
communicate it to any but the TheJJ'alian and his' 
Brothers. Philip therefore and Jollas, who were 
the Kings T afters , had put the Poifon into cold 
Water, which they pour'd upon the Wine the 
King v/zs to drink, after they had according to 
their Office, made an EfTay thereof. On the fourth 
Day, the Soldiers (partly becaufe they fufpecled 
he was dead, and it was kept a Secret from 'cm, 
and partly becaufe they could no longer bear the 
Deprivation of his Prefence) came full of Grief to 
the Palace, defiring they might be admitted to fee' 
the King, which accordingly was granted 'em. 


AS foon as they faw hhn, they burft into Tears,, 
and one would have thought they no lon- 
ger beheld their King but rather affifted at his Fu- 
neral ; and yet the Grief of thofe who flood about 
his Bed appear'd ftill greater ;.• which the King percei- 
ving, aflk'd 'em, where they would find (when he 
was dead) a Sovereign worthy of [nth Men ? It is 
a thing that furpalTes all Belief, that notwithftand- 
ing his weak Condition, he mould be able to keep 
himfelf as he did, in the fame Pofture he had ad- 
mitted the Soldiers in, till all that Army to the laft' 
Man, had faluted him. 

Having difmifs'd this Multitude, he laid down 
///'; wearied Limbs, as if he had acquitted himfelf 


x34 Quintus CurtiuS. BookX, 

of the laft Debt of Life. Then calling to his 
Friends to draw nearer ( for his Voice began al- 
ready to fail him) he took his Ring off his Finger,- 
and gave it to Perdiccas,- enjoining him to convey 
his Body to Hammon; and as they aflc'd him, To 
whom he bequeath' d his Kingdom ? He anfvver'd, to 
the mo ft zvorthy ; but hywever, he forefaw what 
Tuner al Plays were preparing him on that account. 
Perdiccas then defiling to know, when he vjould 
have divine Honours payd him? He- reply'd, when 
they themfelves were happy. Thefe were the- 
Kings laft Words, a little after which he- expir'd. 

Hereupon- the Palace was fill'd witrr Cries and 
Lamentations; and by and by, all was hum'd a-- 
gain, as if it had been fome lonelbme Wafte, their 
Grief being now turn'd into a ferious Reflection on- 
what would enfue. The young Noblemen who 
us'd to guard his Perfon ,• were no longer able to 
contain their Grief, nor keep themfelves within the 
Entrance of the Palace, but ran about like fo ma-- 
ny mad Men, filling the whole City with Sadnefs, 
and omitting no kind of Complaint that Sorrow" 
can fuggeft on fuch an Occafion. The Troops 
therefore that us'd to keep Guard without the Pa- 
lace, as well Barbarians as Macedonians , flock'd 
thither, nor was it poffible in their common Af- 
fliction, to difcern the Vanquifo'd- from the Vi- 
ctors. The Per fans call'd him, Their ju/i and mer- 
ciful Lord; and the Macedonians, The beft and bra- 
weft of Kings. They were not contented to utter 
their mournful Expreffions, but alfo gave way to 
Tranfports of Indignation, That fo young a Prince 
in the very tlovjer of his Age and Fortune , fhould 
through the F.nvy of the Gods, be fo fuddenly fnatch- 
ed from Life and Government. They now ima- 
gin'd, they beheld that cheerful and refolute Coun- 
tenance with which he us'd to lead them to Battel, 
befiege the Towns, .fcale the Walls, and reward 

Book X. Qutntus CuRTius. 185* 

the Brave. Then the Macedonians repented they 
had ever deny d him divine Honours, and own'd 
they were both impio-us and ungrateful to have de- 
nied his Ears the Satisfaction of a Title that zvas fo 
juflly his due. 

Having employ'd a confiderable Time in ex- 
preffing their Veneration, and bemoaning their 
Lofs, at laft tlieir Companion turn'd upon them-- 
felves. They reflected, that they came out of 
Macedonia, and were got beyond the. Euphrates, 
and were left deftitute in the midft of their Ene- 
mies, who defpis'd their new Empire ; that the 
Ki??g being dead without Children, and without 
naming a Succeflbr, every one would be for draw- 
ing to himfelf the publick Strength of the King- 
cfom. - Then they forefavv in their Minds the Ci- 
vil Wars that did enfue, and that they fhould be 
obiigd to fved their Blood again , not for the Con- 
quefi of Afia, but to decide who fljould be King ; 
that after having defir d a Difcharge of their law- 
ful Sovereign , their old Wounds mufi bleed afreflj^ 
aged and weak as they zvere, and their Lives flung 
away to eflablifl) the Power of fome mean Officer. 

While their Thoughts were thus employ'd, 
Night came upon 'em, and increas'd their Terror. 
The Soldiers pafs'd it under their Arms, and the Ba- 
bylonians flood gazing, fome from the Walls, and 
others from the Tops of their Houfes, in order 
to get a truer Information of what was doing. No 
Body dar'd fet up Lights, fo that the Ufe of the 
Eyes being taken away, they liften d* with Atten- 
tion to every Noife and Voice, and as they were 
feiz'd with groundlefs Fears, theywander'd up and 
down the narrow Streets and dark Lanes, in great 
Anxiety, running one againft the other in a conti- 
nual Diitruft of each other. 

The Perfians having according to their Cuftom, 
cut off their Hair, and put on mourning Clothes, 


1 86 Quintus Curtius. BookX. 

with their Wives and Children lamented his Death, 
not as one who had conquer'd 'em, and was not 
long fmce an Enemy, but as the lawful Sovereign